Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and clonal deletion of both 17p13.1 and 11q22.3 have a very poor prognosis
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Cytogenetics Laboratory, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA. British Journal of Haematology
(Impact Factor: 4.71).
08/2013; 163(3). DOI: 10.1111/bjh.12534
Detection of a 17p13.1 deletion (loss of TP53) or 11q22.3 deletion (loss of ATM), by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients is associated with a poorer prognosis. Because TP53 and ATM are integral to the TP53 pathway, we hypothesized that 17p13.1- (17p-) and 11q22.3- (11q-) occurring in the same cell (clonal 17p-/11q-) would confer a worse prognosis than either 17p- or 11q-. We studied 2184 CLL patients with FISH (1995-2012) for the first occurrence of 17p-, 11q-, or clonal 17p-/11q-. Twenty (1%) patients had clonal 17p-/11q-, 158 (7%) had 17p- (including 4 with 17p- and 11q- in separate clones), 247 (11%) had 11q-, and 1759 (81%) had neither 17p- nor 11q-. Eleven of 15 (73%) tested patients with clonal 17p-/11q- had dysfunctional TP53 mutations. Overall survival for clonal 17p-/11q- was significantly shorter (1·9 years) than 17p- (3·1 years, P = 0·04), 11q- (4·8 years, P ≤ 0·0001), or neither 17p- nor 11q- (9·3 years, P ≤ 0·0001). Clonal 17p-/11q- thus conferred significantly worse prognosis, suggesting that loss of at least one copy of both TP53 and ATM causes more aggressive disease. Use of an ATM/TP53 combination FISH probe set could identify these very-high risk patients.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients with purine analogue refractory disease or TP53 dysfunction still have limited treatment options and poor survival. Alemtuzumab containing chemoimmunotherapy regimens can be effective but frequently cause serious infections. We report a phase II trial testing the efficacy and tolerability of a short duration regimen combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low dose high frequency rituximab (PAR) designed to decrease the risk of treatment associated infections and limit loss of CD20 expression by CLL cells. The study enrolled 39 patients with progressive CLL that was either relapsed/refractory (n=36) or previously untreated with 17p13 deletion (17p13-)(n=3). Thirteen (33%) patients had both 17p13- and TP53 mutations predicted to be dysfunctional and eight patients had purine analogue refractory CLL without TP53 dysfunction. Twenty-six (67%) patients completed therapy with only five (13%) patients having treatment limiting toxicity, and no treatment related deaths. Twenty-two (56%) patients responded to treatment with 11 (28%) complete responses (four with incomplete bone marrow recovery). Median progression free survival was 7.2 months, time to next treatment 9.1 months, and overall survival 34.1 months. The majority of deaths (82%) were caused by progressive disease including transformed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n=6). Correlative studies showed that low dose rituximab activates complement and NK cells without a profound and sustained decrease in expression of CD20 by circulating CLL cells. We conclude that PAR is a tolerable and effective therapy for CLL and that low dose rituximab therapy can activate innate immune cytotoxic mechanisms without substantially decreasing CD20 expression.
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