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When White Men Can't Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat

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When White Men Can't Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat

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Abstract

Research on “stereotype threat” (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998; Steele, 1997; Steele & Aronson, 1995) suggests that the social stigma of intellectual inferiority borne by certain cultural minorities can undermine the standardized test performance and school outcomes of members of these groups. This research tested two assumptions about the necessary conditions for stereotype threat to impair intellectual test performance. First, we tested the hypothesis that to interfere with performance, stereotype threat requires neither a history of stigmatization nor internalized feelings of intellectual inferiority, but can arise and become disruptive as a result of situational pressures alone. Two experiments tested this notion with participants for whom no stereotype of low ability exists in the domain we tested and who, in fact, were selected for high ability in that domain (math-proficient white males). In Study 1 we induced stereotype threat by invoking a comparison with a minority group stereotyped to excel at math (Asians). As predicted, these stereotype-threatened white males performed worse on a difficult math test than a nonstereotype-threatened control group. Study 2 replicated this effect and further tested the assumption that stereotype threat is in part mediated by domain identification and, therefore, most likely to undermine the performances of individuals who are highly identified with the domain being tested. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of stereotype threat theory as well as for standardized testing.

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... Stereotype threat theory assumes that self-integrity is integral in determining individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat (Steele, 1997). This general assumption is supported by empirical evidence suggesting that stereotype threat is most likely to occur among those who place considerable value on performance in a stereotyped domain and use their performance to (Aronson et al., 1999;Spencer et al., 1999). Because of the proposed role of self-integrity in stereotype threat, researchers have begun investigating the viability of intervention methods designed to protect one's sense of self-integrity. ...
... Our decision to only include females in the investigation was guided by theoretical principles identified in previous research on stereotype threat theory. Specifically, in this study, the stereotype threat context was centered on the common condition in the field of a perceived negative stereotype related to female math aptitude (Steele, 1997;Aronson et al., 1999). The experimental materials were completed in small groups ranging in size from 1 -8 participants. ...
... Participants were randomly assigned to either a low stereotype threat or high stereotype threat condition. Consistent with prior research (Aronson et al., 1999), stereotype threat levels were manipulated through participants' instructions during the experimental procedure. All participants were informed that they were taking part in a research study designed to explore the factors influencing undergraduate student performance. ...
Article
The current study was designed to examine the influence of self-affirmation on the executive attention and mathematical performance of learners confronted with stereotype threat. Participants (N = 206) were exposed to self-affirmation and stereotype threat manipulations, completed operation-span and letter memory tasks, and a series of high-difficulty modular subtraction problems. Our results revealed that self-affirmed participants demonstrated lower mathematical performance when problems were completed under high stereotype threat conditions. Further, our data revealed the self-affirmation and stereotype threat manipulations had no impact on components of executive attention hypothesized to underlie stereotype threat effects. These findings add to recent literature calling into question the viability of self-affirmation as a strategy for protecting the achievement of at-risk students.
... Stereotype threat refers to the phenomenon that individuals who are the target of a negative stereotype feel pressured not to confirm that stereotype, and this pressure leads to poor performance by distracting from the task (e.g., Aronson et al., 1999; but see the Discussion for a more critical picture). It is important to note that for stereotype threat effects to occur, it is not necessary for the targeted individual to believe the stereotype is true; awareness that others in society may hold this stereotype is what leads to stereotype threat (Spencer et al., 1999;Leyens et al., 2000;Pennington et al., 2016). ...
... Missing from the research on men's stereotype-threat experiences in language domains is the potential effect of stereotype threat on social-psychological outcomes such as sense of belonging. If stereotype threat does indeed affect men in language, it may lead individuals to disidentify with the threatened domain-in this case, it could lead male students to have a weaker language self-concept (Aronson et al., 1999), which could lead to anxiety and disinterest in language-related study. It might also lead men to devalue the threatened domain, adopting a more negative attitude about the value of language learning. ...
... The threat and threat-negated scripts (see Supplementary Material for full scripts for all studies) were adapted from Aronson et al. (1999) and reworded to refer to men and language, as well as to suit the Canadian context. One sentence was added to the end of each script specifying either that gender differences were expected (threat condition) or not expected (threat-negated condition) on the experimental tasks. ...
Article
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Boys and men tend to underperform in language education, and they are also underrepresented in language-related fields. Research suggests that stereotypes can affect students’ performance and sense of belonging in academic subjects and test settings via stereotype threat. For example, girls and women sometimes underperform on math tests following reminders that math is for boys. We sought to test whether stereotypes that women have better language skills than men would affect men. In a series of four experiments (N = 542), we tested the effect of explicit stereotype threats on men’s performance in language-related tasks, and their sense of belonging to language-related domains. We found little evidence for stereotype threat effects on men in language. Bayesian analysis suggested that the null hypothesis was consistently more likely than the alternative, and mini-meta analyses showed effect sizes near zero. Future research should explore other explanations for gender gaps in language.
... This finding suggests that threat induction leads HCWs with a high subjective SES to have high vaccination intention. Indeed, studies demonstrate that threat can also impact individuals who do not usually belong to the groups targeted by the stereotype (Aronson et al., 1999;Frantz, Cuddy, Burnett, Ray, & Hart, 2004). This result can be explained by self-affirmation theory (Aronson et al., 1999;Steele, 1988). ...
... Indeed, studies demonstrate that threat can also impact individuals who do not usually belong to the groups targeted by the stereotype (Aronson et al., 1999;Frantz, Cuddy, Burnett, Ray, & Hart, 2004). This result can be explained by self-affirmation theory (Aronson et al., 1999;Steele, 1988). According to this theory, HCWs with high Subjective SES would be motivated to maintain self-integrity and thus remain included in their group (Sherman & Cohen, 2006). ...
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Objective This study tests the impact of threat on compassion and vaccination intention among healthcare workers (HCWs) with low and high socio-economic status (SES) in France. Design A total of 309 HCWs were analyzed (Mage =39.29, SD = 11.76). Participants with high (n = 138) or low (n = 171) SES were randomly assigned to a Threat (n = 187) versus a No-Threat (n = 122) condition through filling in MacArthur’s scale. During this manipulation, participants read about an interaction involving a HCW with an SES higher than that of the participant. After filling in the MacArthur scale, all participants went through a compassion manipulation. Finally, participants read a text describing a patient’s distress. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was the vaccination intention score. The secondary outcome included the compassion score. Results The interaction of the Group X SES Subjective on compassion was not significant (p = .34, ηp ² = .003, 95%CI [−.39,.07]). The interaction of the Group X Diploma on vaccination intention with high compassion was significant (p<.001, ηp ² = .173, 95%CI [.11,1.68]). Planned comparisons revealed a significant difference in vaccination intention score between HCWs with low SES between Threat (M = 3.58, SD = 2.56) and No-Threat (M = 5.27, SD = 2.27; p=.01) conditions. Conclusion Ultimately, compassion inhibited the distress elicited in the threat condition in HCWs with high compassion.
... Dweck and colleagues defined another motivational construct that can affect motivation and learning, that is, theories of intelligence (or intelligence mindset) [53][54][55][56][57]. Theories of intelligence involve views about the nature of intelligence-an "entity theory" in which intelligence is viewed as a fixed trait that one is born with or an "incremental theory" in which intelligence is viewed as malleable and can be shaped by the environment. ...
... It was found that girls who attributed intelligence to effort and learning had math grades comparable to those of their male classmates and superior to girls who viewed intelligence as a fixed trait [54]. Research has also shown that individuals targeted by ability stereotypes (e.g., underrepresented students in STEM courses) tend to show similar characteristics to individuals who believe that intelligence is fixed-they tend to choose easier, success-assuring tasks when their abilities are subject to scrutiny or if their ethnicity or gender is made more salient [55], experience anxiety when the tasks are evaluative and challenging [56], and devalue ability domains in which they have performed poorly [57]. Additional research has also shown that girls who viewed math ability as a trait (had a fixed view of intelligence) and also experienced stereotype threat (that girls are not good at math) had decreased motivation and interest in pursuing math careers [53]. ...
Preprint
The lack of diversity and the under-performance of underrepresented students in STEM courses have been the focus of researchers in the last decade. In particular, many hypotheses have been put forth for the reasons for the under-representation and under-performance of women in physics. Here, we present a framework for helping all students learn in science courses that takes into account four factors: 1) characteristics of instruction and learning tools, 2) implementation of instruction and learning tools, 3) student characteristics, and 4) students' environments. While there has been much research on factor 1 (characteristics of instruction and learning tools), there has been less focus on factor 2 (students' characteristics, and in particular, motivational factors). Here, we focus on the baseline motivational characteristics of introductory physics students obtained from survey data to inform factor 2 of the framework. A longitudinal analysis of students' motivational characteristics in two-semester introductory physics courses was performed by administering pre- and post-surveys that evaluated students' self-efficacy, grit, fascination with physics, value associated with physics, intelligence mindset, and physics epistemology. Female students reported lower self-efficacy, fascination and value, and had a more "fixed" view of intelligence in the context of physics compared to male students. Grit was the only factor on which female students reported averages that were equal to or higher than male students throughout introductory physics courses. These gender differences can at least partly be attributed to the societal stereotypes and biases about who belongs in physics and can excel in it. The findings inform the framework and have implications for the development and implementation of effective pedagogies and learning tools to help all students learn.
... This measure was the same as the one used frequently in previous research examining the effect of stereotype threat on gender differences in quantitative performance (Cadinu et al., 2005;Martens et al., 2006;Shapiro et al., 2013). In order to simulate the stereotype threat women presumably feel in quantitative courses, all participants read the following paragraph, which was based on stimulus materials used in previous research (Aronson et al., 1999): ...
... More specifically, recall that the stereotype threat to which all participants were exposed in Study 2 was more of a "group-as-target" induction than a self-as-target induction (Shapiro et al., 2013). Indeed, we selected the stereotype threat induction for all participants in Study 2 from the one used by Aronson et al. (1999), which Shapiro et al. also employed in their "group as target" condition. If the way in which women experienced stereotype threat was on the basis of group as target, then according to the self-affirmation congruence hypothesis they would benefit from a collective form of self-affirmation. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a gender performance gap in the MBA classroom, in which men perform better than women, particularly in quantitative courses. We examined whether greater congruence between participants' self-construal levels and the self-affirmation in which they engaged would mitigate the gender performance gap. In Study 1, participants varying in their self-construal levels were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) an individual self-affirmation condition in which they wrote about a value that is important to them, 2) a collective self-affirmation condition in which they wrote about a value that is important to them and their ingroup, and 3) a control condition in which they wrote about a value important to someone else. We found that: 1) the gender performance gap was mitigated among those who individually self-affirmed and 2) the gender performance gap was particularly likely to be diminished under conditions of congruent self-affirmation (when those who were relatively high in independent self-construal engaged in individual self-affirmation and when those who were relatively high in interdependent self-construal engaged in collective self-affirmation). Conceptually analogous results emerged in Study 2 conducted on a considerably larger on-line sample. The discussion centers on: (1) the implications of our findings for the emerging literature on wise interventions, and (2) the practical value of encouraging individuals to engage in self-affirmation to counteract the harmful effects of stereotype-threat.
... This performance measure was the same as the one used frequently in previous research examining the effect of stereotype threat on gender differences in quantitative performance (Cadinu et al., 2005;Martens et al., 2006;Shapiro et al., 2013). In order to simulate the stereotype threat women presumably feel in quantitative courses, all participants read the following paragraph, which was based on stimulus materials used in previous research to elicit gender-based stereotype threat (Aronson et al., 1999): ...
... More specifically, recall that the stereotype threat to which all participants were exposed in Study 2 was more of a "group-as-target" induction than a self-as-target induction (Shapiro et al., 2013). Indeed, we selected the stereotype threat induction for all participants in Study 2 from the one used by Aronson et al. (1999), which Shapiro et al. also employed in their "group as target" condition. If the way in which women experienced stereotype threat was on the basis of group as target, then according to the selfaffirmation congruence hypothesis they would benefit from a collective form of self-affirmation. ...
... The potential impact of stereotype threat in a gaming context has recently been tested by introducing the threat blatantly before a gaming task (Kaye & Pennington, 2016). The blatant introduction of stereotype threat is common in many studies (i.e., Aronson et al., 1999) but Nguyen and Ryan (2008) suggest that subtle forms of stereotype threat may actually cause larger effects by working at a subconscious level. Other studies push this idea further, suggesting that when stereotypes are introduced blatantly, individuals will deliberately counteract the stereotype, a phenomenon known as stereotype reactance (Hakim et al., 2017;Kray et al., 2001;Kray et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
The connection between video games and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become a key focus for education and game scholars alike. While games may have the power to bring more students toward STEM fields, gender stereotypes about gaming ability may hinder this potential. To examine this issue, two studies were conducted to investigate whether stereotype threat induced in a gaming context would affect players’ game performance and their perceptions of STEM fields. The first study found that priming gender stereotypes influenced female participants’ video game performance as well as interest in and perceptions of STEM fields. A second study investigated this relationship through the use of both overtly gendered and nongendered forms of stereotype threat as well as avatar-induced identity salience. Interaction effects found between implicit/explicit stereotype threat and identity salience suggest a relationship between forms of stereotype threat and active self-concept.
... They may influence the behaviors and actions of those who belong to the stereotyped group if they feel "threatened" and make strenuous efforts to avoid confirming the stereotype. Such efforts can be emotionally stressful and challenging (Milner & Hoy, 2003;Steele, 2010) and have an adverse effect on an individual's performance (Aronson, 2004;Aronson et al., 1999;Stone et al., 1999). ...
Article
Purpose: To construct the life history of an exemplary veteran African American physical education teacher education faculty member. Method: The participant was Dr. Andrew Lewis, a retired professor from the College of Charleston. Data were collected through formal semistructured interviews, informal interviews, and documents and artifacts. They were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: Key findings were that Lewis experienced a significant amount of marginalization throughout his life and career. In addition, he was subjected to different forms of microaggression and stereotype threat. Lewis dealt with these forms of racism by emulating several of his teachers and professors, working hard, and performing to a high level. In addition, he altered the pedagogy he employed. Conclusion: Lewis’s counter-story has the potential to influence other African American physical education teacher education faculty members, administrators, and those who perpetuate stereotypes of African Americans or deal in microaggressions.
... This study also highlights a new potential social identity threat faced by Asian and Asian American indiviuduals. Most social identity threat research involving Asian Americans centers on positive academic stereotypes, particularly math achievement (e.g., Aronson et al., 1999;Shih et al., 1999). Other research focuses on the "model minority" stereotype (e.g., Cheryan & Bodenhausen, 2000). ...
Article
During the COVID-19 pandemic, racial minorities in the United States were left in a double bind when deciding to wear face masks to prevent the spread of the virus: risk being racially profiled or risk COVID-19. Two studies examine Black and Asian individuals’ experiences of race-related social identity threat wearing face masks during COVID-19, and its impact on safety and health behaviors. Black, Asian, and White participants in the United States responded to surveys (S1: N = 776; S2: N = 534) on their experiences wearing masks early in the pandemic (May 2020) and 3 months later (August 2020). Across both studies, results indicated that, compared to White individuals, Black and Asian participants reported experiencing mask-related, race-based social identity threat from both the public and police, with Black individuals particularly concerned about mask-related threat in police interactions. Mediational analyses demonstrated that mask-related social identity threat led to avoidance of police when help was needed at both time points, and decreased face mask usage early in the pandemic for both Black and Asian people. Results highlight these unique social identity concerns faced by racial minorities and have implications for protecting racial minorities’ health and safety during the pandemic.
... Lower interest in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) careers and often lower numbers of girls in science precipitated much research on gender differences in science, applying different rationales and theoretical approaches (e.g., Aronson et al., 1999;Schmader et al., 2004;Flore and Wicherts, 2015;Kang et al., 2019). Declining interest in science over the course of secondary school seems widely acknowledged (see, for instance, Potvin and Hasni, 2014a;Potvin et al., 2018) with only few contradicting findings (see, for instance, Kang et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This paper focuses on stereotype threat and its effects on sense of belonging in the German Physics Olympiad science competition. Participants completed questionnaires about sense of belonging, stereotype endorsement, interest, and self-concept in physics, as well as about value and success expectations of studying physics in college. Female participants who endorsed negative stereotypes about female talent for physics felt less sense of belonging to physics. This effect did not manifest for male participants. Sense of belonging to physics significantly predicted value and success expectations for studying physics in college beyond what is predicted by interest and self-concept in physics. These findings suggest that sense of belonging is influenced by stereotype threat, which was shown to cause gender differences in science. Nevertheless, sense of belonging could be included into the expectancy-value theory based on its predictive impact on value and success expectations of studying physics.
... People are motivated to maintain a positive self-concept and have simultaneous needs to be unique and to belong, so they choose to identify with some social groups and not others (e.g., Tajfel and Turner 2004;Turner et al. 1987). In turn, people differ in the extent to which they endorse traditional gender role attitudes and respond differently to hegemonic gender stereotypes (Aronson et al. 1999). For example, Eddleston and Powell (2008) show that gender identity is a better predictor than the biological sex of preferences for career satisfiers, such that masculinity dimensions mediate preferences for status-based satisfiers and femininity dimensions mediate preferences for employee relationship satisfiers. ...
Article
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Drawing on gender role theories and related evidence of the influence of stereotypes on individual judgments and behaviors, this study examines how masculine stereotyping of entrepreneurs might affect business owners’ expectations of their firms’ growth. In particular, it explores several moderating effects: individual-level factors, such as the gender traits that business owners ascribe to other entrepreneurs and their own gender identity, as a psychological construct, as well as the industrial context in which the businesses operate. An empirical analysis of business owners in 10 countries reveals that women entrepreneurs who identify with feminine traits and ascribe strongly masculine characteristics to entrepreneurship expect their businesses to grow at a lower rate. The influence of stereotypes is relevant only in industries in which the representation of women entrepreneurs is low though, presumably because gender salience, as amplified by women’s minority status condition in the industry, triggers stereotype threats.
... We use the word potentially because these racial/ethnic classifications are simple proxies for students who typically suffer from stereotype threat. Prior research suggests that stereotype threat includes a number of boundary conditions that are difficult to identify in a large, field-based trial, such as awareness of the stereotype (Steele & Aronson, 1995) or identification with the academic domain (Aronson et al., 1999). In laboratory settings, researchers can more readily screen participants on these conditions than they can in field experiments. ...
... When stereotypes are salient in academic domains, persons of stereotyped groups may fear that their academic performance, if poor, could confirm the competence-deficit stereotypes that exist about the people of their group (Steele & Aronson, 1995;Steele, 1997). Such stereotype threat has deleterious effects on students' motivation and performance particularly for those whose identities and self-worth are closely tied to success in a particular academic domain (Aronson et al., 1999;Major & Schmader, 1998;Steele, 1997;Steele et al., 2002). For these students, the damage caused by potential academic failure is so overwhelming that to protect their self-esteem, students may gradually disidentify from the academic domain (e.g., Spencer et al., 2016;Steele, 1997). ...
Article
Grounded in expectancy-value and stereotype threat theories, this four-year longitudinal study examined associations between changes in stereotype threat and motivation (self-efficacy, task values, and perceived costs) among 425 undergraduates from racial/ethnic groups typically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Growth analyses indicated that students’ stereotype threat and perceived cost of studying science increased during college, whereas science self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and attainment value declined. Parallel growth analyses suggested that higher initial stereotype threat related to a faster decline in attainment value and faster increase in perceived costs throughout college. Higher initial levels and a steeper increase in stereotype threat related to lower STEM GPA. Higher initial levels and a slower decline in motivation variables related to higher STEM GPA and more completed STEM courses. These findings provide empirical evidence for the relations between stereotype threat and motivation among underrepresented minority students during a key developmental period.
... Cowell and Stanney (2003) in their paper described the social biases and stereotypes of ethnicity among people; hence, they argued that the role of the ethnicity of conversational agents in affecting user responses should be acknowledged when designing artificial agents. Research in this direction may have implications for uncovering and mitigating stereotype threats associated with ethnicity within human-agent interactions (Aronson et al., 1999;Hamilton et al., 1990;Plant et al., 2009;Rosenberg-Kima et al., 2008;2010). ...
Article
Artificial agents such as embodied virtual agents, chatbots, voice user interface agents, and robots simulate human roles for dispensing information to people. According to the computers-are-social-actors paradigm, people respond to these technological artifacts with the same social rules originated from human-to-human social routines despite recognizing the artificiality of the entities’ intents, motivations, or emotions. Among the various applications of social rules in human-agent interactions, this study focuses on the social cues signaling expertise or competence (i.e., expertise cues) that can evoke social, affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses toward the artificial agents through activation of social stereotypes or heuristics. Based on a systematic review of experimental studies featuring artificial agents with expertise cues published between 2005 and July 2021 (n=63), this study proposed a classification model categorizing expertise cues into Demographics, Appearance, Social prestige, Specialization, Communication style, and Information quality (DASSCI). The DASSCI model can guide designers to logically devise and infuse relevant expertise cues into the designs of artificial agents. As per the computers-are-social-actors paradigm, this study also outlined the social and communication theories underpinning the implementations and effects of artificial agents’ expertise cues. The implications and recommendations for future directions regarding artificial agents with expertise cues across diverse application domains are discussed in this paper.
... Social Attribution Theory predicts that respondents may adapt their responses to match the attitudes they think the interviewer holds (Blaydes and Gillum 2013). Stereotype Threat Theory holds that survey respondents may sometimes feel that the interview is a testing environment where respondents who feel threatened by stereotyping of the group they belong to may suffer emotional distress and experience increased anxiety, possibly leading to various kinds of distortion (Davis and Silver 2003;Aronson et al. 1999;Gallagher and De Lisi 1994). ...
... Subsequent studies have documented similar stereotype threat effects in other groups (Aronson et al., 1999;Spencer et al., 1999;Stone et al., 1999;Gonzales et al., 2002). In older adults, activation of the widely-held negative stereotype that old age is associated with forgetfulness has been shown to reduce memory performance (for a review, see Barber and Mather, 2014). ...
Article
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Previous work has shown that memory performance in older adults is affected by activation of a stereotype of age-related memory decline. In the present experiment, we examined whether stereotype threat would affect metamemory in older adults; that is, whether under stereotype threat they make poorer judgments about what they could remember. We tested older adults (M Age = 66.18 years) on a task in which participants viewed words paired with point values and "bet" on whether they could later recall each word. If they bet on and recalled a word, they gained those points, but if they bet on and failed to recall a word, they lost those points. Thus, this task required participants to monitor how much they could remember and prioritize high value items. Participants performed this task over six lists of items either under stereotype threat about age-related memory decline or not under stereotype threat. Participants from both groups performed similarly on initial lists, but on later lists, participants under stereotype threat showed impaired performance as indicated by a lower average point score and a lower average gamma coefficient. The results suggest that a modest effect of stereotype threat on recall combined with a modest effect on metacognitive judgments to result in a performance deficit. This pattern of results may reflect an effect of stereotype threat on executive control reducing the ability to strategically use memory.
... For instance, White people's concerns about appearing prejudiced may lead them to perform poorly in intergroup interaction domains (e.g., Bergsieker et al., 2010;Goff, Steele, et al., 2008;Shelton et al., 2010). In addition, White men have been shown to experience stereotype threat when compared to Asian men in math domains (Aronson et al., 1999). Future research should examine whether exposure to other genres of music may also impact attitudes and behavior. ...
Article
Stereotype threat theory argues that reminders of negative stereotypes about one’s stigmatized identity can undermine performance, but few studies have examined this phenomenon among Black Americans. Drawing from the literature on the impact of mass media on stereotype activation, we examine whether exposure to rap music induces stereotype threat among Black men. In two studies, incidental exposure to violent/misogynistic rap, but not conscious hip-hop or pop music, impaired Black (but not White) men’s cognitive performance (Experiments 1 and 2), but only when the artist was ostensibly Black (vs. White; Experiment 2). These effects were conditionally mediated by stereotype activation, such that listening to a Black (but not White) rapper activated negative stereotypes about Black people for both Black and White participants but only impaired performance among Black participants (Experiment 2). This suggests that exposure to some forms of artistic expression may activate culturally shared stereotypes and obstruct academic success among stigmatized groups.
... The construct of stereotype confirmation concerns is similar to stereotype threat, defined as a reduction in task performance when a stereotype about an individual's social group is made salient (Steele, 1997), but stereotype confirmation concerns are considered to be more enduring whereas stereotype threat is acute. Notably, working memory capacity has been shown to mediate the effect of stereotype threat on performance (Aronson et al., 1999;Schmader & Johns, 2003;Steele, 1997;Steele & Aronson, 1995). In addition, results from a survey of 353 adults who identified as lesbian, bisexual, or gay indicated experiences of discrimination, concealment, and internalized homophobia were positively associated with psychological distress, which, in turn, was significantly related to self-reported impairments in working memory capacity (P. ...
Article
Working memory capacity is an important psychological construct, and many real-world phenomena are strongly associated with individual differences in working memory functioning. Although working memory and attention are intertwined, several studies have recently shown that individual differences in the general ability to control attention is more strongly predictive of human behavior than working memory capacity. In this review, we argue that researchers would therefore generally be better suited to studying the role of attention control rather than memory-based abilities in explaining real-world behavior and performance in humans. The review begins with a discussion of relevant literature on the nature and measurement of both working memory capacity and attention control, including recent developments in the study of individual differences of attention control. We then selectively review existing literature on the role of both working memory and attention in various applied settings and explain, in each case, why a switch in emphasis to attention control is warranted. Topics covered include psychological testing, cognitive training, education, sports, police decision-making, human factors, and disorders within clinical psychology. The review concludes with general recommendations and best practices for researchers interested in conducting studies of individual differences in attention control.
... While stereotype threat experiments typically induce threat in tasks where the stereotypes are already widely known, research has also demonstrated that the salience of stereotypes is more likely to impact performance when tasks are considered difficult (O'Brien & Crandall, 2003). In fact, chronic stereotyping is not necessary for performance to be impaired, while it is necessary for the individual to be sufficiently concerned about good performance to be bothered by the implication of a stereotype that they may not have the ability to do so (Aronson et al., 1999). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender stereotypes on the performance and learning of a balance task in men. Before practice, forty-eight participants received instructions involving the comparison of balance between males and females: males normally perform worse than females (stereotype threat condition - ST), females usually perform worse than males (stereotype lift condition - SL), or no instructions regarding gender stereotypes (control condition). One day later, they performed a retention test. The results show that the SL group outperformed the other groups during practice, but not retention. ST participants reported lower perceived competence. The findings show that gender stereotypes can affect perceptions of competence and balance performance, but not balance learning, in men.
... However, does this apply to all boys or only some? Previous research (e.g., Aronson et al., 1999;Nguyen & Ryan, 2008) has shown that identification with the domain moderates stereotype threat effects. Therefore, boys' susceptibility to benefit from a role model may be moderated by the extent to which they identify with, and value academic success. ...
Article
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From 2015 to 2018, the math gender gap decreased primarily due to a decline in boys' performances (OECD, 2015, 2016, 2018). However, there is ample evidence that girls continue to be negatively stereotyped in math. Using a longitudinal design, we examined whether prolonged exposure to a counter-stereotypical role model embodied by a female top math scorer may prevent other girls in the class from experiencing stereotype threat. Multilevel analyses were conducted among 1,043 6th graders nested in 46 math classes. There was a decline in math performance throughout the school year for all students, but being a girl had a buffering effect against this decline. The results failed to support the main effect hypothesis (H1) which anticipated that student gender and top math scorer gender would be associated with student math achievement when jointly considered. The results supported the cross-level interaction hypothesis (H2) which anticipated that the greatest benefits would emerge for girls exposed to a counter-stereotypical role model; that is, in a class whose top math scorer was a girl. These results offer new insights regarding the extent to which a counter-stereotypical role model embodied by the top math scorer may influence differences in math performances.
... For example, White male university engineering students performed lower when tested with groups of Asian students. African American students at highly regarded colleges performed lower when told their ability was being measured, and middle school minority students achieved lower scores on aptitude assessments when asked to identify their race prior to assessment; (Aronson et al., , 1999(Aronson et al., , 2002Aronson & Inzlicht, 2004;McGlone & Aronson, 2006;Steele & Aronson, 1995, 1998. Findings in the high-achieving and/or gifted populations have been found to mirror findings in the general population across gender, SES, and racial groups. ...
Article
With increasing attention to examining cognitive strengths and achievements related to social and emotional variables, it is imperative that instruments developed and used to assess change be valid and reliable for measuring underlying constructs. This study examines instruments identified and/or developed to measure four noncognitive constructs (i.e., student engagement, self-efficacy, growth mindset, and stereotype threat) as outcome variables in a study with elementary-aged students in high-poverty rural communities. The process of creating and examining the psychometric properties of these instruments is a necessary step in documenting the usefulness of the instruments not just in our study but also in other studies with elementary students. We note in our descriptions of the development and assessment of measures that underlying factors may or may not parallel those identified in the general population or in older students and that measurement of noncognitive variables in the population of young gifted students requires considerable attention.
Chapter
While the majority of mental health clinicians are white, our clients increasingly represent more diverse groups. We cannot suppose our clients as being intangible and disentangled from a social context that involves experiences of discrimination, racism, and the feeling of being “other”—a child or an adult who gets the sense they are different and are constantly stereotyped because of being nonwhite or part of other targeted groups. This chapter will focus on traumatic and difficult experiences as a result of discrimination and other hostile encounters. I’ll describe research on the mental health effects of microaggressions and discrimination and discuss stereotype and stereotype threat. Finally, as part of ongoing facilitation of a supportive therapeutic relationship, it’s important that clinicians feel comfortable in talking about differences between themselves and their clients.
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This research article promotes Multimedia Learning in the sphere of Medical Education and Practice. It describes how learners can acquire educational experiences as e-learning experiences. Indeed, medical training seems to be the last frontier, not only for remote and distant learning, but also for any form of non-formal or non-typical education, at least in pre-graduate level. It seems that the main reasons for not having achieved on-line learning are the Complexity of the Content, and the Type of Learning, which are unique, in some sense set apart from the main paradigm for learning that governs most other sciences. Overall, these two factors, alongside the neurophysiological interaction of e-Learning users, require considerable resources to ensure a constant flow of accredited education. Can this be changed?
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Broad-access institutions play a democratizing role in American society, opening doors to many who might not otherwise pursue college. Yet these institutions struggle with persistence and completion. Do feelings of nonbelonging play a role, particularly for students from groups historically disadvantaged in higher education? Is belonging relevant to students’ persistence—even when they form the numerical majority, as at many broad-access institutions? We evaluated a randomized intervention aimed at bolstering first-year students’ sense of belonging at a broad-access university ( N = 1,063). The intervention increased the likelihood that racial-ethnic minority and first-generation students maintained continuous enrollment over the next two academic years relative to multiple control groups. This two-year gain in persistence was mediated by greater feelings of social and academic fit one-year post-intervention. Results suggest that efforts to address belonging concerns at broad-access, majority-minority institutions can improve core academic outcomes for historically disadvantaged students at institutions designed to increase college accessibility.
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We examined if an adapted version of a brief social psychological intervention following a multi-threat framework can enhance the mental task performance of female college students under stereotype threat. In experiment 1, under self-as-target stereotype threat, as expected, students who were exposed to the self-affirmation intervention had the highest task performance. However, under group-as-target stereotype threat, we found similar performances of the students in both the self-affirmation and group-affirmation conditions compared to control condition. In experiment 2, we showed that the extent a female student is identified with her gender group moderates the effectiveness of the group-affirmation intervention. The current research encourages researchers to consider different understandings of self while instituting common stereotype threat interventions rather than taking a uniform approach.
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Prospective Memory (PM; i.e., the ability to remember to perform planned tasks) represents a key proxy of healthy aging, as it relates to older adults’ everyday functioning, autonomy, and personal well-being. The current review illustrates how PM performance develops across the lifespan and how multiple cognitive and non-cognitive factors influence this trajectory. Further, a new, integrative framework is presented, detailing how those processes interplay in retrieving and executing delayed intentions. Specifically, while most previous models have focused on memory processes, the present model focuses on the role of executive functioning in PM and its development across the lifespan. Finally, a practical outlook is presented, suggesting how the current knowledge can be applied in geriatrics and geropsychology to promote healthy aging by maintaining prospective abilities in the elderly.
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In the present paper, we investigated the link between stereotype threat, school achievement, and domain identification in language arts. We hypothesized that stereotype threat may lead to higher intellectual helplessness, lower working memory capacity, lower achievement, and domain identification but only in young men highly identified with their gender group. To test these assumptions we used self‐descriptive measures of stereotype threat, intellectual helplessness, gender identification, and domain identification. We also evaluated working memory capacity by working memory test and school achievement using grade point average. Our predictions were tested in structural equation modeling on a nationwide sample of 319 young men from coeducational schools, aged 14–16 years. The results revealed that working memory was a mediator of achievement (γ = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.34, 0.55]), while intellectual helplessness was related to both domain identification (γ = −0.13, 95% CI = [−0.22, −0.04]) and achievement (γ = −0.13, 95% CI = [−0.21, −0.06]). The proposed model extends our previous work on the role of intellectual helplessness in mathematics by testing the same intervening variable in a different domain, that is, in language arts. We discuss these results in light of previous research on stereotype threat and present practical implications.
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Stereotypes of religion (particularly Christianity) as incompatible with science are widespread, and prior findings show that Christians perform worse than non-Christians on scientific reasoning tasks following reminders of such stereotypes. The present studies ( N = 1,456) examine whether these reminders elicit stereotype threat (i.e., fear of confirming negative societal stereotypes about one’s group), disengagement (i.e., distancing oneself from a domain perceived as incongruent with the values of one’s group), or both. In Studies 1 and 2, Christians demonstrated lower task performance and greater subjective feelings of stereotype threat (but did not spend less time on the task) relative to non-Christians when beliefs about Christianity–science incompatibility were chronic or made salient. Furthermore, the effects of incompatibility stereotypes on performance were most pronounced among Christians who identified strongly with science and hence worried most about confirming negative stereotypes (Studies 3–4). Implications for Christians’ responses to religion–science conflict narratives and participation in science are discussed.
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Purpose: Stereotype threat is an important psychological phenomenon in which fear of fulfilling negative stereotypes about one's group impairs performance. The effects of stereotype threat in medical education are poorly characterized. This study examined the prevalence of racial/ethnic stereotype threat amongst fourth-year medical students and explored its impact on students' clinical experience. Method: This was an explanatory sequential mixed methods study at two institutions in 2019. First, the authors administered the quantitative Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS) to fourth-year medical students. The authors then conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of students with high SVS scores, using a qualitative phenomenographic approach to analyze experiences of stereotype threat. The research team considered reflexivity through group discussion and journaling. Results: Overall, 52% (184/353) of students responded to the survey. Collectively, 28% of students had high vulnerability to stereotype threat: 82% of Black, 45% of Asian, 43% of Latinx, and 4% of White students. Eighteen students participated in interviews. Stereotype threat was a dynamic, three-stage process triggered when students experienced the workplace through the colored lens of race/ethnicity by standing out, reliving past experiences, and witnessing microaggressions. Next, students engaged in internal dialogue to navigate racially charged events and workplace power dynamics. These efforts depleted cognitive resources and interfered with learning. Finally, students responded and coped to withstand threats. Immediate and deferred interventions from allies reduced stereotype threat. Conclusions: Stereotype threat is common, particularly among non-White students, and interferes with learning. Increased minority representation and developing evidence-based strategies for allyship around microaggressions could mitigate effects of stereotype threat.
Article
Mental illness screening instruments are increasingly being administered through online patient portals, making it vital to understand how the design of digital screening technologies could alter screening scores. Given the strong cross-cultural belief in the gender depression disparity, digital screening technologies are at particular risk of triggering stereotype threat, the phenomenon where a reminder of a stereotype impacts task performance. To assess this risk, we investigate if a reminder about the gender depression disparity influences the scores of digitally administered mental screening instruments. In a comprehensive study, we collect data from 440 participants with a mobile application that reminds half of the participants of the gender depression disparity prior to administering depression and anxiety screening instruments. Our statistical analysis evaluates differences in screening scores with t-tests, and determines credible values for difference of means, of standard deviations, and effect size using Bayesian estimation. While the gender depression disparity reminder had no statistically significant impact on men, it did alter the depression screening scores of women and nonbinary participants. Further, prior depression treatment increased the impact of stereotype threat on women. Our research demonstrates that digital screening technologies are subject to stereotype threat and should thus be designed to avoid biasing mental illness screening scores.
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The term stereotype was first used around a century ago, but its meaning and implications are relevant today due to an increase in group diversity and interactions. Stereotypes are simplistic and generalized beliefs about group members that can have negative consequences. This article reviews some of the evidence relating to two of the most common implications of stereotypes; discrimination and changes in cognitive and physical performance related with stereotype threat. The findings from this article may be helpful for human resource (HR) specialists, professors, health related specialists and those engaged in evaluation activities.
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This longitudinal study examined the role of teacher and student mindset and stereotype threat in the achievement gap between Chinese and Latinx English Learners. Our analytic sample consisted of 858 students ranging from 4th through 8th grade and their teachers (N = 66). This study made use of psychological survey data from students and teachers, as well as state-mandated standardized assessment outcomes for Math and English Language Arts (2017–18 and 2018–19). With hierarchical linear modeling analysis, results showed that student growth mindset was significantly associated with higher school performance and stereotype threat was significantly associated with lower school performance. Teacher growth mindset was also significantly associated with school performance, but differentially by ethnicity and grade. Practical and research implications are discussed.
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Haben Sie sich schon einmal so einen typischen amerikanischen Teenagerfilm angeschaut in dem Cheerleader*innen, Footballspieler, Mathefreaks, Musiker*innen usw. vorkamen? Sie haben wahrscheinlich bereits jetzt bei all diesen Personengruppen ein Bild vor Augen, wie die Mitglieder dieser Gruppe aussehen, wie sie sich verhalten, welche Ideale sie verfolgen und mit welchen Leuten sie sich abgeben.
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A avaliação do contexto da instituição educacional pode ser vista de vários ângulos, desde o ponto de vista estritamente didático e das estratégias de avaliação da aprendizagem escolar até questões epistemológicas, sociais e políticas que estão implicadas na instituição educacional e em outras instituições que envolvem relações de saber-poder. Esse livro expressa um explícito compromisso com a qualidade e democratização da educação e praticando um diálogo que envolve muitas vozes. Esse compromisso será compartilhado com o leitor, especialista ou não.
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Purpose – Language plays an important role in a successful service exchange, but it can become a source of discrimination if one party is a non-native speaker in the host country. This study examines the linguistic racism that non-native customers experience in Inter Culture Service Encounters (ICSEs) and delve into factors that contribute to the underlying psychological responses and the behavioral outcomes. Design/methodology/approach – A phenomenological approach was used where 16 individuals were interviewed to discover themes through non-native customers' lens using an inductive process. Next, the emerged categories were classified based on extant literature, using a deductive approach. Findings – The findings highlight the role of language varieties as a strong social identity cue for non-native customers where the associated stigma makes them see ICSE as a stereotype threat. Most importantly, these experiences shape their future behavior by avoiding direct interactions with the servers and adopting other service channels. Several ‘social others’ influence this process. Originality/value – This study explores the notion of linguistic racism in an ICSE from a non-native consumers’ lens and thus adds to this under-researched literature. Using a phenomenological approach, we propose a framework focusing on the perception of language-related stigma and discrimination experienced by non-native consumers along with possible behavioral responses.
Article
Stereotype threat (ST) is a potential explanation for inequalities in language competencies observed between students from different language backgrounds. Language competencies are an important prerequisite for educational success, wherefore the significance for investigation arises. While ST effects on achievement are empirically well documented, little is known about whether ST also impairs learning. Thus, we investigated vocabulary learning in language minority elementary school students, also searching for potential moderators. In a pre-post design, 240 fourth-grade students in Germany who were on average 10 years old (MAge = 9.92, SD = 0.64; 49.8% female) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: implicit ST, explicit ST without threat removal before posttest, explicit ST with threat removal before posttest, and a control group. Results showed that learning difficult vocabulary from reading two narrative texts was unaffected by ST. Neither students’ identification with their culture of residence and culture of origin nor stereotyped domain of reading were moderators. The findings are discussed with regard to content and methodological aspects such that a motivation effect might have undermined a possible ST effect. Implications for future research include examining the question at what age children become susceptible to ST and whether students have internalized negative stereotypes about their own group, which could increase the likelihood of ST effects occurring.
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The current study investigated the effects of age-based stereotype threat on neuropsychological assessment outcomes in an older adult population. Community volunteers (n = 49) age 65 and older were screened for cognitive impairment, depression, and anticholinergic medication use. Screened individuals were randomly stratified into either an ABST or a Control group. All participants were administered a broad range of neuropsychological measures of cognition as well as a self-rating measure assessing subjective concern about cognitive ability. A main effect of ABST on subjective concern about cognitive ability was supported. Specifically, individuals in the ABST group were significantly more likely to attribute their memory errors to the onset of dementia (F(1,41) = 5.334, p = .026). However, results showed no significant difference between groups on objective neuropsychological performance measures. The current study discusses the importance of considering ABST effects in the context of neuropsychological assessment in older adult populations.
Article
Intergenerational contact for technology learning frequently transpires in various daily settings of older adults’ lives. However, older adults often hold negative age-based self-stereotype that they are less capable in technology use. Thus, they may experience age-based stereotype threats in such situations, which further induce technophobia. Previous research indicated that positive intergenerational contact can reduce age-based stereotype threat and technophobia among older adults. This research focuses on intergenerational physical proximity, a vital role in structuring intergenerational contact, to investigate how it impacts technophobia via age-based stereotype threat among older adults. In addition, the moderating effect of key attributes of technology—newness and ease of use were explored. A vignette experiment was conducted with a sample of 243 older adults. Results show that more distant intergenerational physical proximity led to lower technophobia-personal failure dimension via more positive self-perception of aging (a manifestation of less age-based stereotype threat) when the technology is of high newness and low ease of use. However, the effect of physical proximity on technophobia was insignificant when the technology is of low newness, or of high newness but high ease of use. The findings of this research can provide detailed and practical suggestions on how to reduce technophobia among older adults through effective intergenerational contact.
Thesis
En France, l’hésitation vaccinale est croissante. Aussi, les recommandations de seuil de vaccination de la Haute Autorité de Santé ne sont pas atteintes. Augmenter les taux de vaccination pour certains vaccins est un objectif de santé publique. Ce présent travail propose de contribuer à l’apport de pistes via l’analyse de facteurs impactant le comportement vaccinal ainsi que via l’évaluation de l’efficacité d’interventions.Dans ce cadre, deux vaccins ont été étudiés, à savoir le vaccin contre les papillomavirus humains (HPV) et le vaccin contre la grippe. Trois essais randomisés contrôlés avant-après, testaient l’impact de la planification sur le comportement et l’intention. Les deux groupes, expérimental et contrôle, recevaient un questionnaire à compléter, mais seul le groupe expérimental recevaient la partie planification. Le comportement et l’intention étaient questionnés avant et après l’intervention (trois mois après). Pour les deux études portant sur le vaccin antigrippal, les résultats n’ont pas indiqué d’effet significatif de l’intervention sur le comportement. Seule l’intention a augmenté significativement avant-après intervention et ce, dans les deux études. L’objectif et la méthode de l’étude portant sur le vaccin contre les HPV, étaient similaires aux deux études précédentes. L’échantillon était constitué de parents d’adolescentes. Les résultats n’ont montré d’effet ni sur le comportement, ni sur l’intention.Afin de comprendre le rôle du statut socio-économique dans la vaccination, une quatrième étude testait l’impact de la menace perçue chez les soignants catégorisés comme ayant un statut socio-économique faible, sur le sentiment de compassion et sur l’intention vaccinale. Selon les résultats, la menace n’impacterait pas le sentiment de compassion. De plus, un sentiment de compassion élevé semblait les protéger de la menace.Enfin, une dernière étude testait, par le biais d’une méta-analyse, l’efficacité de recommandations issues de la science du changement de comportement via des interventions sur la vaccination. Les recommandations étudiées portaient sur le type de modèle choisi, la qualité de l’implémentation théorique et l’efficacité des techniques de changement de comportement (BCTs). Cette méta-analyse incluait seulement des essais randomisés contrôlés. La Taxonomie des BCTs version 1 a permis de coder les BCTs présentes au sein des interventions. Les résultats de cette revue permettent une meilleure compréhension de l'apport des recommandations de la science du changement de comportement dans le cadre de la vaccination.Pour conclure, nous estimons et discutons de l’impact de la planification dans le cadre de la vaccination. Nous proposons une nouvelle explication des différences du taux vaccinal entre les catégories de soignants via d’autres aspects théoriques à savoir, le statut socio-économique, la compassion et la menace perçue. Nos résultats sur les recommandations de la science du changement de comportement apportent, aux interventionnistes travaillant dans la vaccination, des réponses quant à leur efficacité ainsi qu’une meilleure compréhension de ceux-ci. Enfin, nous apportons des perspectives de recherche concernant la COVID-19.
Article
The implications of the persistent gender gap in political knowledge are a puzzle that the literature is still disentangling; and research has evidenced important differences in the way women and men respond to survey questions. We argue in this article that political knowledge survey items not only inform about differences in cognition but also about other latent traits related to gender stereotyping. Gender stereotypes around political knowledge push men to be knowledgeable but not so much women, which we expect to affect men and women’s survey responses differently. To test this expectation, we explore response times of do not know answers to political knowledge items. Our results show that men, particularly those who declare being interested in politics, take longer than women to admit that they do not know the answer to political knowledge items.
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Frühere Forschung hat gezeigt, dass die Aktivierung negativer Stereotype leistungseinschränkende Effekte für betroffene Gruppenmitglieder haben kann (sogenannter Stereotype Threat-Effekt). Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird zunächst ein Überblick über diese Forschung gegeben, bei dem immer wieder Bezug auf die besondere Situation ethnischer Minderheiten in Deutschland genommen wird. Da negative Emotionen im Kontext von Stereotype Threat eine bedeutsame Rolle spielen können, werden in einem nächsten Schritt Ansätze zur Emotionsregulation in die Forschung zu Stereotype Threat integriert. Abschließend werden verschiedene Arten der Emotionsregulation dargestellt, die von Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Stereotype Threat-Situationen eingesetzt werden können.
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Racial disparities are a major social issue that affects not only Brazil but also the world. Racial inequalities in Brazil are highlighted in several social indicators, such as living conditions, years of education, mortality rates, and unemployment rates, among others. The current article aims to highlight the Brazilian contribution to research exploring the relationship between racial issues and behavior analysis to bring visibility to the work of Brazilian researchers and professors. Four contributions of Brazilian researchers are highlighted: (a) behavior-analytic accounts of racial prejudice, (b) stereotype threat (a phenomenon that shows that the performance of an able individual can be impaired when a negative stereotype about this person’s group is highlighted), (c) institutional racism in the Brazilian Military Police Force, and (d) the use of latency-based measures to assess racial biases. We finish with suggestions for future research and for increasing collaboration between Brazilian researchers and researchers in English-speaking (and other) countries, making our contributions more accessible to foreign researchers and students.
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Purpose One of the goals of various European Union (EU) organizations (i.e. Roma and non-Roma nonprofits) is the integration of Roma into the educational system. A challenge for the educational systems of EU countries, therefore, is to determine how to support the academic performance of Roma. Understanding the positive and negative factors related to Roma’s academic performance and achievement is an important first step in increasing academic success among this minority group. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative experimental design was used both online and face-to-face to examine whether stereotype threat had an influence on the academic performance of Roma in Slovakia and second, whether such threat was moderated by social identification and academic self-efficacy. Findings The results showed that stereotype threat does influence Roma in Slovakia and there were direct effects of social identity and academic self-efficacy on academic performance of the face-to-face participants. Originality/value Consistent with stereotype threat theory, to the best of authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to show that a stereotype threat did harm the academic performance of the face-to-face Roma sampled. Further, although many studies have examined stereotype threat effects on academic performance, little is known regarding whether social identification and academic self-efficacy have an influence on such threats. The results of the study show that social identification and academic self-efficacy had a significant direct influence on academic performance.
Thesis
This project examines the understudied, but prevalent, phenomenon of white racial sympathy for blacks in American politics. Reversing course from a long tradition of studying racial antipathy, I argue that racial sympathy, which I define as white distress over black misfortune, shapes public opinion among a subset of white Americans. In Chapter 1, I introduce the project and provide an overview of the dissertation’s organization. Chapter 2 begins with a summary of the relevant racial attitudes literature, laying the foundation for the theory of racial sympathy. In Chapter 3, I describe the qualitative exploratory research I conducted to form an original measure of racial sympathy, the racial sympathy index. I examine the properties of the index, including its convergent validity. In Chapter 4, I explore the relationship between racial sympathy and public opinion using four national samples. These analyses reveal that racial sympathy is consistently and significantly associated with support for public policies perceived to benefit African Americans, while accounting for measures of principles and prejudice. Additionally, racial sympathy is distinct from a general social sympathy, as it does not influence policy opinion related to other groups, such as women. The concept is tightly associated with race; as evidence of this, I find that racial sympathy is activated when the suffering of African Americans is made salient, a phenomena I explore through a series of experiments in the dissertation’s fifth chapter. In Chapter 6, I argue that racial sympathy enhances our understanding of the complexity of intergroup relations. Here I suggest that sympathy has the potential to motivate a variety of political opinions and behavior. I also discuss the limits to its reach. Overall, the project is a companion to the rich literature in political science on racial prejudice. The dissertation demonstrates the multifaceted role of race in American politics and public opinion.
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Objectives. Developing a comprehensive model to understand intergroup relationship through integrating two constructs usually used to be examined discretely; self-stereotyping and stereotyping. Background. Today’s understanding of intergroup behavior is firmly grounded in concepts related to stereotypes. In literature, apparently, there are, two dominant approaches in studying stereotype’s effect on intergroup relations. The first approach focuses on the effect of dominant group’s stereotype on intergroup relation, while the second approach focuses on studying the impacts of self stereotyping on victims. Furthermore, minority groups’ self-sterotyping is considered to be derived from the dominant groups’ stereotype. As a result, the prevailing approaches are insensitive to the dynamics in self-stereotype and its implication to the intergroup relationship. In this article, it is claimed that the etiology of intergroup behavior could be better understood by considering a mutually interacting groups’ perspective. Methodology. Systematic approach of reviewing the prevailing literature pertaining to stereotyping and self-stereotyping and integrative analysis method to develop new perspective. Conclusion. Intergroup relation involves the interaction of two or more groups each of them having stereotypes regarding their own group and outgroup. Thus, in this paper, we argued that, the etiology of intergroup behavior cannot be adequately understood without employing the belief system of mutually interacting groups. Hence, we integrated self-stereotyping and other’s stereotypes and the behaviors that emerge during intergroup relations is predicted using the dynamics in the content/valence of minority group members’ self-stereotyping simultaneously with the dominant groups’ stereotype. The integration of these two approaches appears to offer the most adequate explanation for the complex nature of intergroup behavior.
Article
Stereotype threat theory (STT), which seeks to understand intergroup differences in socioeconomic outcomes, has attracted considerable attention since its inception. With the goal of advancing conversation about the usefulness of STT in organizational settings, and to extend discussions on theory assessment, we evaluate STT as a “good” theory for organizational research using a three-pronged (i.e., 3E) theory assessment framework: experience, explain, and establish. Our critical analysis reveals areas where STT has made progress and where gaps remain to be addressed. The systematic approach we pursue allows for a rigorous articulation of the 3E framework for future theory assessment work as well as helps to suggest ways for improving upon and extending STT research in new directions.
Article
Objectif : Cette étude visait à examiner l’effet d’un contexte de menace du stéréotype sur la force de préhension des seniors et le rôle modérateur des traits de personnalité. Méthode : Cent soixante-dix-huit personnes âgées de 60 à 100 ans (M = 77 ans) ont été aléatoirement réparties dans trois conditions expérimentales distinctes : un groupe en condition de menace du stéréotype (N = 57), un groupe en condition de suppression du stéréotype négatif (N = 62), et un dernier groupe ne recevant aucune information stéréotypique (N = 59). Les participants ont répondu à plusieurs questionnaires permettant de mesurer les traits de personnalité, les données sociodémographiques et l’état de santé objectif. Par ailleurs, la force de préhension a été évaluée à l’aide d’un dynamomètre manuel, et mesurée avant et après la mise en place du contexte évaluatif générant l’effet de menace ou de suppression du stéréotype. Résultats : Les analyses de covariances réalisées n’indiquent aucun effet d’interaction significatif entre les traits de personnalité et les conditions expérimentales sur la force de préhension des participants. Discussion : Cette étude semble indiquer que les traits de personnalité ne modèrent pas l’effet de menace du stéréotype sur un des marqueurs du fonctionnement physique des seniors, à savoir la force de préhension.
Article
Belonging and academic engagement are important predictors of women’s retention in STEM. To better understand the processes influencing these outcomes, we investigate how numerical underrepresentation (i.e., token status) triggers social comparison perceptions—concerns that others are comparing oneself to another person—that can undermine women’s STEM outcomes. Across four experiments, female college students recruited via subject pool (Study 1a) and MTurk (Studies 1b–3) read a hypothetical scenario in which another female (Studies 1a–3) or male (Study 2) student performed well or poorly in an engineering course. Findings showed that having token (vs. non-token) status in the course increased social comparison perceptions (i.e., perceptions about being compared to an ingroup peer), which subsequently reduced course belonging (Studies 1a and 1b). Study 2 found that (a) token status increased social comparison perceptions in response to the ingroup (vs. outgroup) peer and (b) social comparison perceptions decreased belonging through stereotype threat concerns, particularly when the peer performed poorly. Study 3 directly manipulated social comparison perceptions to further establish their causal role on negative outcomes and demonstrated that these perceived direct comparisons predicted additional consequences signaling STEM disengagement. Collectively, findings identify a novel process that can diminish belonging and academic engagement for women in STEM. Additional online materials for this article are available on PWQ ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/03616843211005447
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Students from poorer families perform worse on intellectual tasks than do other students. The authors tested the stereotype threat hypothesis as a possible explanation for this difference. Students from relatively poor backgrounds, such as members of other stereotyped groups, risk confirming a negative reputation of low intellectual ability. The authors predicted that, on a stereotype-relevant test, members of this group would experience apprehension about confirming their negative reputation and that this susceptibility to the stereotype would impair their performance. The study varied stereotype threat by manipulating the instructions accompanying the test that each participant completed. When described as a measure of intellectual ability, low socioeconomic status (SES) participants performed worse than high SES participants. However, when the test was presented as nondiagnostic of intellectual ability, low SES participants' performances did not suffer, contesting claims of SES differences in intellectual ability.
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Theorists have argued that global self-esteem should be related to performance in academics. However, studies have reported lower academic achievement among African American students than among White students but have failed to find lower global self-esteem among African American students. Steele has attempted to explain this paradox by proposing that African American children detach their self-esteem from academic outcomes, thus protecting them from failure. The present study tested empirical hypotheses derived from Steele's theoretical framework. Data were taken from a nationally representative longitudinal study of American students. Analyses revealed a pattern of weakening correlations between self-esteem and academic outcomes from 8th to 10th grade for African American students particularly African American male students, whereas the correlations for White students remained stable or increased. These results show general support for Steele's model in the context of a nationally representative sample.
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Using meta-analysis techniques, almost 200 studies that considered the relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement (AA) were examined. Results indicate that as SES is typically defined and used, it is only weakly correlated with AA. With aggregated units of analysis, typically obtained correlations between SES and AA jump to .73. Family characteristics, sometimes incorrectly referred to as SES, are substantially correlated with AA when individuals are the unit of analysis. Factors such as grade level at which the measurement was taken, type of AA measure, type of SES measure, and the year in which the data were collected were significantly correlated with the magnitude of the correlation between AA and SES. Variables considered in the meta-analysis accounted for 75% of the variance in observed correlation coefficients in the studies examined. (6 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two experiments tested the hypothesis that members of negatively stereotyped groups psychologically disengage their self-esteem from feedback received in stereotype-relevant domains. In both experiments, a total of 62 African American and 82 European American college students received performance feedback on a bogus intelligence test and completed measures of self-esteem. In Exp 1, European American Ss had higher self-esteem after success than after failure, whereas African American Ss had similar levels of self-esteem regardless of feedback. Exp 2 examined the extent to which lesser responsivity among African Americans is the result of chronic disengagement from intelligence tests or situational disengagement initiated by priming racial stereotypes. Results indicate that both chronic disengagement and racial priming engender less responsivity to negative performance feedback among African American, but not European American, Ss. Performance expectancies, self-evaluations, and beliefs about test bias are discussed as possible mediators of this relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although several psychological theories predict that members of stigmatized groups should have low global self-esteem, empirical research typically does not support this prediction. It is proposed here that this discrepancy may be explained by considering the ways in which membership in a stigmatized group may protect the self-concept. It is proposed that members of stigmatized groups may (a) attribute negative feedback to prejudice against their group, (b) compare their outcomes with those of the ingroup, rather than with the relatively advantaged outgroup, and (c) selectively devalue those dimensions on which their group fares poorly and value those dimensions on which their group excels. Evidence for each of these processes and their consequences for self-esteem and motivation is reviewed. Factors that moderate the use of these strategies and implications of this analysis for treatment of stigmas are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. Studies 1 and 2 varied the stereotype vulnerability of Black participants taking a difficult verbal test by varying whether or not their performance was ostensibly diagnostic of ability, and thus, whether or not they were at risk of fulfilling the racial stereotype about their intellectual ability. Reflecting the pressure of this vulnerability, Blacks underperformed in relation to Whites in the ability-diagnostic condition but not in the nondiagnostic condition (with Scholastic Aptitude Tests controlled). Study 3 validated that ability-diagnosticity cognitively activated the racial stereotype in these participants and motivated them not to conform to it, or to be judged by it. Study 4 showed that mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic. The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed.
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Extending R.A. Wicklund and P.M. Gollwitzer's (1982) self-completion theory, 2 experiments examined the role of self-defining goals in predicting performance effects of failure among students committed to professional goals such as becoming a physician (Experiment 1) or a computer scientist (Experiment 2). Results of Experiment 1 revealed that failure on a task characterized as being relevant to students' professional self-definition led to (a) enhanced performance on a subsequent task relevant to the same self-definition and (b) impaired performance on a subsequent task unrelated to the self-definition challenged through prior failure. Experiment 2 replicated these findings. In addition, performance effects due to self-definitional failure were annulled when participants experience intermittent social recognition for the aspired-to-self-definition.
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This research demonstrates that subliminally activated stereotypes can alter judgments about oneself and can change cognitive performance. In the first study, an intervention that activated positive stereotypes of aging without the participants' awareness tended to improve memory performance, memory self-efficacy, and views of aging in old individuals; in contrast, an intervention that activated negative stereotypes of aging tended to worsen memory performance, memory self-efficacy, and views of aging in old participants. A second study demonstrated that for the strong effects to emerge from the shifting stereotypes, the stereotypes must be important to one's self-image: Young individuals randomly assigned to the same conditions as the old participants in the first study did not exhibit any of the significant interactions that emerged among the old participants. This research highlights the potential for memory improvement in old individuals when the negative stereotypes of aging that dominate the American culture are shifted to more positive stereotypes.
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Self-affirmation processes are being activated by information that threatens the perceived adequacy or integrity of the self and as running their course until this perception is restored through explanation, rationalization, and/or action. The purpose of these constant explanations (and rationalizations) is to maintain a phenomenal experience of the self-self-conceptions and images as adaptively and morally adequate—that is, as competent, good, coherent, unitary, stable, capable of free choice, capable of controlling important outcomes, and so on. The research reported in this chapter focuses on the way people cope with the implications of threat to their self-regard rather than on the way they cope with the threat itself. This chapter analyzes the way coping processes restore self-regard rather than the way they address the provoking threat itself.
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The challenge of how to appear competent (to oneself and others) is closely tied to the attributional relationship between ability (can) and effort (try). Data are presented to support the layperson's understanding of the discounting principle that describes this relationship: Holding performance constant, the lower the apparent effort and the more difficult the task, the greater the attributed ability. It is proposed that people in our culture attach great value to the appearance of basic, or "natural," ability. Depending on available opportunities, people will withdraw effort, emphasize task difficulty, and even handicap themselves to protect their competence image. Experimental results also make clear that self-promoters must avoid claims that are refutable, excessive, or seen as out of context.
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During the deliberations prior to its school desegregation decision in 1954 the Supreme Court had before it a Social Science Statement on the effects of segregation and desegregation. This article reassesses the quality of that Statement 25 years later. Key points in the Statement are compared to the results of subsequent research. Some points, e.g., no negative effect on the school achievement of white students, have been supported. Others, e.g., improvement in black self-esteem, are difficult to evaluate due to inconsistent and uninterpretable research findings. Still others, e.g., more favorable racial attitudes, cannot be compared to the research findings because desegregation was not carried out in accord with conditions that were specified as conducive to the outcomes predicted in the Statement. Much research effort has been wasted in the study of school desegregation conducted under conditions unknown to the investigator. In order to avoid such waste in the future it is suggested that investigators concentrate on innovative methods of facilitating constructive classroom desegregation. Illustrations are provided from recent research developments.
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The authors consider the empirical validity of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as a predictor of various kinds of performance in a graduate psychology program, including 1st- and 2nd-year grades; professors' ratings of students' dissertations; and professors' ratings of students' analytical, creative, practical, research, and teaching abilities. On the basis of the triarchic theory of intelligence, the GRE was predicted to be of some use in predicting graduate grades but of limited or no use in predicting other aspects of performance. In fact, the test was found to be useful in predicting 1st-year grades but not other kinds of performance, with one exception—performance on the GRE Analytical test was predictive, but only for men. The authors conclude that there is a need to develop better theory-based tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicamentstereotype threatand hypothesize that the apprehension it causes may disrupt women's math performance. In Study 1 we demonstrated that the pattern observed in the literature that women underperform on difficult (but not easy) math tests was observed among a highly selected sample of men and women. In Study 2 we demonstrated that this difference in performance could be eliminated when we lowered stereotype threat by describing the test as not producing gender differences. However, when the test was described as producing gender differences and stereotype threat was high, women performed substantially worse than equally qualified men did. A third experiment replicated this finding with a less highly selected population and explored the mediation of the effect. The implication that stereotype threat may underlie gender differences in advanced math performance, even those that have been attributed to genetically rooted sex differences, is discussed.
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Mfost of social psychology's theories of the self fail to take into account the significance of social identification in the definition of self. Social identities are self-definitions that are more inclusive than the individuated self-concept of most American psychology. A model of optimal distinctiveness is proposed in which social identity is viewed as a reconciliation of opposing needs for assimilation and differentiation from others. According to this model, individuals avoid self-construals that are either too personalized or too inclusive and instead define themselves in terms of distinctive category memberships. Social identity and group loyalty are hypothesized to be strongest for those self-categorizations that simultaneously provide for a sense of belonging and a sense of distinctiveness. Results from an initial laboratory experiment support the prediction that depersonalization and group size interact as determinants of the strength of social identification.
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This chapter presents a theoretical model for understanding the negative impact of prejudice and perceptions of prejudice on academic performance and school persistence among women and minorities. The aim of the chapter is to describe research conducted under the rubric of a theory called "stereotype threat," focusing on the consequences for targets contending with negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities. The authors suggest that taking the perspective of the target can help to explain and to ameliorate the problem of low academic achievement among certain minorities and women. They argue that stereotype threat undermines academic achievement both by interfering with performance on mental tasks, and over time, by prompting students to protect their self-esteem by disengaging from the threatened domain. The following topics are addressed: the situational inducement of stereotype threat, mediation of stereotype threat (measuring stereotype activation, stereotype avoidance, anxiety and evaluation apprehension), and reducing stereotype threat and disidentification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses the social science statement supporting the 1954 Brown vs Board of Education US Supreme Court decision. It is contended that the statement was based on well-meaning rhetoric rather than solid research. All that the statement said, in effect, was that because the minority child was now in a classroom with Whites, he or she would no longer have the status of an outcast or a pariah. The "lateral transmission of values" hypothesis contained in a desegregation report by J. S. Coleman et al (1966) predicted that through classroom contact with their White peers, minority pupils would experience a personality change by absorbing the achievement-related values of the Whites. Social science thinking 10 yrs later, when desegregation began to be implemented, was more sophisticated but still unsupported by necessary research. It is concluded that no real evidence has been found for the lateral transmission hypotheses and that research and development as well as systems engineering in the social sciences are needed if some of the social problems in the US, including successful implementation of school desegregation, are to be eventually solved. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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describes [the author's] despair at watching talented African-American college students fall by the wayside as the full weight of racial stigma becomes evident to them / more than half of African-American college students fail to complete their college degrees for reasons having little to do with ability / draws on empirical findings and examples to show how the stigma of race leads Black students to disidentify with their college and to see intellectual achievement as increasingly irrelevant to their self-esteem / shows that when school atmospheres reduce racial stigma, achievement among African Americans is enhanced (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines how negative stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination can lead members of stigmatized groups to psychologically disengage from a self-evaluative domain as a way of maintaining their personal and collective self-esteem. Three studies are described that examine whether African American college students are more likely than European American students to disengage their self-esteem from self-evaluative feedback received in the context of performance on academic and intellectual tests. Taken together, the results of the studies provide support for the idea that under certain circumstances, African American students are more likely than European American students to disengage their self-esteem from performance feedback. This disengagement is especially likely to to occur in situations in which either negative stereotypes, expectations of racial bias, or expectations of poor performance are primed, but may take on more chronic features as African Americans continually confront prejudice and discrimination in their environment. European American students, in contrast, who are not affected by the same negative stereotypes and social devaluation, are relatively unaffected by primes of racial bias and are more likely to remain engaged in intellectual tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Paradoxical performance effects (‘choking under pressure’) are defined as the occurrence of inferior performance despite striving and incentives for superior performance. Experimental demonstrations of these effects on tasks analogous to athletic performance and the theories that may explain them are reviewed. At present, attentional theories seem to offer the most complete explanation of the processes underlying paradoxical performance effects. In particular, choking may result from distraction or from the interference of self-focused attention with the execution of automatic responses. Experimental findings of paradoxical performance decrements are associated with four pressure variables: audience presence, competition, performance-contingent rewards and punishments, and ego relevance of the task. The mediating factors of task complexity, expectancies, and individual differences are discussed.
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The hypothesis that explanations for differences between prototypical and nonprototypical members of categories would focus more on attributes of the latter than on those of the former was examined. Explanations for alleged gender differences in the behavior of voters, elementary school teachers, and college professors were elicited. As predicted, explanations for gender differences within the 3 categories emphasized the qualities of the "deviant" member. Ss' explanations of alleged gender gaps in the behavior of voters and college professors focused more on qualities of women than on qualities of men. In contrast, Ss' explanations of an alleged gender gap in the behavior of elementary school teachers focused more on qualities of men than on qualities of women. The results are interpreted in terms of Kahneman and Miller's (1986) norm theory.
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A substantial sex difference in mathematical reasoning ability (score on the mathematics test of the Scholastic Aptitude Test) in favor of boys was found in a study of 9927 intellectually gifted junior high school students. Our data contradict the hypothesis that differential course-taking accounts for observed sex differences in mathematical ability, but support the hypothesis that these differences are somewhat increased by environmental influences.
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The authors consider the empirical validity of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as a predictor of various kinds of performance in a graduate psychology program, including 1st- and 2nd-year grades; professors' ratings of students' dissertations; and professors' ratings of students' analytical, creative, practical, research, and teaching abilities. On the basis of the triarchic theory of intelligence, the GRE was predicted to be of some use in predicting graduate grades but of limited or no use in predicting other aspects of performance. In fact, the test was found to be useful in predicting 1st-year grades but not other kinds of performance, with one exception--performance on the GRE Analytical test was predictive, but only for men. The authors conclude that there is a need to develop better theory-based tests.
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A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
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Whereas past researchers have treated targets of stereotypes as though they have uniform reactions to their stereotyped status (e.g., J. Crocker & B. Major, 1989; C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995), it is proposed here that targets differ in the extent to which they expect to be stereotyped by others (i.e., stigma consciousness). Six studies, 5 of which validate the stigma-consciousness questionnaire (SCQ), are presented. The results suggest that the SCQ is a reliable and valid instrument for detecting differences in stigma consciousness. In addition, scores on the SCQ predict perceptions of discrimination and the ability to generate convincing examples of such discrimination. The final study highlights a behavioral consequence of stigma consciousness: the tendency for people high in stigma consciousness to forgo opportunities to invalidate stereotypes about their group. The relation of stigma consciousness to past research on targets of stereotypes is considered as is the issue of how stigma consciousness may encourage continued stereotyping.
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