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Medicinal uses and Pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus Linn – A Review

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Abstract

Cyperus rotundus Linn belong to the family Cyperaceae. It is the world worst weed native to India. It grows in small clump up to 100cm high. The extensive distribution of the nut-grass is due to its ability to adapt to a wide range of soil types, altitudes, temperatures, soil pH and moisture levels. It therefore grows in a variety of different habitats and environments. It has wide range of medicinal and pharmacological applications. According to the Ayurveda, C.rotundus rhizomes are considered astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, antitussive, emmenagogue, litholytic, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic and antibacterial. This paper provides review on medicinal uses and various pharmacological properties of C.rotundus rhizome.
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Medicinal uses and Pharmacological activities of Cyperus
rotundus Linn A Review
Sri Ranjani Sivapalan
Unit of Siddha Medicine
University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka
saisiva7@yahoo.co.in
Abstract- Cyperus rotundus Linn belong to the family
Cyperaceae. It is the world worst weed native to India. It grows
in small clump up to 100cm high. The extensive distribution of
the nut-grass is due to its ability to adapt to a wide range of soil
types, altitudes, temperatures, soil pH and moisture levels. It
therefore grows in a variety of different habitats and
environments. It has wide range of medicinal and
pharmacological applications. According to the Ayurveda,
C.rotundus rhizomes are considered astringent, diaphoretic,
diuretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative,
antitussive, emmenagogue, litholytic, sedative, stimulant,
stomachic, vermifuge, tonic and antibacterial. This paper
provides review on medicinal uses and various pharmacological
properties of C.rotundus rhizome.
Index Terms- Anti-inflammatory, Anti-pyretic, Anti-malarial,
Cyperus rotundus, Nut grass.
I. INTRODUCTION
Herbal medicine is a major component in all traditional medical
systems, and a common element in Siddha, Ayurvedic,
Homeopathic, Naturopathic, Traditional Chinese medicine, and
Native American medicine. Plant materials are used throughout
developed and developing countries as home remedies, over-the-
counter drug products and raw materials for the pharmaceutical
industry, and represent a substantial proportion of the global drug
market. A perfect example of medicinal plant credited with
innumerable medicinal qualities validated by modern science and
used since ancient times is C.rotundus Linn. Family -
Cyperaceae are the largest family in the monocotyledons
consisting of 109 genera and approximately 5,500 species [1].
C.rotundus L., (Family-Cyperaceae), also known as purple
nutsedge or nutgrass, is a common perennial weed with slender,
scaly creeping rhizomes, bulbous at the base and arising singly
from the tubers which are about 1-3 cm long. The tubers are
externally blackish in colour and reddish white inside, with a
characteristic odour. The stems grow to about 25 cm tall and the
leaves are linear, dark green and grooved on the upper surface.
Inflorescences are small, with 2-4 bracts, consisting of tiny
flowers with a red-brown husk. The nut is three-angled, oblong-
ovate, yellow in colour and black when ripe. C.rotundus is
indigenous to India, but are now found in tropical, subtropical
and temperate regions [2].
In Asian countries, the rhizomes of C. rotundus, which are used
as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach and
bowel disorders, and inflammatory diseases, have been widely,
investigated [3-5]. C. rotundus is a traditional herbal medicine
used widely as analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic, antimalarial,
stomach disorders and to relieve diarrhoea [6-7]. The tuber part
of C. rotundus is one of the oldest known medicinal plants used
for the treatment of dysmenorrheal and menstrual irregularities
[8-9]. Infusion of this herb has been used in pain, fever,
diarrhoea, dysentery, an emmenagogue and other intestinal
problems [10]. It is a multipurpose plant, widely used in
traditional medicine around the world to treat stomach ailments,
wounds, boils and blisters [11-14].
A number of pharmacological and biological activities including
anti-Candida, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal,
cytoprotective, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antibacterial,
antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic, anti-pyretic and analgesic
activities have been reported for this plant [15-24].
Previous phytochemical studies on C.rotundus revealed the
presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, starch, glycosides and
furochromones, and many novel sesquiterpenoids [25- 29].
Edible Parts: Rhizome
II.MEDICINAL USES
According to the Ayurveda, C. rotundus rhizomes are considered
astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, analgesic, antispasmodic,
aromatic, carminative, antitussive, emmenagogue, litholytic,
sedative, stimulant, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic and
antibacterial.
It may be a good remedy for indigestion in the light of
constituents present in it, for example, there are many enzymes
for carbohydrates and minerals which act as catalyst for various
biochemical reactions and helps indigestion. It is also useful for
dietary management of psychotic diseases and metabolic
disorders [30].
They are used in treatment of Nausea and vomiting, dyspepsia,
colic, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery, intestinal parasites, fever,
malaria, cough, bronchitis, renal and vesical calculi, urinary
tenesmus, skin diseases, wounds, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea,
deficient lactation, loss of memory, insect bites, food poisoning,
indigestion, nausea, dysuria, bronchitis, infertility, cervical
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cancer and menstrual disorders, and the aromatic oils are made of
perfumes and splash [31-35].
III.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
Several chemical compounds have been isolated from world's
worst weed C. rotundus [36] and some of these chemicals
possess medicinal properties and are used in Latin America,
China, India and elsewhere [37-39]. Various preparations of C.
rotundus have been used for centuries in perfumes, spices and
traditional medicines in India, China, Arab and Africa. It is also
an important ingredient of anti-aging Ayurvedic neutraceutical
Chyavanprash [39].
Different phytochemical studies on C.rotundus revealed the
presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, starch, glycosides,
furochromones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sitosterol, fatty
oil containing a neutral waxy substance, glycerol, linolenic,
myristic and stearic acids [25, 29, 40-41]. The major compounds
isolated from essential oil and the extracts of C.rotundus rhizome
are Alpha-cyperone, Alpha-rotunol, Beta-cyperone, Beta-pinene,
Beta-rotunol, Beta-selinene, Calcium, Camphene, Copaene,
Cyperene, Cyperenone, Cyperol, Cyperolone Cyperotundone D-
copadiene, D-epoxyguaiene, D-fructose, D-glucose, Flavonoids,
Gamma-cymene, Isocyperol, Isokobusone, Kobusone, Limonene,
Linoleic-acid, Linolenic-acid, Magnesium, Manganese, C.
rotunduskone, Myristic-acid, Oleanolic-acid, Oleanolic-acid-3-o-
neohesperidoside, Oleic-acid, P-cymol, Patchoulenone, Pectin,
Polyphenols, Rotundene, Rotundenol, Rotundone, Selinatriene,
Sitosterol, Stearic-acid, Sugeonol, Sugetriol [42-45].
C.rotundus contains an essential oil that provides for the
characteristic odour and taste of the herb, comprised mostly
sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, epoxides, ketones, monoterpenes
and aliphatic alcohols. Sesquiterpenes include selinene,
isocurcumenol, nootkatone, aristolone, isorotundene, cypera-
2,4(15)-diene, and norrotundene, as well as the sesquiterpene
alkaloids rotundines A-C. Other constituents include the ketone
cyperadione, and the monoterpenes cineole, camphene and
limonene. C.rotundus has also been shown to contain
miscellaneous triterpenes including oleanolic acid and sitosterol,
as well as flavonoids, sugars and minerals [44-45]
The chemical composition of the volatile oils of C.rotundus has
been extensively studied and four chemotypes (H-, K-, M- O-
types), of the essential oils from different parts of Asia have been
reported [46-52].
The H-type from Japan was found to contain a-cyperone
(36.6%), ß-selinene (18.5%), cyperol (7.4%) and caryophyllene
(6.2%). The M-type from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and
Vietnam had a-cyperone (30.7%), cyperotundone (19.4%), ß-
selinene (17.8%), cyperene (7.2%) and cyperol (5.6%). The O-
type from Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Hawaii and the Philippines
was characterized by cyperene (30.8%), cyperotundone (13.1%)
and ß-elemene (5.2%). In addition, the Hawaiian O-type had
cyperotundone (25.0%) and cyperene (20.7%) as the major
compounds. Finally, the K-type, also from Hawaii, was
dominated by cyperene (28.7%), cyperotundone (8.8%),
patchoulenyl acetate (8.0%) and sugeonyl acetate (6.9%) [47-48].
IV.PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
Anti Inflammatory Activity
The alcoholic extract (70% alcohol) possessed anti inflammatory
activity against carrageenan induced oedema and also found
effective against formaldehyde induced arthritis in albino rats
[53]. In another study the petroleum ether extract of the rhizomes
showed anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced
oedema in albino rats. The triterpenoid obtained by
chromatographic separation from petroleum ether extract
revealed a high potent anti-inflammatory activity. This terpenoid
was also found to possess significant antipyretic and analgesic
effects similar to acetyl salicylic acid. C.rotundus has also
reported as protective in inflammatory bowel disease.
In addition, the extract suppressed the production of O2- by
phorbol ester stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in dose- and time-
dependent manners. Collectively, these results suggest that the
methanol extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could be developed
as anti-inflammatory candidate for the treatment of inflammatory
diseases mediated by overproduction of NO and O2 [54].
Another study on alcoholic extract of C. rotundus showed highly
significant (P<0.001) anti-inflammatory activity against the
exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation in two animal
models (carrageenan induced oedema and formaldehyde induced
arthritis in rats). Its anti-inflammatory relative effect was higher
than that of hydrocortisone (75.9% versus 47.3% in carrageenan-
induced oedema model; 55.1% versus 35.6% in formaldehyde
induced arthritis model [27, 55-57].
Antipyretic activity
The alcoholic extract of C. rotundus showed highly significant
(P<0.001) antipyretic activity against pyrexia produced in albino
rats by the subcutaneous injection of suspension of dried
Brewer’s yeast in gum acacia in normal saline. A specific
fraction obtained by chromatographic method from the
petroleum ether extract was found to possess a significant anti-
pyretic effect similar to acetyl salicylic acid when used on the
same animal model [58].
Analgesic activity
The petroleum ether extract and essential oil of C.rotundus are
reported to possess analgesic activity [58-59].
Tranqulizing activity
The ethanolic extract of C. rotundus showed potent tranquilizing
activity in various tests: reduced the spontaneous motor activity,
potentiated the pentobarbital narcosis and deranged the motor
coordination, abolished the conditioned avoidance response in
animals [55]
Anticonvulsant activity
Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of C.rotundus caused
significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced
convulsions in mice [60].
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The ethanol extract of rhizomes (100mg/kg, p.o.) reduced hind
limb extension and duration of convulsion significantly,
(p<0.001) which was comparable to standard drug Phenytoin
(25mg/kg, i.p.) and Diazepam (4mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. These
results suggest that the ethanol extract of its rhizomes is
worthwhile to develop the potent phytoconstituent for treatment
of epilepsy and the flavonoids present in ethanol extract could be
attributed for aiticonvulsant activity [61].
Anti-emetic activity
The ethanolic extract of C. rotundus in the dose of 128.1± 11.6
mg/kg was found to protect 50% dogs against apomorphine
induced vomiting [55].
Antispatic activity
Ethanolic extract of C. rotundus produced relaxation of rabbit
ileum and spasmolytic effect against contractions induced by
acetylcholine, barium chloride and 5-hydroxitriptamine, showing
a direct relaxant action on the smooth muscle [55].
Inhibition of gastric motility activity
The rhizome of C.rotundus Linn. was assessed for its
cytoprotective effects against ethanol induced gastric damage.
Decoctions of Rhizoma Cyperi were given orally to rats 30 min.
before ethanol was administered. The findings in this study
suggest that the protective action of C. rotundus Linn. is related
to its inhibition of gastric motility and endogeneous
prostaglandins may play an important role [62]
Gastroprotective activity
C.rotundus extract protected against gastric mucosal injury
induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats. The mean ulcer
index of rats treated with 200 and 100 mg/kg C. rotundus were
significantly lower than that of control. The activities of
glutathione-peroxidase and malondialdehyde were significantly
affected by treatment of C. rotundus [64]. Cytoprotective effects
of C.rotundus have been mentioned also in case of ethanol
induced gastric damage in rats. Decoctions of Rhizoma Cyperi
were given orally (1.25, 2.5, 4.0 g crude drug/kg) to rats 30 min
before ethanol showed an ulcer inhibitory effect in a dose
dependent manner. Pretreatment of rats with indomethacin (5
mg/kg) significantly reduced the gastric protective action of C.
rotundus. The authors suggested that the gastroprotective action
of C.rotundus is related to its inhibition of gastric motility and
endogeneous prostaglandins [62].
Antidiarrhoeal Activity
The methanol extract of C. rotundus rhizome, given orally at the
doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant antidiarrhoeal
activity in castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. Among the
fractions, tested at 250 mg/kg, the petroleum ether fraction and
residual methanol fraction were found to retain the activity, the
latter being more active as compared to the control. The ethyl
acetate fraction did not show any antidiarrhoeal activity [2]
Haemodynamic (hypotensive) activity
The alcoholic extract of C.rotundus produced gradual and
persistent fall in blood pressure and stimulated the respiration.
The responses of epinephrine and acetylcholine on blood
pressure were not altered by the extract, but that of histamine was
partially blocked [55]
Hypolipidaemic Activity
Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were selected for the study.
Animals were divided into 7 groups, each group comprising of 6
rats. Rats in the group1 received normal pellet diet and received
0.1% sodium CMC solution and served as vehicle control. The
rats belonging to remaining 6 groups received high fat diet for
the entire duration of the study that is for 25 days. High fat diet
induced hyperlipidaemia is one of the common methods to
induce hyperlipidaemia. Hence hyperlipidaemia was induced by
oral feeding of high fat diet. The high fat diet was comprised of
the chow enriched with high calorie and 1% cholesterol. After 10
days induction of hyperlipidaemia group 2 of animals was left
untreated and served as high fat diet control. The rest of the
groups received following treatment for 15 days. Group 3 and
group 4 treated orally with the standard drugs Simvastatin (5
mg/kg/day) and Fenofibrate (20 mg/kg/day) respectively. Groups
5, 6, 7 treated orally with aqueous extract at dose level of 100
mg/kg/day, 200 mg/kg/day, 400 mg/kg/day respectively. All the
drugs were suspended in 0.1% Na CMC (vehicle). Blood
samples were withdrawn from retro orbital plexus after overnight
fasting. Serum was separated from blood by centrifugation for
ten minutes at three thousand rpm, subsequently analyzed for
total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol using
commercially available kits (Erba Diagnostics Germany). The
serum LDL was calculated by Friedwald’s formula [65]
In another study administration of C. rotundus extract restored
the age associated change in serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL
cholesterol, DL cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL triglyceride
level) to the level of young control rats. In young rats, treatment
of C. rotundus significantly increased HDL cholesterol level
[66].
Hepatoprotective activity
Ethyl acetate extract and two crude fractions, solvent ether and
ethyl acetate, of the rhizomes of C. rotundus (Cyperaceae) were
evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver
damage by carbon tetrachloride. The ethyl acetate extract at an
oral dose of 100 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect
by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase,
glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total
bilirubin. These biochemical observations were supplemented by
histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was
used as positive control [67].
Inhibitory activity on Brain Na +/K+-ATP-ase
Extract of C. rotundus showed high potent inhibitory activity on
crude enzyme Na+/K+-ATP-ase from rat brain [68]
Anti-obesity activity
C. rotundus preparations (powder in fine suspension, aqueous
and alcoholic extracts) exhibited a lipolytic action and mobilized
fat from the adipose tissues in rats, thus helping to reduce the
obesity [69].
A pilot study carried out on 30 obese people who were
administered the powdered tuber of C. rotundus for 90 days,
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showed reduction in weight along with a decrease in serum
cholesterol and triglycerides [70].
Antiarthritic activity
Singh and his co-workers were first to discover anti-
inflammatory, anti-pyretic and anti-rheumatic activity of C.
rotundus [27,29,35]. A double blind trial of crude powder of C.
rotundus, Withania somnifera and their combination (1:1) was
carried out in 200 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.
Out of the 200 patients selected for the study 196 completed the
trial of 3 months. Each group (including placebo group)
consisted of 50 patients. Each patient received 500 mg capsule
three times a day for three months. During this period biweekly
general assessment based on global criteria (duration of morning
stiffness, grip strength, articular index, consumption of escape
analgesic, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haemoglobin,
rheumatoid factor titre, x-ray findings) was made. C. rotundus
was more effective than W. somnifera, and when both drugs
were combined, the response was better than the response of
single drug. Also the patients’ preference (against escape
analgesic) was highest in the case of combined herbs [55-56,58,
71-72].
Wound healing activity
An alcoholic extract of tuber parts of C.rotundus was examined
for wound healing activity in the form of ointment in three types
of wound models on rats: the excision, the incision and dead
space wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable
difference in response in all the above said wound models as
comparable to those of a standard drug nitrofurazone ointment
(0.2 % w/w NFZ) in terms of wound contracting ability, wound
closure time and tensile strength [73].
Antioxidant activity
A combination of spices (Piper nigrum, Piper longum and
Zingiber officinale), herbs (Cyperus rotundus Linn. and
Plumbago zeylanica) and salts make up Amrita Bindu. The study
was focused to evaluate the antioxidant property of individual
ingredients in Amrita Bindu against the free radical 2,2'-azinobis-
(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6sulphonicacid)(ABTS). The analysis
revealed the antioxidant potential of the ingredients in the
following order: Piper nigrum> Piper longum> Cyperus
rotundus> Plumbago zeylanca> Zingiber officinale. These
results reveal that Amrita Bindu, a salt-spice-herbal mixture
containing C. rotundus Linn. exerts a promising antioxidant
potential against free radical induced oxidative damage [74].
Anticancer activity
Anticancer C. rotundus ethanolic extract was found to have only
weak to moderate anticancer activity (LC50=2.528-4.939 mg/ml
calculated from dose-dependent cell death) in a study which used
neuro-2a cells for screening of plants with tumoricidal effects
[75]. Another study showed that C.rotundus essential oil was
very effective against L1210 leukaemia cells line. This result
correlated with significantly increased apoptotic DNA
fragmentation [21].
Antidiabetic activity
Oral daily administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract (once a day
for seven consecutive days) significantly lowered the blood
glucose levels in rats with alloxan induced diabetes. The
scientists concluded that this antihyperglycemic activity can be
attributed to its antioxidant activity as C. rotundus showed a
strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryihydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging
action in vitro. These results are convergent with C. rotundus
potential to suppress AGE formation and protein oxidation in a
model of fructose-mediated protein glycoxidation. Scientists
concluded that, since non-enzymatic glycation has been shown to
correlate with severity of diabetes and its complications, C.
rotundus could be a candidate for targeting diabetic
complications [17, 76].
Antimicrobial activity
In-vitro antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and agar
well diffusion method was evaluated for aqueous and ethanolic
extracts. The ethanolic extract was active against all the
investigated bacterial strains, while aqueous extract was inactive.
In another study acetone and ethanol extracts showed significant
broad spectrum antibacterial activity in disc diffusion method [9,
77]. Antimicrobial activity tests were carried out on human
pathogens bacteria (gram negative and gm positive) and ungi viz.
C.albicans and A. niger. The highest percentage of inhibition was
observed against K.pneumoniae (133.33%). Amoxicillin 20µg/ml
and ethanol (as fungicide) 70% were used as positive control.
Moderate inhibition was observed in case of A. niger and S.
aureus (90and 70% respectively). No zone of inhibition was
observed in Acinto bacter and Candida.
Antibacterial Activity
The oil of C.rotundus showed a remarkable activity against
gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococus
faecalis [73,78]. Another study stated that a marked inhibitory
effect of C. rotundus was observed against Salmonella
enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis
with total oligomers flavonoids (TOFs) and ethyl acetate extracts
[79, 80].
Antimalarial Activity
Activity guided investigation of sesquiterpenes C.rotundus
rhizomes showed in-vitro antimalarial activity
against Plasmodium falciparum [81]. Some Tanzanian medicinal
plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity,
using the multidrug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium
falciparum. Of the forty-nine plants investigated, extracts of three
plants were found to have an IC50 between 5-10 mg/ml; extracts
of 18 other plants showed an IC50 between 10 and 50 mg/ml, all
others were less active. The three most active extracts were
obtained from the tubers of C. rotundus Linn. the root bark of
Hoslundia opposita Vahl. and the root bark of Lantana camara L
[6].
The underground parts of several weedy species contain essential
oils, about 0.5-1% in the case of the fresh tubers of C. rotundus,
mainly consisting of terpenoids or sesquiterpenoids (e.g.
cyperone, cyperol, cyperolone, cyperene, copadiene, epoxy-
guiaene, rotundone, rotundol, patchoulenone (cyperotundon),
kobusone, sugeonolacetate, sugetriol, oxido-eudesmenol, C.
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rotunduskone and 'BETA'-selinene).When Tanzanian medicinal
plants were screened, C. rotundus showed activity in a test for in
vitro antimalarial activity [82].
Ovicidal and larvicidal activities
The ovicidal and larvicidal efficacy of essential oils extracted
from the tubers of Cyperus giganteus and Cyperus rotundus Linn.
was studied on eggs and fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus .
The eggs and larvae were exposed to serial concentration of the
oils ranging from 5-150 ppm and kept under observation for 24h.
Both the oils showed remarkable ovicidal and larvicidal activities
indicated by EC50 values of <5 ppm and LC50 and LC90 values
of <20 ppm. The results obtained suggest that the essential oils of
these Cyperus species can serve as a potential source of natural
mosquitocidal agents [83]
Anti Candida activity,
Essential oils and alcoholic extracts from the leaves and/or roots
of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened
for anti Candida albicans activity. Essential oils from 13 plants
showed anti Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla,
Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon
winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus Linn.,
Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha
piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis.
The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations
tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds
with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole,
geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol [84].
Cytoprotective effects
The rhizome of C. rotundus was assessed for its cytoprotective
effects against ethanol induced gastric damage. Decoctions of
Rhizoma Cyperi were given orally (1.25, 2.5, 4.0 g crude
drug/kg) to rats 30 min before ethanol (40% v/v, 10mL/kg) was
administered. The decoction showed an ulcer inhibitory effect in
a dose dependent manner. Moreover, the activity was also
observed when the decoction was given subcutaneously (0.3-0.6
g/kg), suggesting that the herb possessed systemic effects on
protecting the stomach. Compared with controls, gastric motility
of the ethanol-treated rats was delayed significantly by either oral
(2.5-4.0 g/kg) or subcutaneous (0.3g/kg) administration of the
decoction. Pretreatment of rats with indomethacin (5 mg/kg)
significantly reduced the gastric protective action of C. rotundus
[85].
Toxicological studies
Rats were divided into two groups of ten animals (five males,
five females). The ethanol extract (2,500 mg/ml in 10%
dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO) was orally administered to rats at a
single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight, while the control group
received only vehicle. The animals were monitored for the
appearance of toxicity signs over 14 days. The animals that died
within this period were necropsied. All rats were weighed and
sacrificed on the 14th day following administration. Finally, the
vital organs including heart, lungs, livers, kidneys, spleen,
adrenals, sex organs and brain were grossly examined.
In the acute toxicity test at the dose of 5,000 mg/kg, all rats did
not exhibit signs of toxicity and mortality after a single oral
administration of 95% ethanol extract from the rhizomes of C.
rotundus. Results of the subacute toxicity showed that
administration of the ethanol extract from the rhizomes of C.
rotundus at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg daily over 14 days did not
cause mortality or behavioral changes [86].
Another study for the purpose of the test, in bred wistar strain
rats (250-300 g) of both sexes were selected. The animals were
housed in polypropylene cages (6rats per cage) under good
hygienic conditions natural light / dark cycle. The animals were
given free access to standard pellet diet and water. The acute
toxicity study was carried out as per OECD guideline
(OECD/OCDE 423 OECD Guideline for testing of chemicals
Acute Oral Toxicity Acute Toxic Class Method Adopted: 17th
December 2001). Thus the oral acute toxicity tests revealed that
the extract of C.rotundus rhizomes was safe up to the
administered dose 2000 mg/kg.
Another acute toxicological studies showed no mortality or
morbidity up to 2000mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Sub
chronic toxicity study revealed that, food, water consumption and
body weight of animals didn’t vary significantly. But the
hematological parameters showed an increase in WBC count and
Hemoglobin level. The kidney function and liver function didn’t
change even after long term exposure [87].
V. DISCUSSION
C. rotundus Linn., commonly known as nut grass and locally. It
is said to possess antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic
activities. The tubers are used in Ayurvedic medicine and have
been mentioned in ancient texts for various ailments. Some
studies have reported antidiarrheal activity of C.rotundus.
Antidiarrheal action in castor oil-induced diarrhoea and in
irritable bowel syndrome in animal models has been
demonstrated. Previous studies with the essential oil of C.
rotundus showed it to be more bactericidal against Gram-positive
bacteria.
The major constituents present in C.rotundus are essential oil,
triterpenes, polyphenol, alkaloids and flavonoids. However, none
of these have been attributed with antidiarrheal activity.
The decoction used showed the presence of carbohydrates,
reducing sugars, proteins, amino acids, tannins, flavonoids and
saponins. Tannins and flavonoids, in general, have been reported
to have antidiarrheal activity.
This study shows that C.rotundus has limited antimicrobial
action and have. C. rotundus with a large number of biologically
active phytochemicals has diverse variety of pharmacological
properties, as described above, has been found effective in the
treatment of chronic disorders. Its therapeutic effects are
excellent and no adverse reaction was observed.
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013 6
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VI. CONCLUSION
The above collected information suggest that C. rotundus has
limited activity against different forms of infectious diarrhoea
due to its selective activity against diarrheal pathogens.
Traditional uses of natural compounds, especially of plant origin
received much attention as they are well tested for their efficacy
and generally believed to be safe for human use. Thorough
screening of literature available on C. rotundus depicted the fact
that it is a popular remedy among the various ethnic groups,
Ayurvedic and traditional practitioners for treatment of ailments.
Researchers are exploring the therapeutic potential of this plant
as it has more therapeutic properties which are not known.
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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013 8
ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
Author:
Dr.(Mrs).Sri Ranjani Sivapalan
M’Phil, PGDHM, Ph.D.
Senior Lecturer Gr 1,
Unit of Siddha Medicine,
University of Jaffna,
Sri Lanka
saisiva7@yahoo.co.in
... The rhizomes of C. rotundus are employed in traditional folk medicines in Asian nations (Singh et al., 2016). Antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiulcer, antimalarial, carminative, astringent, relieve pain, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, diuretic, antioxidant, analgesic, and for the treatment of stomach and bowel disorders are all characteristics of the pharmacological profile of C. rotundus (Jaysweera, 1980;Mansoor et al., 2014;Sivapalan, 2018;Taheri et al., 2021). C. rotundus herb has long rhizomes, six linearshaped, dark green leaves, and little flowers (Stone, 1970). ...
... C. rotundus is a plant that is frequently used in traditional medicine to cure a variety of illnesses all over the world (Kamala et al., 2018a). Ayurvedic system of medicine recommends using the rhizomes of C. rotundus as an diaphoretic, analgesic, antiarthritic, diuretic, astringent, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, cytoprotective, antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial (Daswani et al., 2011;Kaur et al., 2020) antioxidant and apoptotic, aromatic, carminative, emmenagogue and antitussive (Sivapalan, 2018). In light of the constituents it contains, such as the numerous enzymes for minerals and carbohydrates that work as a stimulus for various biochemical events and aid in digestion, it may be a useful treatment for indigestion. ...
... By using the agar disc diffusion method, the in vitro antibacterial activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts was assessed. While the aqueous extract was ineffective, the ethanolic extract proved effective against all the tested bacterial strains (Sivapalan, 2018). Other research used the disc diffusion method to demonstrate the broad spectrum antibacterial action of acetone and ethanol extracts. ...
Article
Full-text available
History has seen several different medical uses for Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae). Growing naturally in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates. Ayurveda states that C. rotundus rhizomes have historically been used for several conditions, including the treatment of stomach and intestinal diseases, as well as antidiabetic, antimalarial, antidiarrheal, antiinflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic purposes. This review paper evaluates the various medical applications as well as the pharmacognostic, phytochemical, and physicochemical properties of the C. rotundus rhizome. Later, these traits could be utilized to quickly identify C. rotundus grass, especially in the case of powdered material, and they might even be able to distinguish the medications from the other species.
... Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, starch, glycosides, furochromones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sitosterol, fatty oil containing a neutral waxy substance, glycerol, linolenic, myristic and stearic acids (Sivapalan, 2013) [73] . ...
... Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, starch, glycosides, furochromones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sitosterol, fatty oil containing a neutral waxy substance, glycerol, linolenic, myristic and stearic acids (Sivapalan, 2013) [73] . ...
... Considered astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, antitussive, emmenagogue, litholytic, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic and antibacterial (Sivapalan, 2013) [73] . 19. [30] . ...
... O Cerrado apresenta uma grande biodiversidade taxonômica e produção de compostos bioativos, que vem despertando interesse na investigação científica de plantas medicinais (LIMA NETO et al., 2015), dentre elas destacase a planta Cyperus rotundus, conhecida popularmente como tiririca ou Junçaaromática. Cyperus rotundus é originária da Índia, sendo considerada uma das espécies vegetais com maior amplitude de distribuição no mundo, devido a sua capacidade de adaptar-se a diferentes tipos de solo, altitudes, temperaturas e pH do solo (SIVAPALAN, 2013). No Brasil, ocorre em quase toda extensão territorial e é vista como uma planta daninha, por possuir efeito alelopático e apresentar tubérculos que permanecem dormentes por longo período, contribuindo para a persistência dessa espécie no solo (SILVEIRA et al., 2010). ...
... A tiririca é uma planta pequena e herbácea que produz poucas sementes viáveis, apresentando rizomas que podem se diferenciar em tubérculos ou bulbos basais. Os metabólitos que foram detectados na Cyperus rotundus são alcaloides, antraquinonas, cumarinas, esteroides e triterpenos, flavonoides, saponinas, taninos, resinas, amido, glicosídeos, monoterpenos, sesquiterpenos, sitosterol, terpenóides, óleos essenciais etc. (AL-SNAFI, 2016;SIVAPALAN, 2013). ...
... Deste modo, a tiririca pode ser utilizada no combate a pragas em sistemas agroecológicos, indução de enraizamento e como uso medicinal (BARBOSA et al., 2007;SINGH et al., 2012;SARNO et al., 2014). Alguns efeitos farmacológicos da C. rotundus são anti-inflamatório, sedativo, anti-histamínico, antimalárica, antiparasitária, antipirético, antioxidante, efeito gastrointestinal, antidiabético, antimicrobiano, anticonvulsivante, hipolipemiante, entre outros efeitos (AL-SNAFI, 2016;SINGH et al., 2012;SIVAPALAN, 2013). ...
... Moreover, C. rotundus has a wide range of safety features. The researchers documented that administering C. rotundus extract orally in rats did not induce acute toxicity, and there was no mortality or behavior changes for subacute toxicity [52]. ...
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Background Trichinellosis, a zoonosis caused by the genus Trichinella , is a widespread foodborne disease. Albendazole, one of the benzimidazole derivatives, is used for treating human trichinellosis, but with limited efficacy in killing the encysted larvae and numerous adverse effects. Cyperus rotundus L. is a herbal plant with a wide range of medicinal uses, including antiparasitic, and is frequently used in traditional medicine to treat various illnesses. Methods LC-ESI-MS was used to identify the active phytoconstituents in the methanol extract (MeOH ext.) of the aerial parts of C. rotundus and its derivate fractions ethyl acetate (EtOAc fr.), petroleum ether (pet-ether fr.), and normal butanol (n-BuOH fr.). The in vivo therapeutic effects of C. rotundus fractions of the extracts were evaluated using the fraction that showed the most promising effect after detecting their in vitro anti- Trichinella spiralis potential. Results C. rotundus extracts are rich in different phytochemicals, and the LC-ESI-MS of the 90% methanol extract identified 26 phenolic compounds classified as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and organic acids. The in vitro studies showed that C. rotundus extracts had a lethal effect on T. spiralis adults, and the LC 50 were 156.12 µg/ml, 294.67 µg/ml, 82.09 µg/ml, and 73.16 µg/ml in 90% MeOH ext., EtOAc fr., pet-ether fr. and n-BuOH fr., respectively. The n-BuOH fr. was shown to have the most promising effects in the in vitro studies, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The in vivo effects of n-BuOH fr. alone and in combination with albendazole using a mouse model were evaluated by counting adults in the small intestine and larvae in the muscles, in addition to the histopathological changes in the small intestine and the muscles. In the treated groups, there was a significant decrease in the number of adults and larvae compared to the control group. Histopathologically, treated groups showed a remarkable improvement in the small intestine and muscle changes. Remarkably, maximal therapeutic effects were detected in the combination therapy compared to each monotherapy. Conclusion Accordingly, C. rotundus extracts may have anti- T. spiralis potential, particularly when combined with albendazole, and they may be used as synergistic to anti- T. spiralis medication therapy.
... Tinocordifolin, octacosanol, heptacosanol, nonacosan, tetrahydrofuran, jatrorrhizine, tinosporidine, cordifol, cordifelone, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine as diacetate, giloin, giloinin, tinosporic acid Chavya [17] Piperin, citosterol piperine, alkaloid, retractamidde Chitraka [18] Naphthaquinones, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, saponins, coumarins, carbohydrates, fixed oil and fats and proteins. Of all the chemical constituents, plumbagin is the principle active compound Musta [19] Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, starch, glycosides, furochromones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sitosterol, fatty oil containing a neutral waxy substance, glycerol, linolenic, myristic and stearic acids. The major compounds isolated from essential oil cyperone, pinene, beta-rotunol, beta-selinene, calcium, camphene, copaene, cyperene, cyperenone, cyperol, cyperolone cyperotundone dcopadiene, isocyperol, isokobusone, kobusone, limonene, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, sugars and minerals Karkatashringi [20] Essential oil from galls contains α-pinene, camphene, dl-limonene, 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, aromadendrene and caprylic acid. ...
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