Book

The Presentation of Self In Everyday Life

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... Zudem wurden während der ethnografischen Forschung wiederkehrende Selbstinszenierungen vonseiten der Alltagsbegleiter*innen bei der Durchführung ihrer Tätigkeiten beobachtet und dabei diese Handlungen und soziales Rollenverhalten in der Interaktion zwischen Heimbewohner*innen und Alltagsbegleiter*innen nach den Theorien von Erving Goffman (Goffman 1959) analysiert. Goffman untersuchte ethnografisch mithilfe der teilnehmenden Beobachtung menschliches Verhalten, erkannte darin, dass Menschen ihr Verhalten und ihre Handlungen in vielen kleinteiligen ,Face-to-Face'-Interaktionen inszenieren, bezeichnete diese als "kulturelle Aufführung" und benutzte für seine Theorie des sozialen Handelns die Metapher des Theaters. ...
... Hierin beschrieb Goffman, dass das Individuum Darsteller*in und Erzeuger*in von Eindrücken ist, das damit beschäftigt ist, ein Schauspiel zu inszenieren (Goffman 1959). Die Fähigkeiten und Eigenschaften von Darsteller*innen und der jeweiligen Rolle haben ihre Bedeutung für das alltägliche Schauspiel in der Welt und werden vom Individuum beim Erlernen der Rolle angewendet und weiter ausgebaut (Abels 2010). ...
... Goffman meinte, dass die Rolle, die man spielt, und das Selbst des Individuums oft in der Gesellschaft gleichgesetzt werden und somit ein Bild von ihm entsteht, welches ihm als ein Selbst zugeschrieben wird. Jedoch entspricht dieses Selbst nicht seinem Besitzer, sondern ist ein Gesamtbild aus der Gesamtszene seiner Handlungen (Goffman 1959). Bezogen auf die ethnografische Studie stellte sich außerdem heraus, dass die Alltagsbegleiter*innen mit Behinderung in gewisser Weise eine Rolle spielen und darin ihre Fähigkeiten erweitern und dabei in bestimmte Machtverhältnisse zwischen sich, den Pflegefachkräften und Pflegeheimbewohner*innen verwickelt sind, die sie auch für sich produktiv nutzen können. ...
... Zudem wurden während der ethnografischen Forschung wiederkehrende Selbstinszenierungen vonseiten der Alltagsbegleiter*innen bei der Durchführung ihrer Tätigkeiten beobachtet und dabei diese Handlungen und soziales Rollenverhalten in der Interaktion zwischen Heimbewohner*innen und Alltagsbegleiter*innen nach den Theorien von Erving Goffman (Goffman 1959) analysiert. Goffman untersuchte ethnografisch mithilfe der teilnehmenden Beobachtung menschliches Verhalten, erkannte darin, dass Menschen ihr Verhalten und ihre Handlungen in vielen kleinteiligen ,Face-to-Face'-Interaktionen inszenieren, bezeichnete diese als "kulturelle Aufführung" und benutzte für seine Theorie des sozialen Handelns die Metapher des Theaters. ...
... Hierin beschrieb Goffman, dass das Individuum Darsteller*in und Erzeuger*in von Eindrücken ist, das damit beschäftigt ist, ein Schauspiel zu inszenieren (Goffman 1959). Die Fähigkeiten und Eigenschaften von Darsteller*innen und der jeweiligen Rolle haben ihre Bedeutung für das alltägliche Schauspiel in der Welt und werden vom Individuum beim Erlernen der Rolle angewendet und weiter ausgebaut (Abels 2010). ...
... Goffman meinte, dass die Rolle, die man spielt, und das Selbst des Individuums oft in der Gesellschaft gleichgesetzt werden und somit ein Bild von ihm entsteht, welches ihm als ein Selbst zugeschrieben wird. Jedoch entspricht dieses Selbst nicht seinem Besitzer, sondern ist ein Gesamtbild aus der Gesamtszene seiner Handlungen (Goffman 1959). Bezogen auf die ethnografische Studie stellte sich außerdem heraus, dass die Alltagsbegleiter*innen mit Behinderung in gewisser Weise eine Rolle spielen und darin ihre Fähigkeiten erweitern und dabei in bestimmte Machtverhältnisse zwischen sich, den Pflegefachkräften und Pflegeheimbewohner*innen verwickelt sind, die sie auch für sich produktiv nutzen können. ...
... In other words, "While part of action, language is also part of history," and during talk, people "draw on interactivity to create and construe wordings" (Cowley and Vallée-Tourangeau 2013, 5). Since I am primarily interested in interaction between language and emotions in terms of language practice in relation to broader norms and beliefs (or ideologies), the approach combines ethnographic methods, such as ethnography of speaking (Hymes 1962(Hymes , 1974Fitch and Philipsen 1995), micro-analysis of social interaction captured through observations (Goffman 1959(Goffman , 1963(Goffman , 1983 and audio recordings, with interactional sociolinguists (Gumperz and Hymes 1972;Gumperz 1982;Rampton 2017). ...
... In other words, "While part of action, language is also part of history," and during talk, people "draw on interactivity to create and construe wordings" (Cowley and Vallée-Tourangeau 2013, 5). Since I am primarily interested in interaction between language and emotions in terms of language practice in relation to broader norms and beliefs (or ideologies), the approach combines ethnographic methods, such as ethnography of speaking (Hymes 1962(Hymes , 1974Fitch and Philipsen 1995), micro-analysis of social interaction captured through observations (Goffman 1959(Goffman , 1963(Goffman , 1983 and audio recordings, with interactional sociolinguists (Gumperz and Hymes 1972;Gumperz 1982;Rampton 2017). ...
... In 1932 the ascription of people to a particular ethnicity in new Soviet passports (the fifth column) came to be determined by language (if your parents speak "Eskimo," then you are "an Eskimo") (Baiburin 2019). During the Soviet time, languages became saturated with affect, and Indigenous languages became saturated with stigma (Eidheim1969; Goffman [1963Goffman [ ] 1990, which played a critical role in the production of political legitimacy (and illegitimacy). Soviet life was "full of promise" (Yurchak 2006). ...
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In studies of language choice and minority language shift and maintenance, attention is frequently given to factors other than emotions: social context of contact, language politics, linguistic competence and attitudes, educational policies, and political agendas in a society. Yet human language is ideologically saturated, aesthetically experienced empirical phenomena, characterized by complex dynamics and linked to group and personal identities, morality, aesthetics, and epistemology. While negative moral emotions (e.g., shame) may lead people to abandon their first language, heritage languages may still be perceived as "more emotional," and their loss and maintenance is a deeply emotional matter. Drawing on Pavlenko, Cavanaugh, and Ahmed, I discuss the role of emotion-related factors-affective repertoires and perceived language emotionality-in language choice of native Chukotkan parents, as a way of understanding human interactivity and the potential of the local environment for children's acquisition of their heritage languages. Perceived language emotionality, I argue, is an important yet often overlooked aspect of heritage language sustainability and learning. The focus of this article is not on how bodies are transformed into objects of emotions (e.g., "the shamed one"), but on interplay between emotions and multilingual phenomena: how language and wordings are used to move people, to produce affects, attachments, equalities, and authenticities. RÉSUMÉ La langue de leurs coeurs : Lien entre les émotions et le choix de la langue dans les interactions entre les parents et leurs enfants dans un village yupik Dans les recherches liées au choix de la langue et aux changements et à la préservation des langues minoritaires, le facteur de l'émotion est souvent écarté au profit de l'étude du contexte social des relations interpersonnelles, des politiques
... Zudem wurden während der ethnografischen Forschung wiederkehrende Selbstinszenierungen vonseiten der Alltagsbegleiter*innen bei der Durchführung ihrer Tätigkeiten beobachtet und dabei diese Handlungen und soziales Rollenverhalten in der Interaktion zwischen Heimbewohner*innen und Alltagsbegleiter*innen nach den Theorien von Erving Goffman (Goffman 1959) analysiert. Goffman untersuchte ethnografisch mithilfe der teilnehmenden Beobachtung menschliches Verhalten, erkannte darin, dass Menschen ihr Verhalten und ihre Handlungen in vielen kleinteiligen ,Face-to-Face'-Interaktionen inszenieren, bezeichnete diese als "kulturelle Aufführung" und benutzte für seine Theorie des sozialen Handelns die Metapher des Theaters. ...
... Hierin beschrieb Goffman, dass das Individuum Darsteller*in und Erzeuger*in von Eindrücken ist, das damit beschäftigt ist, ein Schauspiel zu inszenieren (Goffman 1959). Die Fähigkeiten und Eigenschaften von Darsteller*innen und der jeweiligen Rolle haben ihre Bedeutung für das alltägliche Schauspiel in der Welt und werden vom Individuum beim Erlernen der Rolle angewendet und weiter ausgebaut (Abels 2010). ...
... Goffman meinte, dass die Rolle, die man spielt, und das Selbst des Individuums oft in der Gesellschaft gleichgesetzt werden und somit ein Bild von ihm entsteht, welches ihm als ein Selbst zugeschrieben wird. Jedoch entspricht dieses Selbst nicht seinem Besitzer, sondern ist ein Gesamtbild aus der Gesamtszene seiner Handlungen (Goffman 1959). Bezogen auf die ethnografische Studie stellte sich außerdem heraus, dass die Alltagsbegleiter*innen mit Behinderung in gewisser Weise eine Rolle spielen und darin ihre Fähigkeiten erweitern und dabei in bestimmte Machtverhältnisse zwischen sich, den Pflegefachkräften und Pflegeheimbewohner*innen verwickelt sind, die sie auch für sich produktiv nutzen können. ...
... Moreover, borrowing the term "instrumental pain" (Lev 2020), the audience in front of which the gym goers perform their DOMS serves as a 'front region of behavior' (Goffman 1959) for gaining social recognition by instrumentalizing their pain to strengthen and solidify their gym goer identity. In times of pain and bodily distress, gym goers are alert regarding the impression they want to convey and their efforts to influence other people's perceptions. ...
... In times of pain and bodily distress, gym goers are alert regarding the impression they want to convey and their efforts to influence other people's perceptions. In this context, the social encounters provide gym goers with a beneficial stage (Goffman 1959) where they are able to perform their DOMS and manage their impression in front of a large audience. After all, for people in pain, "to enact a certain 'role' before several 'audiences' and to decide what of oneself to place 'onstage' and what to keep hidden necessarily become prime concerns (Brodwin 1992: 92). ...
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Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a widely known phenomenon among gym goers. For many of them, experiencing DOMS the day after working out in the gym is often perceived as rewarding and something of which to brag and be proud. Although existing work within the biomedical field has undoubtedly shed light on coping with and managing DOMS, there remains little in-depth qualitative research on the gym goer's lived experience regarding this phenomenon. Following Becker's conceptual framework of using marihuana for pleasure, the paper will examine the way gym goers learn to attain pleasure and gratification in times of DOMS through a process of reframing and socialization. Ethnographic research was conducted for two years in two gyms, using a combination of participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings illustrate three coherent stages a novice gym goer experiences whilst becoming an experienced gym goer and enjoying DOMS: (1) learning the proper "working-out" technique required to experience positive effects; (2) recognizing the effects of DOMS and their connection with the work-out; and (3) enjoying the effects of DOMS caused by working out. Moreover, once gym goers manage to change the definition of negative sensations and interpret them as enjoyable, DOMS often becomes an indispensable experience which has to be religiously pursued. In this context, the audience in front of which the gym goers perform their DOMS serves as a "front region of behavior" for gaining social recognition by instrumentalizing their pain to strengthen and solidify their gym goer identity.
... Cited later in this research, they become springboards for a performative way of practicing architecture that not only expands the way architecture can be understood, but also extends Butler's work into the materiality it has been criticized for lacking. Butler herself suggests the viability of such embodied performances to materialize her understanding of subjectivity very early in her writing by citing foundational thinkers of performance studies such as sociologist Erving Goffman (1959), performance scholar Richard Schechner (1985), anthropologist Victor Turner (1974), and performance scholar Bruce Wilshire (1981) (Butler 1988, 526-28). ...
Thesis
Performance Architecture is a term that emerged from my creative practice to suggest that the architectural activities endeavored within it are influenced by concepts and histories from performance studies. This writing takes aspects of my artistic activities and recontextualizes them as academic research to develop concepts shareable across its fields of inquiry that enable new ways of evaluating it. Particular attention will be given to my performative renovations, in which domestic spaces are renovated by changing its actions rather than materials. In so doing, this thesis discovers the potential of my interdisciplinary practice to be the possibility of encountering unfamiliar subjective affects that emerge as subjects and spaces interact. Following arts-based, practice-led and practice-based research precedents, this thesis articulates a methodology for practicing architecture through performance. Judith Butler’s writing, suggesting that subjectivity is formed performatively by iteratively enacting social norms, is the philosophical point of departure of this new methodology. However, for the formation of subjectivity to become intelligible as an outcome of architectural practice this thesis qualifies, critiques, and problematizes Butler’s performative concepts by putting them in tension with the thinking of other theorists and selected projects from my artistic practice. Analyzing these works through both theory and critical self-reflection observes performative subject formation also occurs somatically. Acknowledgement of this addition is noted when term performance architecture is nuanced by the term performative space making as the thesis develops. Tracing the arc of this shift reveals how migrating attitudes and concepts acquired during my education and professional experience in architecture were detrimental to practicing architecture through performance. Using language developed by this thesis, hierarchical ways of working and assumptions about both the architect’s abilities and the client-participants’ needs are critiqued in comparison to collaborative approaches of theater. Refining performance architecture’s concepts also portray the profession’s object oriented metrics of success as a mainstay of architecture that has not been serving users of space as well as it might. Indeed, these ways of working are found to stymie the emergence of certain kinds of subjectivity that performance architecture as a methodology seeks to liberate and nurture. Further theorization of concepts from performance practices, such as the everyday, agency, renovation, and role-play, allows critical engagement with six performative renovations newly developed for this research. Scrutiny of these performative renovations discovers qualities of practicing architecture performatively and expands the discourse connecting performance and architecture. A key insight invigorating thoughts on future practice is that performance architecture operates emergently along non-linear routes around what this research calls unperformable acts. Additionally, significant revelations show that outcomes of this new practice are most compelling when power relations between architects and clients are equalized and that new subjectivities are encountered through a flow of attention between somatic and symbolic experiences.
... Identity itself, is a complex phenomenon, often displayed in-line with societal norms and desires in what some have called a 'performative' act whereby our social roles-especially in the Western world are so clearly defined that people rarely stray from the norm for fear of their transgression being negatively evaluated (Butler 1988;Goffman 1959;Silverio 2019). Healthcare professional identity is further complicated by being synonymous with responsibility within the community and also for the fact that they are authoritatively powerful in the relationship they maintain with their patients. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we draw upon the small literature-base exploring the (ab)use of illicit and prescription drugs, and alcohol amongst healthcare professionals. We present a critical review, that is, a synthesis of relevant literature, to develop a critical hypothesis about the resultant identity crisis of a population of interest (HCPs) experiencing a specific phenomenon (drug and/or alcohol (ab)use). We therefore deliberate the experiences of HCPs who both provide care for, and are themselves, (ab)users, framing this debate within the context of cognitive dissonance and double-voiced identities. Finally, we discuss the fragility of the HCP identity: exploring shame, stigmatisation, and the private identity crises experienced both before, and when they are eventually exposed as having a drug and/or alcohol (ab)use problem.
... I walked across Telegraph Avenue to Cody's Books and bought The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Goffman, 1959). The paperback copy that I still own has a price of 95 cents printed on its back cover. ...
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Erving Goffman never wrote about tourism and it may, therefore, seem strange to reflect, on the occasion of the centenary of his birth, on his contribution to the study of a phenomenon that he never undertook to study directly. However, many lessons can be drawn from Goffman’s sociology towards an understanding of certain central issues in tourism. By the way he captured and analyzed society in the 1950s and 1960s, Goffman offers to all those who undertake to study tourism a fundamental basis for understanding its genesis. Much of what he taught us remains unexploited, and the links that can be established between Goffman and tourism are thereforemostly indirect. However, making Goffman’s sociology a source of inspiration for the study of tourism is not far-fetched. A pioneer of the anthropology of tourism was heavily indebted to Goffman. Indeed, the tour de force that Dean MacCannell achieved in 1976 with the publication of The Tourist was largely inspired by Goffman and his unique approach to sociology. By returning with its author to the Goffmanian part of The Tourist we pay homage to what tourist studies owe to the author of The Presentation of Self. As we continue the study of tourism, what, from Goffman’s sociology, opens up a new of set of problems? Not just those that, have already influenced our analyses through Dean MacCannell, but also some that remain, a source for new interrogations 40 years after Erving Goffman’s death.
... It has a similar meaning to the Western notion of being "closeted," and suggests an extremely exhausting process. From Goffman's (1956) self-presentation perspective, non-heterosexual Vietnamese had to always carry out heteronormative gender performances in the "front stage" of their social interactions with others, and could only reveal themselves in the "backstage" where very few people can see. Migration, therefore, could be contemplated as a strategy for some Vietnamese queers to express their sexualities more freely without facing homophobic or heterosexist sentiments. ...
Chapter
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The movements of people across borders involve a wide range of social practices, in which notion of negotiation is constantly embedded. Migrants negotiate not only migration motivations, changes in life styles, economic and educational practices, but also more intimate spheres in social life such as emotional needs, gender and sexual behaviors and identities. This chapter investigates the tanglement of sexualities and mobilities embedded in queer individuals’ transnational circular migration journeys. Using the empirical data from life-history interviews with returned queer Vietnamese migrants who used to live in Japan, it sheds light on the ways in which these migrants navigate their sexualities and mobility trajectories within both host and home societies’ social milieu. By taking returned migrants’ narratives into account, the chapter not only questions the taken-for-granted uni-directionality of queer migration in existing literature, but also suggests an intersectional and temporal approach to the understandings of migration experiences.
... It has a similar meaning to the Western notion of being "closeted," and suggests an extremely exhausting process. From Goffman's (1956) selfpresentation perspective, non-heterosexual Vietnamese had to always carry out heteronormative gender performances in the "front stage" of their social interactions with others, and could only reveal themselves in the "backstage" where very few people can see. Migration, therefore, could be contemplated as a strategy for some Vietnamese queers to express their sexualities more freely without facing homophobic or heterosexist sentiments. ...
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The emotional, social, and economic challenges faced by migrants and their families are interconnected through complex decisions related to mobility. Tangled Mobilities examines the different crisscrossing and intersecting mobilities in the lives of Asian migrants, their family members across Asia and Europe, and the social spaces connecting these regions. In exploring how the migratory process unfolds in different stages of migrants’ lives, the chapters in this collected volume broaden perspectives on mobility, offering insights into the way places, affects, and personhood are shaped by and connected to it. OPEN ACCESS with support from Knowledge Unlatched: https://library.oapen.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.12657/57164/external_content.epub?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
... Dies wird vor allem an der Renaissance von klassischen Identitätstheorien deutlich, die gegenwärtig jegliche Formen des Medienhandelns Jugendlicher zu erklären vermögen. Sicherlich ist es naheliegend, Phänomene wie die große Nachfrage und Popularität der so genannten sozialen Medien (der englische Terminus social media ist ge-läufiger) mit symbol-interaktionistischen Paradigmen wie etwa dem von Goffman (1959) deuten zu wollen, doch im Grunde genommen lässt sich damit alles alltägliche Handeln in (spät-) modernen bzw. spätkapitalistischen Gesellschaften erklären (vgl. ...
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Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den Potenzialen und Grenzen der Mediensozialisationsforschung, die sich vorrangig mit der Mediennutzung und Medienaneignung von Jugendlichen im Kontext von Entwicklung beschäftigt. Es werden zunächst Forschungsansätze vorgestellt, die am ehesten die Bedeutung der Medien im Kontext der Sozialisation von jungen Menschen erfassen können. Anhand aktueller Beispiele aus der Jugendmedienforschung wird ein Paradigmenwechsel nachgezeichnet, der die begrenzten Reichweiten vorhandener Theorie- und Forschungsansätze im Themenfeld der Sozialisation mit und durch Medien veranschaulicht. Als naheliegende Konsequenz dieser Erkenntnisse wird für eine phänomenologische Betrachtung von Medienaneignungsprozessen plädiert.
... But for all the innovations dedicated to merging our online identities with our offline self, there are numerous ways people subvert the normalizing surveillance of technological subjectification. Some adolescents, for example, create alternate social media accounts (e.g., "Finstagrams") to appease their parents while sharing their more private "back stage" self with peers on other profiles (Goffman 1959;O'Brien 2020). Straight, white, conservative men frequent text-centered forums (e.g., Reddit) and purposefully anonymized sites (e.g., 4Chan) to discuss contrarian views on politically charged social topics (Ging 2019) and engage in digital mischief (Phillips 2015). ...
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Scholarly debates on sex dolls tend to view them in one of two ways. Either the purchase and use of sex dolls reflects and exacerbates misogyny, or that dolls are themselves a technological marvel meeting an array of sexual and emotional needs in sex negative cultures. I complicate these views by analyzing how and why heterosexual men personify their hyperreal sex toys in conventionally feminine, albeit hypersexualized, ways. Drawing on digital ethnographic observations and interviews with 41 love and sex doll owners who use digital media to personify their dolls, I suggest that the creation of hyper-gendered doll personas tends to reproduce culturally specific gender norms due to social dynamics within the community. Specifically, I show how doll community norms privilege heterosexual masculinity and thus limit the doll personas that are imagined and created. By focusing on the social practices of this community rather than how sex dolls are designed, this research suggests a way for scholars to be critical of taboos against technologically assisted sexual pleasure while acknowledging the tendency of futuristic sex practices to reproduce social inequalities. Implications for how future sexual technologies could someday challenge status-quo inequalities are discussed.
... Over the course of a study, new categories may appear in light of new examples, strengthening connections between previously disparate categories or figures, and theory turns out to be a constructive process. This is the methodological context out of which Foucault's figure of Man emerges, and I think it is also a productive way of thinking about persona in Goffman's work (Foucault 1966(Foucault /1970Goffman 1959). Man is not a concept in Foucault's work, but a maker of concepts. ...
Chapter
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The works of Erving Goffman and Michel Foucault are theoretically and practically complementary in many ways. First, I review areas of overlap between Goffman and Foucault's perspectives and methods. Second, I describe several higher order concepts-order, episteme, regime, framing, agonism, and containment-which describe the relations between individuals and institutions for both thinkers. Third, I develop these relations through Foucault's disciplinary power-highlighting concepts of territory, visibility, documentation, mortification, and looping-which describe the primary techniques of analyzing space and controlling the distribution and interaction of bodies within it. Fourth, I argue that their analyses are also complementary under what Foucault calls 'security power'. I establish this by analyzing Foucault's 1978 lectures, Security, Territory, Population, alongside Goffman's Strategic Interactions (1969). From Foucault, I focus on the concepts of risk, population, and danger, which describe how governments aim to keep all individual choices within an acceptable range. I propose a new figure of selfhood arising through population management, the 'statistical self', which describes the risks inherent in one's demographic identity. From Goffman, I draw concepts of strategic interaction and gameworthiness, and I propose the concept of the 'security self', the existential object of an individual's experience within a security milieu.
... 120 Manning 1992 Goffman 1955, 213. 122 Goffman 1967Goffman 1959, 59-60. 123 Goffman 1961 actor having at least some underlying power-policy capabilities. ...
Thesis
Scholars of international politics have long linked states’ quest for prestige with assertions of national power: diplomatic saber-rattling, scrambles for colonies, arms races, and outright war. This thesis charts a sharply divergent, previously neglected, path to international prestige—foreign policy restraint. The argument in brief is that states seek prestige by conspicuously holding back from the use of power and thereby spurning opportunities for national gain. Departing from the prevailing conception of restraint as merely a kind of inaction, this thesis reframes restraint as a performance. Performances of restraint are constituted intersubjectively when a state is perceived to refrain from pursuing its interests to the extent that its power allows. Forswearing the acquisition of nuclear weapons, liquidating profitable military interventions, renouncing territorial claims, de-escalating diplomatic crises, curbing carbon emissions—each of these policies of self-limitation, and many more besides, may constitute performative restraint if recognized as volitional (emanating from the actor’s will) and supererogatory (exceeding the actor’s normative obligations). To secure others’ recognition of their performances, states appeal to existing normative standards of restraint in international society. By conspicuously exceeding those standards, states express both (1) their material capacity—the abundance of underlying resources that equips them to voluntarily forgo self- interested behavior; and (2) their moral character—the exemplary virtues that underlie their prosocial choices. When states believe that they can credibly perform restraint, triggering these signaling mechanisms, they may “hold back” from acquisitive or assertive policies in order to “rise above” others in terms of prestige. Notably, “holding back to rise above” appeals to states as an expressive strategy exactly because it is materially costly and socially non-obligatory. This thesis draws upon insights into the performative nature of restraint from cognate disciplines and everyday life, integrating them into an overarching account with reference to Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical model of social action. It illustrates how “holding back to rise above” applies in four diverse historical cases: (1) the United States’ Good Neighbor Policy of non-intervention in Latin America (1933-40); (2) Germany’s post-reunification foreign policy, culminating with its non-participation in the US “Coalition of the Willing” for the Iraq War (1991-2005); (3) India’s decades of spurning of nuclear weapons and championing non-proliferation (1964-98); and (4) China’s restraint of its carbon emissions in the context of global climate change mitigation (1992-2017). In short, the thesis contributes to a wide range of debates in IR over the sources of international prestige and the reasons for states’ costly compliance with social standards.
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Autscape is an autistic-led conference, organised annually in varying locations around England. Governed by a strict set of rules and regulations, Autscape is a social and spatial setup explicitly devised to accommodate the tendencies, sensitivities, and preferences of people on the autism spectrum. It is a design, in other words—as organisers and participants alike often profess—for an altogether autistic space. The uniqueness of the event, and consequently its value to anthropological theory, lies in the shared imagination of the setting by those who inhabit it as one in which neurotypical masks, otherwise worn daily in keeping with hegemonic society's expectation of conformity, can finally be removed. I introduce the concept of un-festival as a means of depicting this event, similar to festival in its goals of defiance and inversion, but different from—and in important ways, opposite to—festival in its style and architecture, in the dispositions it encourages and mobilises, and in its potential implications. The un-festival offers a powerful comment on this moment in history, whereby masks are no longer seen as an item that affords freedom, but as one that stifles it. While Autscape participants remain doubtful as to the actual effect of this event on neurotypical society, they do nevertheless express a desire that this project will have some longstanding effects. That once a space has been designed for autistic people that considers their specific needs and tendencies, autism may then finally cease to be interpreted through a neuro-normative prism and freed to be understood in autistic people’s own terms.
Chapter
Using Goffman's dramaturgical approach to frame their reflections upon the role stress the authors as academics, specifically Black female academics, have faced; they use auto-ethnographic methods to reflexively examine intersections of stereotypes and tropes of Black women with their efforts at navigating role stress, roadblocks, and impression management during their professorial and administrative career trajectories. After integrating their experiences within a conceptual overview of role stress and Goffman's model, the authors share their strategies to decrease the impact of role stress: finding peers with similar role sets, utilizing informal mentors, practicing peer mentoring, staying “no,” multitasking, prioritizing roles, and having fun. Finally, they share institutional practices that help them manage role stress: allowing them flexibility with teaching schedules, having a child-friendly culture, offering resources for alleviating role stress, and formal graduate school career socialization workshops.
Article
Gjennom muntlig språk, trykte tekster og visuelle fremstillinger, forsøker mennesker å formidle noe. Hvordan man omtaler ulike fenomener påvirker vår forståelse av det som beskrives. Konteksten en ytring oppstår i er også avgjørende for våre mange mulige fortolkninger. I denne artikkelen skal vi drodle litt rundt den rådende medvirkningsretorikken blant byplanleggere og bypolitikere. Hva mener de med begrepet «medvirkning»?
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In recent times, studies on I, we and you (tri-PP) in academic lectures have focused on the L1 context. This paper, however, investigates the commonalities in the discourse reference of I, we, and you across three disciplinary supercommunities (DSs): Humanities (HS), Social Sciences (HS), and Natural Sciences (NS), using a corpus from an L2 context. The concordance tool in AntConc was used to search for all instances of the tri-PP. The referents of the tri-PP were identified based on the contextual and co-textual clues. The study revealed three referents-lecturer, students, and lecturer + students-which were common to all the three investigated pronouns. Furthermore, the above referents were also noted to be common to all the three broad knowledge domains. In a nutshell, the study revealed cross-pronominal and disciplinary commonalities in the discourse referents in academic lectures. The implications for the theory of referentiality are also discussed.
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To what extent does the co-existence of the empowering Internet and resilient authoritarianism rely on the state-controlled information environment? Drawing on online ethnography and a dataset of Amazon reviews, this article addresses the question by examining the debate over the memoir of a Chinese-American entrepreneur. It finds that such digital experiences, though in a free information environment, have resulted in frustration, anger, and ultimately disenchantment with the West among overseas Chinese. The findings contribute to the growing literature on digital orientalism and digital authoritarian resilience.
Article
This article analyzes material culture and spatial behavior of storeowners and customers in two South Asian grocery stores in Berkeley, CA in order to argue that the social construction of ethnicity is often inflected by the social and spatial circumstances of individuals and groups who interact inside these places. Order and clutter within these stores are put forth as embodied forms of spatial knowledge that influence the way individuals experience and reproduce peoplehood. Certain communicative and representational ways-of-being in this world—like theatrical performances—frame such experiences. The knowledge of South Asian-ness produced as a result of operating within the immigrant cultural landscape can be varied. In order to decipher such spatial orders, this article draws on data from participant observation and interviews with storeowners and customers, as well as spatial and material culture analyses of the two South Asian grocery stores.
Article
While most scholarly work in the 1990s focused on the use of ethnic identity and indigeneity as a critical tool for movement building in Latin America, this article turns toward new performative strategies in the 2000s. Through food performances—from showing and boasting about small-scale production to collective practices of cooking and feeding activists from a common pot—MST-Bolivia teaches campesinos about the importance of reclaiming land, territory, and food systems for indigenous peoples. The discourse of food sovereignty respatializes agriculture from global and corporate arenas to the local, as MST activists demand that food should be first and foremost a right and secondarily an item of trade. Yet there is no purity to their politics: daily contradictions exist between public declarations of sovereignty and collectivity and individualistic needs and desires. Despite such tensions, MST transports food traditions from regional to international arenas where they reassemble highly flexible organizational strategies capable of providing food for thousands of activists.
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The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a double-blind peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year (not including special issues), published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published as an open access journal in electronic format only, at https://gjl.laghana.org and https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjl/. However, print-on-demand copies can be made available on application to Mr. Fred Labi of Digibooks Ghana Ltd.: fred.labi@digibookspublishing.com or +233246493842. The Editors welcome papers on all aspects of linguistics. Articles submitted should be original and should not have been published previously elsewhere. The Editors welcome reports on research in progress and brief notices of research findings, as well as news of general interest to linguists. The Editors also welcome books from authors and publishers for review in the Ghana Journal of Linguistics. They may be sent to Prof. Ọbádélé Kambon, Editor-in-Chief, Ghana Journal of Linguistics, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 1149, Legon, Accra, Ghana. These will be used in editorial book critiques. Anyone who wishes to review a particular book is invited to contact the Editor-in-Chief. These will be considered for publication after internal review. As of January of 2016, GJL switched from an email-based article submission process to the use of website-based Open Journal Systems (OJS) software, which allows tracking of submissions, double-blind reviews, copyediting, production, and publication. We encourage linguists and scholars interested in linguistics to visit GJL’s website https://gjl.laghana.org to peruse past issues and to submit their articles. To submit an article, the author must create an account at GJL’s website. Upon account creation, the author should complete all required information including the author’s full name in the form it should appear in print, plus his/her current academic or professional position, his/her field of research interest(s) and a short bio statement. Please see the inside back cover of this issue for detailed article submission guidelines. GJL complies with Creative Commons Attribution BY license. This copyright license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. More information on copyright and licensing information can be found here. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 61, Legon, Accra, Ghana. GJL Email: gjl@laghana.org | GJL Website: https://gjl.laghana.org LAG Email: info@laghana.org | LAG Website: https://www.laghana.org © Linguistics Association of Ghana and individual authors, 2022. ISSN 2026-6596 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/gjl.v11i1 Published: 06/30/2022
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Digital games and their appropriation for live-streamed events of competitive gaming – the pillars that constitute eSports – experience tremendous growth. This theoretical study advances eSports as a digital media business and a novel context for research on organizations. For this, we systematically reviewed 100 academic articles and specialized international media publications on eSports regarding approaches and understandings of how organizing takes place. In this chapter, we propose a conceptual framework of looking at the eSports industry through identity work, team leadership, and institutional theory. This framework enables us to understand how eSports as a digital media business is organized and how it works at the individual (micro-), organizational (meso-), and industry (macro-) level. This contributes to a reflective appreciation of eSports through giving direction for future studies and by hopefully sparking a curiosity towards using up-to-date concepts from organization studies to frame novel and increasingly digital contexts of organizing in eSports.
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Background Newly graduated doctors find their first months of practice challenging and overwhelming. As the newly graduated doctors need help to survive this period, collaborators such as peers, senior doctors, registered nurses and other junior doctors are crucial. However, little is known about what characterise these collaborations, and how much is at stake when newly graduated doctors are striving to establish and maintain them. This study aims to describe and explore the collaborations in depth from the newly graduated doctors’ point of view. Methods We conducted 135 h of participant observations among newly graduated doctors ( n = 11), where the doctors were observed throughout their working hours at various times of the day and the week. Furthermore, six semi-structured interviews (four group interviews and two individual) were carried out. The data was analysed thematically. Results Newly graduated doctors consulted different collaborators (peers, senior doctors, registered nurses, and other junior doctors) dependent on the challenge at hand, and they used different strategies to get help and secure good relationships with their collaborators: 1) displaying competence; 2) appearing humble; and 3) playing the game. Their use of different strategies shows how they are committed to engage in these collaborations, and how much is at stake. Conclusions Newly graduated doctors rely on building relationships with different collaborators in order to survive their first months of practice. We argue that the collaboration with peer NGDs and registered nurses has not received the attention it deserves when working with the transition from medical school. We highlight how it is important to focus on these and other collaborators and discuss different work-agendas, mutual expectations, and interdependence. This could be addressed in the introduction period and be one way to ensure a better learning environment and a respectful interprofessional culture.
Article
Based on ethnographic materials, the article discusses Muslim women’s narratives as an expression of the process of identity negotiation in the post-Soviet cultural context. Muslim women’s narratives based on Islamic, ethnic, gendered epistemologies are intertwined with each other and hybrid. Muslim-Tatar women’s identity as women, Muslims and Tatars is tied together, while simultaneously being fragmented and peripheral to male identity. Since the Russian state imbues veiling with political meaning, Muslim women identity is politicized, therefore veiling as a part of Muslim-Tatar women’s identity is negotiated not only inside of the Muslim-Tatar community, but outside due to external discourses.
Article
The objective of this article was to describe the experiences of normalization of pain and injuries among elite adolescent basketball players and their staff. A total of 10 elite adolescent basketball players, ages 15–17 years and eight members of their staff, were interviewed. Results showed that (a) for both players and staff, being able to normalize pain is considered as a necessity and requires experience; injury is regarded as inevitable and as a way to gain body expertise and (b) technical and medical staffs have difficulties in agreeing on pain and injury management. The originality of the results presented lies in the fact that the elite players interviewed are in training; and that the expectations of the players, the technical staff, and the medical staff were questioned at the same time.
Article
Despite the striking affinities of classical Greek and Latin rhetoric with the pragmatist/interactionist analysis of the situated negotiation of reality and its profound relevance for the analysis of human group life more generally, few contemporary social scientists are aware of the exceptionally astute analyses of persuasive inter­change developed by Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian. Having considered the analyses of rhetoric developed by Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Cicero (106-43 BCE) in interactionist terms (Prus 2007a; 2010), the present paper examines Quintilian’s (35-95 CE) contributions to the study of persuasive interchange more specifically and the nature of human knowing and acting more generally. Focusing on the education and practices of orators (rhetoricians), Quintilian (a practitioner as well as a distinc­tively thorough instructor of the craft) provides one of the most sustained, most systematic analyses of influence work and resistance to be found in the literature. Following an overview of Quintilian’s “ethnohistorical” account of Roman oratory, this paper concludes by draw­ing conceptual parallels between Quintilian’s analysis of influence work and the broader, transcontextual features of symbolic interactionist scholarship (Mead 1934; Blumer 1969; Prus 1996; 1997; 1999; Prus and Grills 2003). This includes “generic social processes” such as: acquiring perspectives, attending to identity, being involved, doing activity, en­gaging in persuasive interchange, developing relationships, experiencing emotionality, attaining linguistic fluency, and partici­pating in collective events. Offering a great many departure points for comparative analysis, as well as ethnographic examinations of the influence process, Quintilian’s analysis is particularly instructive as he addresses these and related aspects of human knowing, acting, and interchange in highly direct, articulate, and detailed ways. Acknowledging the conceptual, methodological, and analytic affinities of The Institutio Oratoria of Quintilian with symbolic interactionism, an epilogue, Quintilian as an Intellectual Precursor to American Pragmatist Thought and the Interactionist Study of Human Group Life, addresses the relative lack of attention given to classical Greek and Latin scholarship by the American pragmatists and their intellectual progeny, as well as the importance of maintaining a more sustained transcontextual and transhistorical focus on the study of human knowing, acting, and interchange.
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Sociology has a long history of analyzing relationships between strangers in everyday life. The ubiquity of social media and mobile technologies, however, necessitates refined theories of how people relate to and interact with strangers in a social world where online and offline contexts are intertwined. This study examines public encounters between acquainted strangers, a type of connection fostered through social media wherein people are both digital acquaintances and offline strangers. Drawing on ethnographic data of queer men who use mobile dating and hookup apps, I find that queer men experience these encounters as routine yet problematic, which past theories of stranger relationships cannot fully explain. I argue that offline interactions with acquainted strangers amplify interactional uncertainties around identification (e.g. “I know them, but do they know me?”) and recognition (e.g. “What are the moral demands of our relationship?”). Managing these uncertainties is socially significant as the decision to regard or ignore an acquainted stranger marks not only interpersonal acceptance/rejection but also broader forms of belonging and exclusion. These findings underscore how mobile technologies are fundamentally transforming what it means to be a “stranger.”
Article
Joint commitment, the feeling of mutual obligation binding participants in a joint action, is typically conceptualized as arising by the expression and acceptance of a promise. This account limits the possibilities of investigating fledgling forms of joint commitment in actors linguistically less well-endowed than adult humans. The feeling of mutual obligation is one aspect of joint commitment (the product ), which emerges from a process of signal exchange. It is gradual rather than binary; feelings of mutual obligation can vary in strength according to how explicit commitments are perceived to be. Joint commitment processes are more complex than simple promising, in at least three ways. They are affected by prior joint actions, which create precedents and conventions that can be embodied in material arrangements of institutions. Joint commitment processes also arise as solutions to generic coordination problems related to opening up, maintaining and closing down joint actions. Finally, during joint actions, additional, specific commitments are made piecemeal. These stack up over time and persist, making it difficult for participants to disengage from joint actions. These complexifications open up new perspectives for assessing joint commitment across species. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Revisiting the human ‘interaction engine’: comparative approaches to social action coordination’.
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Over recent years, with the support of international NGOs, many thousands of irregular migrants were ‘returned’ to West Africa from Libyan detention centres. Through extensive ethnographic fieldwork with different groups of returnees in Benin City, Nigeria, I studied the establishment and evolution of the ‘returnee’ identity. Making use of labelling, social identity and performativity theories, I found that the performance of the returnee identity for Western donors, researchers and the media creates opportunities for the returnees to regain respect in their communities. Emphasising the role of performativity in identity formation, I use the metaphor of a theatrical play. Initially scripted by the EU border-externalisation policies, the return-migration play has evolved to fit in local political realities. On the frontstage, returnees were adjusting to the EU counter-migration agenda, testifying about the risks of irregular migration. Backstage, however, they kept pursuing their migration aspirations, also using the returnee identity to establish themselves in the city and gain some level of political recognition.
Article
Are competent actors still trusted when they promote themselves? The answer to this question could have far-reaching implications for understanding trust production in a variety of economic exchange settings in which ability and impression management play vital roles, from succeeding in one’s job to excelling in the sales of goods and services. Much social science research assumes an unconditional positive impact of an actor’s ability on the trust placed in that actor: in other words, competence breeds trust. In this report, however, we challenge this assumption. Across a series of experiments, we manipulated both the ability and the self-promotion of a trustee and measured the level of trust received. Employing both online laboratory studies ( n = 5,606) and a field experiment ( n = 101,520), we find that impression management tactics (i.e., self-promotion and intimidation) can substantially backfire, at least for those with high ability. An explanation for this effect is encapsuled in attribution theory, which argues that capable actors are held to higher standards in terms of how kind and honest they are expected to be. Consistent with our social attribution account, mediation analyses show that competence combined with self-promotion decreases the trustee’s perceived benevolence and integrity and, in turn, the level of trust placed in that actor.
Article
In this paper, Finnish tango dance tourism is analysed, taking into account the concept of embodied space (Low 2003) and Lefebvre’s (1991) under- standing of space on the multi-layered interconnected levels of body, culture and space. The Finnish „culture of silence“ is considered in particular in this context. Methodologically, interviews with experts, participant observation and the eval- uation of film material are used. As a result, a variety of interactions between body, culture and space emerge that reveal additional potential for Finnish tango dance tourism.
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This study explored the strategies of self-presentation (ingratiation, supplication, and enhancement) among United Arab Emirates users (n=230) of popular social networking sites (SNS). The size of social networks, degree of network connectivity, and perceptions of self-presentation success were examined. The results indicated a significant positive correlation between the frequency of SNS use and ingratiation and enhancement strategies. Greater diversity of online friends among the respondents was positively associated with the perception of online self-presentation success. Males and females differed in the size of the online social network they interacted with, diversity of online friends, and preferred self-presentation strategies. However, no significant gender differences were found in the levels of network connectivity and perceptions of self-presentation success.
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The overall objective of the proposed chapter is to increase the reader's understanding of the role that social media plays in self-disclosing information about ourselves in the development of friendships and identity, as well as explore these themes in a clinical context. As such, readers will gain knowledge regarding the relations between self-disclosing on social media sites and the ensuing friendship and identity development that occurs, the extension of the research findings to clinical populations, and the questions that still remain unanswered. This information may be useful for the advancement of research, policy development, mental health programs, parenting, and education.
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For a better understanding of social networking site usage, the present study examines the influence of gender, personality, and self-esteem on social media presentation. The researchers found that extroverted women posted more Facebook pictures than extroverted men did. Neuroticism was related to self-presentation, and agreeableness is related to Facebook friends. Lower self-esteem was related to more self-presentation on Facebook. Women were more likely to post gender role expressions than men were. And higher levels of neuroticism were related to greater gender role expressions.
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China is well known for its wide and increasing commercial use of mobile social media for various purposes in different areas, ranging from online shopping to social networking. Such a popular commercial use was insightfully examined in relation to social relationship in the age of mobile internet, which enables people of either weak or strong connections to socialize anywhere anytime, leading to scenarios where mobile social media can be leveraged for profits. In what way can user experiences be guaranteed while platforms' value-added targets be achieved at the same time? In addressing that question, the authors of this chapter examined the commercial use of mobile social media in the context of complicated social networks. It is expected from the editor that further studies are to be carried out to comprehensively and comparatively examine the same topic in different countries or cultures.
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The paper provides a critical analysis of Richard Sennett’s thesis that the public sphere is being undermined by a historical process of growing significance of intimacy (intimization) and attempts to draw some relevant conclusions for social theory and gender studies. In The Fall of Public Man (1977), Sennett diagnoses that an asocial orientation to personal privacy has become the focus of public life. He argues that this development prevents the renewal of urban sociality, which depends crucially on cooperation with strangers. Although Sennett shows hardly any interest in gender, we can nonetheless derive insights from his study for the analysis of gender relations. The process Sennett describes can be interpreted from a feminist perspective as the decline of a male dominated public domain. The possible recapturing of public space by hitherto marginalized groups will create an opportunity for a cosmopolitical form of public sociality. This will facilitate forms of cooperation among social actors based on universalistic values that go beyond traditional dichotomies, such as private/public, individualism/community, emotionality/reason, locals/strangers, women/men, and heterosexual/queer.
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In this chapter we juxtapose a queer theory formulation of gender with theories and research in the psychology and sociology of gender. Our discussion focuses on ideas from Judith Butler’s foundational book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. We discuss three key ideas found in Butler’s early work. The first key idea is Butler’s rejection of a distinction between sex as “natural” and gender as “cultural” which connects to their development of a performativity theory of gender. The second key idea is Butler’s formulation of the heterosexual matrix and its inherent instability, in which heterosexuality is dependent for its identity on the rejection of homosexuality. The third idea we discuss is Butler’s insight that a reconfiguration and proliferation of gender identities can be effectively used to dismantle gender and sexual binaries. We draw connections between each of these postulations and empirical research: on the relationship between biology and genders, on the internalization of gender schemas, and on the development of masculine heterosexual identity. We conclude with a review of psychological research on gender nonbinary and agender identities, and gender fluidity.
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Aus der eigenen Forschung, in der Kinder mit angeborenen Fehlbildungen über längere Zeit begleitet wurden, wird aufgezeigt, wie sich ein alltagsweltliches Verstehen dieses Körperphänomens aus der Perspektive der zweiten Person Singular gestaltet. Zunächst als Grundsituation nichtgeteilter Körperlichkeit im Sinne nichtgeteilten Körperwissens charakterisiert, wird die Notwendigkeit zusätzlichen Wissenserwerbs in Form von Sonder- und Fallwissen aufgezeigt, um überhaupt erst über relevantes Deutungswissen zu verfügen. Gleichzeitig wird damit offen gelegt, dass gerade dieses erworbene exklusive Wissen die so interessierten Alter Egos auch zu der Erkenntnis bringt, keine eigenen Erfahrungen in dieser Dimension des Leibkörperlichen jemals machen zu können. Diese Verstehensprozesse kulminieren insofern in einer Fremderfahrung, als das direkte Erfassen-Können der anderen Funktionalität des Körpers und der anderen Leiblichkeit nicht möglich, dafür aber bezeugbar ist.
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Ripercorrendone in modo rigoroso le principali teorie e tematiche, il volume aggiorna il dibattito critico sul discorso socio-criminologico, colmando il vuoto esistente nel mercato editoriale italiano su prospettive e sviluppi contemporanei delle teorie sociologiche della devianza e del crimine e proponendosi come un utile strumento di formazione critica per gli studenti di scienze sociali, politiche e giuridiche. È articolato in due sezioni. La prima è dedicata alla ricognizione delle teorie e approfondisce le strategie di identificazione e di definizione della devianza e del crimine all’interno dei diversi ambiti storici e intellettuali, con attenzione agli aspetti metodologici e agli sviluppi delle singole prospettive nei contesti contemporanei. La seconda, invece, intercetta ambiti e tematiche di attualità, approfondendo aspetti esplicativi e applicativi delle diverse prospettive e individuandone la spendibilità in termini di interventi e politiche. Il suo approccio del tutto originale rispetto ai manuali esistenti fa del volume un importante riferimento per chi voglia accostarsi allo studio sociologico delle devianze e del crimine nel mondo contemporaneo.
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