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Abstract

Objective: To explore effects of the technological interface on reading comprehension in a Norwegian school context. Participants: 72 tenth graders from two different primary schools in Norway. Method: The students were randomized into two groups, where the first group read two texts (1400 – 2000 words) in print, and the other group read the same texts as PDF on a computer screen. In addition pretests in reading comprehension, word reading and vocabulary were administered. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to investigate to what extent reading modality would influence the students’ scores on the reading comprehension measure. Conclusion: Main findings show that students who read texts in print scored significantly better on the reading comprehension test than students who read the texts digitally. Implications of these findings for policy making and test development are discussed.
Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on readin...
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Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on readin...
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Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on readin...
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Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on readin...
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Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on readin...
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Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on readin...
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Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on readin...
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Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on readin...
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... The e-Reading programme and all the hardware can be used to create a convenient and practical way for learners to practise reading in English. A study by Mangen, Bente and Bronnick (2013) explains that text displayed electronically might be more useful than text displayed on paper. However, a text which is found online might be more complex for the learners to access than a printed text. ...
... Recent studies have proved how reading speed, comprehension, and accuracy can all be improved with electronic reading devices and programmes. Studies by Mangen, Bente and Bronnick (2013) and Almekhlafi (2020) showed that digital text is more useful than printed text. ...
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Technological education has changed lifestyles, and educational institutions need to prepare their learners with the necessary tools to be successful in real life. The objectives of the study are: 1) to explore learner’s achievements in reading comprehension with the use of e-Reading and traditional teaching methods, 2) to analyse the satisfaction of learners using e-reading and traditional teaching methods, and 3) to observe the effects of the learner’s reading comprehension while using e-reading methods versus traditional teaching methods based on a standard 80/80 criterion. The participants were sophomore learners enrolled in English courses. Thirty learners were selected by nonprobability sampling and divided into two groups, the experimental and control. The experimental group received lessons using an e-Reading programme, the control group was taught using a traditional teaching method. The research tools were pre- and post-tests, lesson plans, learners’ perception questionnaires, and interviews. Data collected through quantitative means were analysed using a t-test standard and average deviation programme. The interview data were analysed using a content analysis method. Data from the pre- and post-tests show that reading comprehension improved in the experimental group, who used the e-Reading programme. They also showed a “positive” attitude regarding their learning satisfaction and self-directed learning. The learners’ satisfaction and self-directed learning were higher in the e-Reading programme. Standard 80/80 criteria were met with an efficiency of 81.6/82.3 in the e-Reading programme. This research could be used as reference for further study and application of the e-Reading programme.
... On the other hand, Tüzel and Tok [17] determined that digital reading causes distraction and negatively affects the power of written expression. In some studies, it has been concluded that reading printed products is more efficient than digital reading, allowing comprehension [18], [19]. In these studies, it has been found that individuals prefer reading on paper rather than digital reading. ...
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether the high school students' attitudes towards writing on paper and digital writing were affected by their personal characteristics and familial characteristics. Survey method was used to determine high school students' attitudes towards writing on paper and digital writing. The sample of the study was determined using convenience sampling. Accordingly, a total of 301 students studying at Kahramanmaraş Anatolian High School during the 2019-2020 academic year were included in the study. “Inventory of Attitudes Towards Writing on Paper and Digital Writing” was used to collect the research data. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests were used to analyse the data. Based on the findings of the research, it was concluded that high school students’ attitudes towards writing on paper and digital writing did not differ according to their personal characteristics or familial characteristics, except for one independent variable, that is the father's educational attainment.
... We can see for criteria 1 and 2 that SRSD had an impact on the students' learning and that those who used WP underperformed compared with those using paper and pencil, whether they followed SRSD or not. It appears that the students had more difficulty finding information in an on-screen text (Mangen, Walgermo, & Bronnick, 2013), which interferes with the construction of the cohesion of a text that relies on reading skills. ...
...  El impacto que el progreso de la lectura digital pueda tener en el hábito lector, tanto en su relación con la lectura impresa como en sus beneficios para el aprendizaje y conocimiento (Mangen, Walgermo, Bronnick 2013), por cuanto algunos estudios parecen demostrar que la lectura digital procura una menor eficacia en la comprensión de textos (Hou, Raschid, Lee 2017). Un estudio de campo de Parodi et al. (2019) para el ámbito universitario, arrojaba resultados muy altos y homogéneos en la preferencia de lectura impresa para la actividad académica, por permitir una mayor concentración y por permitir mejores resultados en la comprensión, memorización y aprendizaje, especialmente cuando los textos son largos, si bien la preferencia se repite aun cuando el propósito sea el entretenimiento. ...
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El estudio de análisis detiene su argumentación en tres factores que permiten reflexionar sobre el modo en que las bibliotecas escolares colaboran para el impulso de una sociedad lectora en el siglo XXI, a partir de la formulación de tres preguntas de investigación: qué lectura debemos considerar contando con los caracteres y propiedades de los contenidos para ser leídos, y que condicionan los hábitos del lector y los modos de seguir su comportamiento; qué tipo de biblioteca escolar, como espacio físico y digital apropiado para acoger y promocionar acciones, planes y actividades que sean eficaces en un nuevo tipo de lectura para la información y conocimiento; qué alfabetización o multialfabetizaciones son necesarias contemplar en las bibliotecas escolares para atender unas competencias lecto-escritoras que atiendan a los desafíos propios del Ciberespacio.
... It should be noted that there were considerably more experiments with expository texts than narrative, which diminishes the robustness of this moderator analysis. However, in three studies in which both narrative and expository texts were used (and findings by genre were available), there appeared to be more of a negative effect of screens on performance for expository compared to narrative texts (Kretzschmar et al., 2013;Mangen et al., 2013;Margolin et al., 2013). ...
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This paper is prepared to examine the leisure reading habits of university students in Malaysia during the COVID-19 pandemic. As we know, due to the pandemic, the Malaysian government has imposed a series of mandatory lockdown. In higher institutions, classes are carried out using online platforms instead of the traditional learning in the classroom since April 2020. Online courses have changed the learning pattern not only in Malaysia but around the world. University students are now required to adapt to the new normal of learning. This has affected how they spend time between following their online classes and doing their assignments in the confinement of their homes or university residences. According to Association of American Publishers, book sales are up again. Due to this new normal of limiting physical human interaction and spending their time at home or university residency, students turn to reading again to find comfort to handle the accumulated stress during this pandemic. The method of turning to books in times of burden and difficulty is called bibliotherapy. Bibliotherapy is still not widely known in Malaysia. This paper explains how leisure reading habits can help students to calm down from the anxiety of limiting physical human connection and the stress of spending almost most of their time following the new normal of learning. The writing method for this paper is in the form of quantitative analysis based on the survey conducted on 100 university students throughout Malaysia. This paper highlights literature reviews relating to the reading habits, reading preferences amongst university students in Malaysia and how this is related to bibliotherapy. Therefore, this study concludes that most respondents spend time reading for leisure purposes during the COVID19 pandemic lockdown in Malaysia and it has helped them cope with the pandemic.
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There is an ongoing transition in education from paper-based learning and testing to digital learning and testing. The purpose of the present research was to examine whether the relative effectiveness of digital and paper-based learning depends on the medium of testing in the context of foreign-language vocabulary learning. In a controlled experiment, young adults (N = 79) studied and practiced novel foreign-language vocabulary words using two study methods (restudying or retrieval practice) and were then tested on their memory for these words to assess learning. The study medium and the test medium were either congruent (i.e., paper-based learning and testing; digital learning and testing) or incongruent (paper-based learning and digital testing; digital learning and paper-based testing). The results revealed a study-test medium congruency effect: Paper-based learning yielded better test performance than digital learning when the test was conducted on paper, but this effect was eliminated when the test was digital. This effect may have important practical educational implications as it challenges common practices for vocabulary learning such as using digital tools to study vocabulary for on-paper memory tests.
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This article presents some theoretical-methodological reflections on the current state of the art of research on information and communication technology (ICT) in early childhood education. The implementation of ICT in preschool has triggered considerable research activity on the educational potential of digital technologies. Numerous projects and studies are being carried out in several disciplines; however, there is little or no interdisciplinary exchange. In this article, the author presents and justifies a theoretical-methodological alternative - namely, piecemeal theorizing. Piecemeal theorizing consists in posing precisely formulated questions at different levels of generality, the pursuit of which will necessarily lead the researcher(s) in several disciplinary directions. The author suggests a mode of research conducted by multidisciplinary and piecemeal theorizing of precisely defined and demarcated questions at different levels of granularity, hence accumulating partial answers resulting in theory development and scientific progress - however incremental - in the field. By drawing on theories and perspectives from fields such as cognitive neuroscience, media psychology and phenomenology, we might be in a position to better address some fundamental and largely unaddressed questions pertaining to the potential impact of digital technology on children's learning. Specifically, the article focuses on one such question - namely, the particular intangibility of the digital - and reflects on the potential implications of this intangibility for learning and literacy development. The aim is thence to provide an alternative conceptual, theoretical and epistemological framework for studying the experiential impact of digital technology on preschoolers' literacy development.
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Since the introduction of the Video Display Unit (VDU), investigations have been conducted to determine what variables, if any, produce visual fatigue when using a VDU. Human factors researchers have typically investigated relationships between VDU use and visual fatigue by having users subjectively evaluate the extent of their fatigue with a self-report questionnaire. This paper reviews four typical methods of gathering self-report visual fatigue symptoms that appear within the human factors literature. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/074756329400024C
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Introduction and Historical PerspectiveTechnical Background Experimental ExperienceSummary Interpretation, and Examples of Diagnosing Actual Data for CollinearityAppendix 3A: The Condition Number and InvertibilityAppendix 3B: Parameterization and ScalingAppendix 3C: The Weakness of Correlation Measures in Providing Diagnostic InformationAppendix 3D: The Harm Caused by Collinearity
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This study examined the processes of reading comprehension using paper presentation compared to computer presentation. Computers are increasingly being used more as a mode for instruction in schools, however, no study was identified that provides explanations regarding underlying reading comprehension processes or constructs. To examine constructs of reading comprehension, a text recall measure was employed. Additionally, to examine reading comprehension in an interactive mode a highlighting task was used. In the memory recall measure, a significant main effect was found for rhetorical type (collection over causal) but not for mode of presentation or for idea units. Findings were consistent with Meyer's results [1–3]. In using an on-line measure of highlighting, a significant main effect was found for mode of presentation (paper over computer). It would be expected under Meyer's constructs that there would be a difference by rhetorical type; however, no differences were found. The conclusion of this study is that reading comprehension constructs appear to be the same between computer presentation and paper presentation of text. However, when readers interact with text via computer (highlighting task) there appear to be different comprehension constructs evoked.
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Do readers comprehend a text better when it is displayed electronically by a computer (computer-mediated) than when displayed conventionally, on printed pages? Previous studies have suggested that computer presentations that offer the reader access to additional information, or control the reader's processing of the text, do facilitate comprehension. The author attempted to replicate these findings. In addition, he investigated whether computer presentations of texts would affect readers' passage preference, their estimation of their own learning, and the time taken to read the text, and whether these factors in turn would contribute to comprehension differences. Thirty-three good and poor readers in fifth and sixth grade read expository passages on a printed page and in three computer presentations that varied as to the availability of computer assistance, and whether the computer or the reader controlled the computer manipulations. As in previous studies, subjects' comprehension increased when they read computer-mediated texts that expanded or controlled their options for acquiring information. As expected, reading time was longer for the computer-mediated texts with options for assistance, but even after the effect of reading time was removed statistically, comprehension scores remained significantly higher for readers of the computer-mediated texts that offered computer assistance. Based on the results, the author attempts to clarify which factors associated with computer-mediated texts may affect reading comprehension. /// [French] Est-ce que les lecteurs comprennent plus facilement un texte présenté sur ordinateur que sous la forme imprimée? Des recherches antérieures ont semblé montrer que la compréhension de texte était meilleure sur ordinateur en raison des possibilités qu'offre l'ordinateur d'accéder à des informations complémentaires ou de contrôler les processus de traitement du lecteur. L'objectif d'auteur était, d'une part, de tester ces conclusions, d'autre part, de voir dans quelle mesure la présentation de textes sur ordinateur influencerait les préférences du lecteur, l'auto-évaluation de l'apprentissage et le temps pris pour lire le texte et finalement de voir dans quelle mesure ces trois facteurs influencent la compréhension. Trente-trois enfants de cinquième et de sixième année, divisés en bons et mauvais lecteurs, ont lu des extraits de textes informatifs dans une situation sans ordinateur (texte imprimé) et dans trois conditions qui variaient selon l'aide disponible sur ordinateur et selon que la présentation du texte était contrôlée par le lecteur ou par l'ordinateur. A l'instar des recherches précédentes, la compréhension a été meilleure dans la condition contrôlée par ordinateur et dans la condition avec aide. Tel que prévu, le temps de lecture fut plus long pour la condition assistée par ordinateur mais même une fois enlevé l'effet du temps de lecture, la compréhension est restée meilleure pour la condition assistée par ordinateur. S'appuyant sur ces résultats, les auteurs tentent d'approffondir la question et de cerner quels autres facteurs sont susceptibles d'intervenir dans la lecture de textes assistée par ordinateur. /// [Spanish] ¿Es cierto que los lectores comprenden mejor un texto cuando este es presentado electrónicamente por una computadora (por medio de computadora) que cuando es leído de una página impresa? Estudios previos han sugerido que las presentaciones en la computadora que ofrecen al lector acceso a información adicional, o que controlan el procesamiento del texto por el lector, sí facilitan la comprensión. El autor intentó replicar estos hallazgos. Además, investigó si la presentación de textos por computadora afectaría las preferencias del lector, su estimación del aprendizaje propio, y el tiempo que les llevaría leer el texto, y si estos tres factores a su vez contribuirían a entender diferencias en la comprensión. Treinta y tres buenos y malos lectores de quinto y sexto grado leyeron pasajes expositorios en una página impresa y en tres condiciones experimentales que variaron según el acceso a la ayuda por computadora, y dependiendo de si la computadora o el lector controlaba las manipulaciones de la computadora. Como en estudios anteriores, la comprensión de los sujetos aumentó cuando leyeron textos por medio de la computadora si esta expandía o controlaba sus opciones para adquirir información. Como se esperaba, el tiempo de lectura fue mayor para los textos por medio de computadora, pero aún después de que el efecto del tiempo de lectura fue removido estadísticamente, las calificaciones de comprensión permanecieron significativamente más altas para los lectores de textos por medio de la computadora que ofrecían asistencia de la computadora. Basado en los resultados, los autores trataron de clarificar cuáles factores asociados con los textos presentados por medio de la computadora pueden afectar la comprensión de la lectura. /// [German] Verstehen leser einen text besser, wenn er elektronisch durch einen Computer (computervermittelt) dargestellt wird oder wenn er als gedruckter Text gelesen wird? Jüngere Forschungen haben angedeutet, daß Computerdarstellungen, die dem Leser Zugang zu weiteren Informationen anbieten oder die Textverarbeitung seitens der Leser steuern, ein Verstehen tatsächlich erleichtern. Der Autor dieses Beitrags versucht, jene Resultate zu reproduzieren. Der weiteren untersucht sie, ob die Textdarstellungen anhand eines Computers die Lesematerialbevorzugungen der Leser, deren eigene Lernbeurteilungen und die zum Lesen aufgewendete Zeit beeinflussen würden, und ob diese drei Faktoren wiederum zu Unterschieden im Verstehen beitragen. Dreiunddreißig gute und schlechte Leser der fünften und sechsten Klasse lasen Abschnitte aus Erörterungstexten unter kontrollierten Bedingungen (gedruckter Text) und unter drei experimentellen Bedingungen, die in bezug auf drei Punkte variierten: war Computerunterstützung vorhanden, wurden Computermanipulationen durch den Computer kontrolliert, oder wurden sie durch den Leser kontrolliert. Wie bereits in jüngeren Forschungen festgestellt wurde, verbesserte sich das Textverständnis der Teilnehmer, wenn sie computervermittelte Texte lasen, die die Möglichkeiten eines Informationserwerbs erweiterten oder kontrollierten. Wie erwartet war die Lesezeit für die computervermittelten Texte länger; aber auch dann, als die Auswirkung der Lesezeit statistisch neutralisiert wurde, waren die Leistungen bei Leseverständnistesten für die Leser der computervermittelten Texte, die Computerunterstützung zur Verfügung stellten, wesentlich besser. Aufgrund der Ergebnisse versuchen diese Autoren klarzustellen, welche Faktoren, die auf computervermittelte Texte zutreffen, ein Leseverstehen beeinflussen können.