Strategies in the Nutritional Management of Gestational Diabetes
†Division of Women, Children, and Family Health, College of Nursing ‡Center for Women's Health Research Departments of *Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes §Geriatric Medicine ∥Pediatrics ¶Medicine, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology
(Impact Factor: 1.77).
09/2013; 56(4). DOI: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3182a8e0e5
Elucidating the optimal macronutrient composition for dietary management of gestational diabetes mellitus has enormous potential to improve perinatal outcomes. Diet therapy may result in significant cost savings if effective in deterring the need for expensive medical management within this growing population. In only 6 randomized controlled trials in 250 women, data suggest that a diet higher in complex carbohydrate and fiber, low in simple sugar, and lower in saturated fat may be effective in blunting postprandial hyperglycemia, preventing worsened insulin resistance and excess fetal growth. The use of diet in gestational diabetes mellitus remains an area in grave need for high-quality randomized controlled trials.
Available from: Nancy A West
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The conventional diet approach to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) advocates carbohydrate restriction, resulting in higher fat (HF), also a substrate for fetal fat accretion and associated with maternal insulin resistance. Consequently, there is no consensus about the ideal GDM diet. We hypothesized that, compared with a conventional, lower carbohydrate/HF diet (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein), consumption of a higher-complex carbohydrate (HCC)/lower fat (LF) Choosing Healthy Options in Carbohydrate Energy (CHOICE) diet (60/25/15%) would result in 24-h glucose area under the curve (AUC) profiles within therapeutic targets and lower postprandial lipids.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using a randomized, crossover design, we provided 16 GDM women (BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m(2)) with two 3-day isocaloric diets at 31 ± 0.5 weeks (washout between diets) and performed continuous glucose monitoring. On day 4 of each diet, we determined postprandial (5 h) glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) following a controlled breakfast meal.RESULTSThere were no between-diet differences for fasting or mean nocturnal glucose, but 24-h AUC was slightly higher (∼6%) on the HCC/LF CHOICE diet (P = 0.02). The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) revealed modestly higher 1- and 2-h postprandial glucose on CHOICE (1 h, 115 ± 2 vs. 107 ± 3 mg/dL, P ≤ 0.01; 2 h, 106 ± 3 vs. 97 ± 3 mg/dL, P = 0.001) but well below current targets. After breakfast, 5-h glucose and insulin AUCs were slightly higher (P < 0.05), TG AUC was no different, but the FFA AUC was significantly lower (∼19%; P ≤ 0.01) on the CHOICE diet.CONCLUSION
This highly controlled study randomizing isocaloric diets and using a CGMS is the first to show that liberalizing complex carbohydrates and reducing fat still achieved glycemia below current treatment targets and lower postprandial FFAs. This diet strategy may have important implications for preventing macrosomia.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of review:
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health concern because of rising rates and offspring consequences; yet, expert panels are in complete disagreement on how to diagnose and optimally treat GDM. This review underscores why there remains no diagnostic standard, no agreement on whether excess dietary carbohydrate or fat should be reduced, and whether oral hypoglycemic therapy is safe given the unknown offspring effects on hepatic, pancreatic, or fat development.
New diagnostic criteria proposed by the American Diabetes Association would triple the prevalence of GDM (∼18%). Whether the treatment of women with these milder degrees of hyperglycemia will improve pregnancy outcomes is unknown given the powerful effect of obesity alone on excess fetal growth. There are data that restricting carbohydrate in the diet by substituting fat to blunt postprandial glucose levels may worsen maternal insulin resistance and that metformin may increase offspring subcutaneous fat.
The adoption of the new American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria for GDM was rejected by ACOG and not endorsed by the NIH. Yet, varying criteria are used by different centers resulting in confusion for both patient care and research. Both maternal diet and agents that cross the placenta could potentially modify offspring gene expression. Better identification and treatment of mothers and fetuses at risk may have far-reaching implications for maternal and child health.
Available from: care.diabetesjournals.org
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ABSTRACT: Diet is the cornerstone treatment of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but its role in maternal and newborn outcomes has been scarcely studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of dietary interventions on maternal or newborn outcomes in patients with GDM.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of dietary intervention in GDM or pregnancy with hyperglycemia was performed. MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane, and Scopus were searched through to March 2014. The main evaluated maternal outcomes were proportion of patients using insulin and proportion of cesarean delivery; the newborn outcomes were proportion of macrosomia and hypoglycemia and newborn weight.
From 1,170 studies, nine RCTs, including 884 women aged 31.5 years (28.7-33.2) with 27.4 weeks (24.1-30.3) of gestation, were eligible. We divided the RCTs according to the type of dietary intervention: low glycemic index (GI) (n = 4; 257 patients), total energy restriction (n = 2; 425 patients), low carbohydrates (n = 2; 182 patients), and others (n = 1; 20 patients). Diet with low GI reduced the proportion of patients who used insulin (relative risk 0.767 [95% CI 0.597, 0.986]; P = 0.039) and the newborn birth weight (weight mean differences -161.9 g [95% CI -246.4, -77.4]; P = 0.000) as compared with control diet. Total restriction and low carbohydrate diets did not change either maternal or newborn outcomes.
A low GI diet was associated with less frequent insulin use and lower birth weight than control diets, suggesting that it is the most appropriate dietary intervention to be prescribed to patients with GDM.
© 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
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