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Antibacterial activity of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn leaves

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Extracts of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn (Oleaceae) were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method in comparison with standard antibiotic penicillin. The antibacterial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extract of leaves of the plant were studied using Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as test organism. Out of all extracts tested, petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts were effective against all the four microorganisms. Chloroform extract was only effective against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acetone extract was most effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Keywords: Jasminum grandiflorum Linn, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro antibacterial activity.
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Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 7.July 2009
Padmaa M Paarakh et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(7),1206-1207
Research Article
ISSN: 0974-6943
Antibacterial activity of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn leaves
Sandeep1, Padmaa. M. Paarakh1,* and Usha Gavani1
1 Department of Pharmacognosy, The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560 078.
Received on:26-03-2009; Accepted on:01-06-2009
ABSTRACT
Extracts of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn (Oleaceae) were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method in
comparison with standard antibiotic penicillin. The antibacterial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous
extract of leaves of the plant were studied using Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
as test organism. Out of all extracts tested, petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts were effective against all the four microorganisms.
Chloroform extract was only effective against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acetone extract was most effective against
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.
Keywords: Jasminum grandiflorum Linn, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in
vitro antibacterial activity.
*Corresponding author.
Dr. Padmaa M Paarakh,Principal and HOD;Department of
Pharmacognosy,The Oxford College of Pharmacy,J.P.Nagar, I. Phase
Bangalore 560 078
Tel.: + 91-9880681532
Telefax: +91-
E-mail:padmaparas@hotmail.com
INTRODUCTION
Plants are source of many valuable secondary metabolites
which serves as plant defense mechanisms against predator such as
micro organism, insects and herbivores which have been proved to
be a potential antimicrobial compounds [Marjorie, 1999]. There is a
tremendous increase in search of antimicrobial plant extracts due to
the fact that the resistance offered against antibiotic by the microor-
ganism, in short the effective life span of any antibiotic is limited. One
such plant which has number of traditional uses is Jasminum
grandiflorum.
Jasminum grandiflorum Linn var officinale (Oleaceae), which
is well known as Chameli,is a plant with fragrant flower, large scram-
bling sub erect twining evergreen shrub cultivated both in the plains
and on the hills especially in Kashmir, Afghanistan, Persia, France,
Italy, China, Japan, India, Morocco and Egypt [Wealth of India, 2004;
Frank et al., 1999].In the Traditional System of Medicine, the leaves
are useful in odontalgia, fixing loose teeth, ulcerative stomatitis, lep-
rosy, skin diseases, ottorrhoea, otalgia, strangury, dysmenorrhoea,
ulcers, wounds, ring worm and corns [Kulkarni et al.,2004;Sharma et
al.,2005]. The phytoconstituents isolated so far from the leaves are
Sambacein I-III [Brinda et al., 1998];200-epifraxamoside, demethyl-
200-epifraxamoside, jasminanhydride [Sadhu et al., 2007];
indole oxgyenase[Divakaret al.,1979];kaempferol-3-O-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl(1-3) α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-6) β-D-
galactopyranosyl, kaempferol-3-O- rutinoside, 7-ketologanin, oleoside-
11-methyl ester, 7-glucosyl-11- methyl ester, ligstroside, oleuropein
[Zhao et al.,2007]. The plant is reported to possess spasmolytic, anti-
inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytoprotective,
chemo preventive, wound healing and antiacne activities [Sharma et
al, 2005]. Since there is no report on antibacterial activity of leaves of
Jasminum grandiflorum against these four microorganisms, an at-
tempt was made to evaluate the antibacterial activity of petroleum
ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extract of the plant
by agar diffusion method using Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus
subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as test or-
ganism.
Materials and methods:
Plant material:
Jasminum grandiflorum Linn was collected and authenti-
cated by Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Ban-
galore. A voucher specimen (RRI/BNG/SMP/Drug Authentication/
2008-09/318) has been preserved in our Department for the future
reference.
Extraction procedure
Shade dried leaves (470 g) were coarsely powdered and sub-
jected to successive solvent extraction by continuous hot extraction
(soxhlet). The extraction was done with different solvents in their
increasing order of polarity such as petroleum ether (60-800C), chloro-
form, acetone, methanol and water. Each time the marc was air dried
and later extracted with other solvents. All the extracts were concen-
trated by distilling the solvent in a rotary flash evaporator. The yield
was found to be 2.36, 1.26, 0.56, 4.67 and 9.26% w/w with reference to
the air dried plant. The dried extracts were dissolved in dimethyl
sulphoxide (DMSO) and subjected to antibacterial activity.
Preliminary phytochemical screening
The coarse powder of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum
(25g) was subjected to successive extraction with different solvents
in their increasing order of polarity from petroleum ether (600-800C),
chloroform, acetone, methanol and water. The extracts were concen-
trated and subjected to various chemical tests to detect the presence
of different phytoconstituents [Kokate, 1990].
Microorganisms and media:
Gram Positive Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis
1206
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Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 7.July 2009
Padmaa M Paarakh et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(7),1206-1207
Gram Negative Bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Bacteria’s were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, The
Oxford College of Science, Bangalore. The bacterial stock cultures
were maintained on Muller Hinton agar and stored at 40C.
Antibacterial activity:
The extracts obtained above were screened for their
antibacterial activity in comparing with standard antibiotic Penicillin
(10 µg/ml) in-vitro by disc diffusion method [Greenwood et al.,2002]
using Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa as test organism. Each extract were indi-
vidually loaded on the 3 mm sterile disc at the concentration of 10, 25,
50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/ml and subjected to antibacterial activ-
ity. The results were recorded by measuring the zone of growth inhi-
bition surrounding the disc. The experiments were done in triplicate.
Results and Discussion:
The results of antibacterial activity are given in the Table 1
and 2. From the tables, it is clear that all the extract at various concen-
trations have shown antibacterial activity equivalent to that of stan-
dard against all the tested organism. Petroleum ether, methanol and
aqueous extracts have shown better activity than the standard against
all the four microorganisms. Chloroform extract was only effective
against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acetone
extract was most effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
Escherichia coli.
It is concluded that the plant extract possess antibacte-
rial activity against test organism used. The zone of inhibition varied
among suggesting that the varying degree of efficacy and different
phytoconstituents of herb on the target organism. Preliminary phy-
tochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of
Table 1: Antibacterial activity of different extract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum against Gram negative organisms
Concentration Zone of inhibition of extract in mm
used [µg/ml] Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa
PEE CE AE ME AQE PEE CE AE ME AQE
10 12 -12 14 14.6 16 16 14.6 14 14
25 12 -12 15 15.2 16.2 16.2 16 15.2 16
50 12 14 12 16 15.2 18 16.2 17 16 16.2
100 12 14.4 14 17 15.4 18.2 16.4 20 16.2 16.2
250 14 14.6 16 18 17 18.2 16.5 20.2 18 16.2
500 16 15.2 16 18 18 18.2 17.2 22 18.2 18
1000 16.6 16.6 16 18 18.2 18.2 21.4 22 18.6 18
Penicllin [10] 16 16
PEE-petroleum ether extract; CE-chloroform extract; AE-acetone extract; ME-methanol extract; AQE-aqueous extract.
Table 2: Antibacterial activity of different extract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum against Gram positive organisms
Concentration Zone of inhibition of extract in mm
used [µg/ml] Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus subtilis
PEE CE AE ME AQE PEE CE AE ME AQE
10 12 --12 -13 15 13 14.4 16
25 14 14 -14 -14 16.4 14 15 17
50 14.2 14 -16 -15 16 14.2 16 18
100 16 14 -18 -15 16.2 14.4 17 18
250 18 14 -20 16 16 16.6 16 18 18
500 -14.6 -22 18 17 17.2 18 18.6 18
1000 -16 -22 22 19 18 18.2 19 20
Penicillin [10] 18.6 16
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
alkaloids, tannins, saponin, flavonoids, steroids and glycosides. The
antibacterial activity of the plants may be be due to the presence of
various active principles in the leaves. Further studies are needed to
isolate and characterize the bioactive principles to develop new anti-
bacterial drugs.
Acknowledgement
The authors wish to thank Chairman and Executive Director, Children’s
Education Society for their facilities and support.
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PEE-petroleum ether extract; CE-chloroform extract; AE-acetone extract; ME-methanol extract; AQE-aqueous extract.
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The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products, Publication & Information Directorate, CSIR
  • Anonymous
Anonymous. The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products, Publication & Information Directorate, CSIR,New Delhi, 2004,284-88.
Glycosides from leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum var officinale
  • G Q Zhao
  • J J Xia
  • J X Dong
Zhao GQ, Xia JJ, Dong JX, Glycosides from leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum var officinale, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 42, 2007, 1066-9.
A Phyto cosmetic desk reference: Botanicals
  • S D Frank
  • Amelio Sr
Frank SD, Amelio Sr, A Phyto cosmetic desk reference: Botanicals, CRC Press Boca Raton London, Newyork, Washington DC, 1999, 138.
The Ayurvedic Plants: Indian Medical Science Series No. 132
  • P H Kulkarni
  • S Ansari
Kulkarni PH, Ansari S. The Ayurvedic Plants: Indian Medical Science Series No. 132. Sri Satguru Publication, New Delhi, 2004,191.