Recovery of Intrinsic Fluorescence From Single-Point Interstitial Measurements for Quantification of Doxorubicin Concentration
Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, 14642. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
(Impact Factor: 2.62).
08/2013; 45(8). DOI: 10.1002/lsm.22166
We developed a method for the recovery of intrinsic fluorescence from single-point measurements in highly scattering and absorbing samples without a priori knowledge of the sample optical properties. The goal of the study was to demonstrate accurate recovery of fluorophore concentration in samples with widely varying background optical properties, while simultaneously recovering the optical properties.
Tissue-simulating phantoms containing doxorubicin, MnTPPS, and Intralipid-20% were created, and fluorescence measurements were performed using a single isotropic probe. The resulting spectra were analyzed using a forward-adjoint fluorescence model in order to recover the fluorophore concentration and background optical properties.
We demonstrated recovery of doxorubicin concentration with a mean error of 11.8%. The concentration of the background absorber was recovered with an average error of 23.2% and the scattering spectrum was recovered with a mean error of 19.8%.
This method will allow for the determination of local concentrations of fluorescent drugs, such as doxorubicin, from minimally invasive fluorescence measurements. This is particularly interesting in the context of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment of liver cancer. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Available from: Ute Alice Gamm
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ABSTRACT: The detailed mechanisms associated with the influence of scattering and absorption properties on the fluorescence intensity sampled by a single optical fiber have recently been elucidated based on Monte
Carlo simulated data. Here we develop an experimental single fiber fluorescence (SFF) spectroscopy setup and validate the Monte Carlo data and semi-empirical model equation that describes the SFF signal as a
function of scattering. We present a calibration procedure that corrects the SFF signal for all system-related, wavelength dependent transmission efficiencies to yield an absolute value of intrinsic fluorescence. The validity of the Monte Carlo data and semi-empirical model is demonstrated using a set of fluorescent phantoms with varying concentrations of Intralipid to vary the scattering properties, yielding a wide range of reduced scattering coefficients (μ′s= 0-7mm−1). We also introduce a small modification to the model to account for the case of μ′s= 0 mm−1 and show its relation to the experimental, simulated and theoretically calculated value of SFF intensity in the absence of scattering. Finally, we show that our method is also accurate in the presence of absorbers by performing measurements on phantoms containing red blood cells and correcting for their absorption properties.
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ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DOX) belongs to the group of anthracycline antibiotics with very effective anticancer properties. On the other hand, the cardiotoxic effects limit its application over the maximum cumulative dose. To overcome this obstacle, encapsulation of this drug into the protective nanotransporter such as apoferritin is beneficial. In this study, fluorescent behavior of DOX in various solvents was determined by fluorescence spectrometry, demonstrating the fluorescence quenching effect of water, which is often used as a solvent. It was found that by increasing the amount of the organic phase in the DOX solvent the dynamic quenching is significantly suppressed. Ethanol, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide were tested and the best linearity of the calibration curve was obtained when above 50 % of the solvent was present in the binary mixture with water. Moreover, pH influence on the DOX fluorescence was also observed within the range of 4-10. Two times higher fluorescence intensity was observed at pH 4 compared to pH 10. Further, the DOX behavior in capillary electrophoresis (CE) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobilities (CE) in various pH of the background electrolyte were determined within the range from 16.3 to -13.3 x 10 (-9) m(-2) V-1 s(-1). Finally, CE was also used to monitor the encapsulation of DOX into the cavity of apoferritin as well as the pH-triggered release.
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ABSTRACT: Interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) describes the use of implanted optical fibers for delivery of treatment light to activate photosensitizer in regions that can be located deep within the body. Since sensitive healthy structures are often located nearby, this requires careful treatment planning that is dependent on tissue optical properties. Determination of these values usually involves the insertion of additional fibers into the volume, or the use of flat-cleaved optical fibers as both treatment sources and detectors. The insertion of additional fibers is undesirable, and cylindrical diffusers have been shown to offer superior treatment characteristics compared to flat-cleaved fibers. Using cylindrical diffusers as detectors for spectroscopic measurement is therefore attractive. We describe the determination of the detection profile for a particular cylindrical diffuser design and derive the scatterer concentration gradient within the diffuser core. This detection profile is compared to previously characterized diffusers, and is shown to be dependent on the diffuser design. For diffusers with a constant scatterer concentration and distal mirror, the detection profile is localized to the proximal end of the diffusing region. For diffusers with variable scattering concentration along their length and no distal mirror, the detection profile is shown to be more uniform along the diffusing region. We also present preliminary results showing the recovery of optical properties using arrays of cylindrical diffusing fibers as sources and detectors, with a mean error of 4.4% in the determination of μeff. The accuracy of these results is comparable to those obtained with other methods of optical property recovery.
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