ArticlePDF Available

The first cave-dwelling Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940 (Opiliones Gonyleptidae Tricommatinae), described from a Brazilian cave


Abstract and Figures

The fifth species of the genus Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940 is described. This is the second cavernicolous species of the subfamily, the other being Pararezendesius luridus H. Soares 1972 from caves in São Paulo State, Brazil. Spinopilar moria, new species, shows elongate appendages, significantly longer than the epigean species of Spinopi-lar, higher tarsal counts and lighter coloration, which may be regarded as troglomorphisms. The type locality — Caverna Morena, Cordisburgo, Minas Gerais, Brazil — is currently threatened because of the increas-ing visitation (tourism and local visitors). The presence of this new and fragile troglobite arachnid is an indication of the biospeleological rich-ness of the region. It needs to be taken into account in order to produce adequate management policy to protect this karstic area.
Content may be subject to copyright.
The rst cave-dwelling Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940
(Opiliones Gonyleptidae Tricommatinae),
described from a Brazilian cave
A.B. Kury and A. Pérez-González
Departamento de Invertebrados, Museu Nacional/UFRJ, Quinta da Boa Vista,
São Cristóvão, 20.940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Received 25 March 2008, accepted 13 May 2008
The fifth species of the genus Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940 is
described. This is the second cavernicolous species of the subfamily,
the other being Pararezendesius luridus H. Soares 1972 from caves in
o Paulo State, Brazil. Spinopilar moria, new species, shows elongate
appendages, significantly longer than the epigean species of Spinopi-
lar, higher tarsal counts and lighter coloration, which may be regarded
as troglomorphisms. The type locality Caverna Morena, Cordisburgo,
Minas Gerais, Brazil is currently threatened because of the increas-
ing visitation (tourism and local visitors). The presence of this new and
fragile troglobite arachnid is an indication of the biospeleological rich-
ness of the region. It needs to be taken into account in order to produce
adequate management policy to protect this karstic area.
Key words: taxonomy, Laniatores, Grassatores, caves, karst, troglobite
The Brazilian speleofauna comprises six troglobite harvestmen the
escadabiid Spaeleoleptes spaeleus H. Soares 1966 and the gonyleptids Pachy-
lospeleus strinatii Šilhavý 1974, Iandumoema uai Pinto-da-Rocha 1996, Giup-
ponia chagasi Pérez & Kury 2002 (soAres 1966, ŠilhAvý 1974, Pinto-dA-
ochA 1996, Pérez-González & Kury 2002) and two Pachylinae with less-
er degrees of troglomorphism from caves in Bahia State (Kury 2008). The
morphological expression of cave-dwelling adaptation in those opilionids
exhibits different degrees, from a complete anophthalmic light-coloured spe-
cies (such as Giupponia chagasi) to pigmented, eye-reduced harvestmen (e.g.
Iandumoema uai). A recent expedition to the Karst of Minas Gerais State,
Tropical Zoology 21: 259-267, 2008
260 A.B. Kury and A. rez-González
Brazil, yielded a few specimens of a troglobitic Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940,
which is here described as a new species.
The genus Spinopilar includes four species of short-legged Laniatores
which are usually found in leaf litter of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Kury
2003). One of them
Spinopilar anomalis (Sørensen 1932) is poorly
known (type material lost, unillustrated, too generic description). The new
species proposed is the fifth species and the first troglobite representative
of this genus and the second cavernicolous one in the subfamily Tricomma-
tinae, the other being Pararezendesius luridus H. Soares 1972. This species
is commonly found in São Paulo State caves (Vale do Ribeira Speleological
province, see: trAjAno & GnAsPini-netto 1991, GnAsPini & trAjAno 1994,
into-dA-rochA 1995), but the type locality is an artificial cavity Minas de
São Franciscoin Iporanga, São Paulo (soAres 1972).
The new species was collected in the Morena Cave, located in the
Cordisburgo municipality of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This cave with
approximately 7500 m of horizontal development is the biggest of the 25
caves recorded in this region. The faunas of these caves were studied by
the team led by Prof. Eleonora Trajano from the Biology Institute of São
Paulo University (IB-USP) and the preliminary results were published in
a congress abstract (trAjAno et al. 2007). trAjAno and collaborators stated
that the cave is biologically very important because it contains a very high
diversity of habitats with complex animal communities. An example of the
biological richness is the presence of three populations belonging to three
different families of troglophile shes in the same cave, two of them syn-
topic; this is an unusual phenomena in Brazil and deserves further study.
They also recorded a rich troglophile terrestrial fauna in the cave (insects,
arachnids and diplopods) and warned about the urgent necessity of protec-
tion measures to preserve this fragile ecosystem, including the possibility to
consider the cave as a conservation unit. The new species described herein is
the first troglobite recorded in the Morena Cave, as well as an endemic, frag-
ile and highly specialized animal species. Undoubtedly this finding increases
the biological value of the cave and confirms the necessity of an adequate
management policy to protect this karstic area.
Abbreviations of depository institutions are: HSPC (Private Collection
Helia Soares, now in MNRJ), MNRJ (Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal
do Rio de Janeiro) and MZSP (Museu de Zoologia, São Paulo). All measure
ments are in millimeters (mm). Tarsal formula (number of tarsomeres) is
given as follows: I(d), II(d), III, IV. Numbers for legs I-II are followed by the
distitarsal count (d) in parentheses.
Genus Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940
Spinopilar Mello-leitão 1940: 102; Kury 2003: 204 (complete synonymy).
Type species. Spinopilar armatus Mello-Leitão 1940, by original designation.
261New cave-dwelling Spinopilar
Included species. Spinopilar anomalis (Sørensen 1932), Spinopilar apiacaensis
Kury 1992, Spinopilar armatus Mello-Leitão 1940, Spinopilar friburguensis (H. Soares
1946) and Spinopilar moria n. sp.
Emended diagnosis. Outline of dorsal scutum (peltidium) in dorsal view
bell-shaped. Lateral margins of carapace convex in dorsal view. Outline of
carapace somewhat projected antero-laterally. Ocularium unarmed or with
a small median acuminate spine. Mesotergal area I entire. Trochanter IV of
male ventro-retrolateral with spiniform slightly procurved apophysis bearing
small side branch. Tarsal counts of leg IV five-six. Length of basichelicerite
comparable to the carapace. Shape of lamina parva roughly subrectangu-
lar with sides concave. Setae of basal portion of ventral plate very long and
pointing basally. Sexual dimorphism in coxa/trochanter/femur IV, femur not
especially elongate in male.
1 Coxa IV dorsally unarmed; ocularium unarmed; hypogean troglomorph
species, with appendages elongate (leg II more than seven times longer
than dorsal scutum) ......................................S. moria n. sp. (Minas Gerais)
Coxa IV dorsally with one spiniform apophysis; ocularium with one erect
spine; epigean species without troglomorphism, with appendages normal
(leg II less than 5 times longer than dorsal scutum) .................................... 2
2 Ocularium low and rounded .............................
S. armatus (Rio de Janeiro)
Ocularium very high bell-shaped ...................................................................
3 Retrolateral apophysis of trochanter IV wide, crenulate anteriorly; femur
IV robust .................................................... S. friburguensis (Rio de Janeiro)
Retrolateral apophysis of trochanter IV tapering; femur IV thin ................
S. apiacaensis (Espírito Santo)
The very poorly known S. anomalis cannot be included in the key until
its identity can be ascertained. The original description does not match with
S. moria at least in the armature of the ocularium. Nor does it match the
other described species in aspects of armature of coxa and trochanter. How-
ever in view of the loss of the type material (jAnet BeccAloni pers. comm. to
A.B. Kury 2007), information has to be drawn from the unillustrated origi-
nal description until topotypes are found.
Spinopilar moria n. sp. (Figs 1-10)
Etymology. Species name a noun in apposition, from Moria, the ficti-
tious system of underground tunnels of the dwarves, created by J.R.R. Tolk
ien in his fantasy book “The Lord of the Rings”. It is an obvious allusion to
the cavernicolous habitat of the species.
Type material. Male holotype (MNRJ 18986), 3 male, 4 female and 2 juvenile
paratypes (MNRJ 18985)
. Caverna Morena [S 19.1694, W 44.3393] Cordisburgo,
262 A.B. Kury and A. rez-González
Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Figs 9-10), July 19, 2007, Abel Pérez González, Eleonora
Trajano and Flávia Pelegatti-Franco col.
Diagnosis. It can be easily distinguished from the other four Spinopi-
lar species by the elongate appendages (leg II more than seven times longer
than dorsal scutum) (Fig. 8, Table 1) and higher tarsal counts. The combina-
tion of matching apophyses of coxa + trochanter IV is also unique.
Description. Male holotype (MNRJ 18986). Measurements (in mm).
Carapace length 1.01, width 1.37; abdominal scutum length 1.43, width 1.92.
Femora I-IV: 2.13, 4.52, 2.68 and 4.17.
Dorsum. Outline of dorsal scutum (peltidium) in dorsal view bell-
shaped, with very smooth constrictions at area III (Fig. 1). Ocularium low,
narrow, elliptical, entirely unarmed (Figs 1-2). Mesotergum divided into
four areas, area I not divided into left and right halves (Fig. 1). Carapace,
all areas of dorsal scutum and free tergites unarmed, with some granulation
concentrated around the mid-line of mesotergum. Anal operculum coarsely
granulous (Figs 1-2).
Venter. Stigmatic area short, Y-shaped. Stigmata isolated on a well-
marked island, directed ventrally. First free sternite projected on a lobe
matching coxal apophysis (Fig. 3).
Pedipalps (Figs 1-2). None of the segments especially elongate. Trochan-
ter with dorsal mound and ventral setiferous tubercle. Femur with 1 ven-
trobasal setiferous tubercle. Patella unarmed. Tibia with 3 ectal (iIi) and 2
mesal (ii) very weak setiferous tubercles. Tarsus ectal (II) and mesal (ii) each
with 2 weak setiferous tubercles.
(Figs 1-2). Coxa IV with ventro-retrolateral distal bifid apophysis
matching rst free sternite and gross acuminate dorso-prolateral tubercles.
Trochanter IV with retrolateral sub-basal lanceolate apophysis. All podo-
Table 1.
Material examined of males of species of Spinopilar, with data [in brackets] on ratio leg II
length/peltidium length.
Spinopilar apiacaensis: holotype [3.47], 2 paratypes [3.79, 4.27] (MZSP 13742) Apiacá,
Fazenda Santa Maria, 20.VII.1991, R. Baptista & A. Kury col. sifting leaf litter.
Spinopilar armatus: holotype [3.87] (MNRJ 94) Rio de Janeiro, Pilar, Roger Arlé col.;
1 [4.07] (MNRJ 4796) Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca: Trilha do Alto da Bandeira,
15.X.1999 A. Giupponi & D. Pedroso col., 1
[4.21] (MNRJ 4508) Rio de Janeiro, Floresta
da Tijuca, A.P.L., Giupponi, R.L.C. Baptista & D.R. Pedroso col.
Spinopilar moria: holotype [7.91] (MNRJ 18.986), 3 paratypes [7.75, 7.79, 7.91] (MNRJ
263New cave-dwelling Spinopilar
meres of legs I-IV unarmed. Femur IV only slightly sinuous, slender but
slightly incrassate in mid-portion and with coarser granulation.
Colour. Body and appendages uniform light mahogany brown.
Penis (Figs 4-7). Lamina parva subrectangular, with sides slightly con-
cave. Lateral borders armed with two rows of 2 (more ventro-lateral) + 3
Figs 1-3. Spinopilar moria new species, male holotype (MNRJ 18986), from Caverna
Morena, Minas Gerais. Fig. 1: habitus, dorsal view; Fig. 2: same, lateral view; Fig. 3: half
side of coxae, trochanters, stigmatic area and sternites, ventral view. Scale bars = 1 mm.
264 A.B. Kury and A. rez-González
Figs 4-7. Spinopilar moria new species, male paratype (MNRJ 18985). Penis, distal part.
Fig. 4: whole, lateral view; Fig. 5: distal portion, lateral view; Fig. 6: same, ventral view; Fig.
7: same, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (4) and 0.1 mm (5-7).
Fig. 8. Comparative diagram of the ratio length of leg II / dorsal scutum for three species
of Spinopilar showing the very elongate leg II of Spinopilar moria. Raw data and number/
sex of examined specimens in Table 1.
265New cave-dwelling Spinopilar
(more ventral) pairs of short setae. Base of ventral plate hammer-shaped,
armed with three pairs of long setae. Stylus straight, smooth and unarmed.
Flabellum skirt-like, well-developed, completely surrounding the stylus.
Variation. Tarsal formula (males n = 4) 4-5(3-4)/10-13(4-5)/5/5; (females
n = 4) 4(3)/7-9(3-4)/5/5.
Natural history. The specimens were collected in three different
microhabitats deep inside the cave (Fig. 10). They live under vegetable
debris in decomposition accumulated by the hypogean river, but were
also found under stones and under mud blocks, both of them very humid
Fig. 9. Brazil, showing the situation of the Morena Cave.
266 A.B. Kury and A. rez-González
The core of the distributional range of Tricommatinae is the Brazilian
Atlantic Forest, especially the humid forest segments that run along the con-
tinental coastal line from Santa Catarina to Rio de Janeiro. The vegetation
around the type locality is drier than the typical Atlantic Forest and so far
does not include records of any Tricommatinae representatives. Spinopilar
moria n. sp. probably represents a relict of epigean Spinopilar species that
lived when the tropical forest in this area was more expanded due to the
humidity. The same phenomenon of cavernicolous relicts of typical Atlan-
tic Forest lineages in the Brazilian semiarid region was also observed in
other harvestmen families, such as Escadabiidae Kury & Pérez 2003, where
the vast majority of the species and genera lives in the Atlantic Forest with
the exception of Spaeleoleptes spaeleus which lives in a cave less than 10 km
from the type locality of Spinopilar moria n. sp.
Fig. 10. Diagram of the Morena Cave, marking the collecting sites of Spinopilar moria.
267New cave-dwelling Spinopilar
We wish to thank Eleonora Trajano and Fvia Pelegatti-Franco (Universidade
de São Paulo) for arranging the expedition which led to the discovery of this spe-
cies. Thanks to Ezio Rubioli from Bambuí Speleological Group and the NAE (Núcleo
de Atividades Espeleológicas) for providing the map of Morena Cave. Support:
FAPESP 2003/00794-5 (thematic project) to E. Trajano; grant # 305330/2007-1 from
the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cienco e Tecnogico (CNPq) to A.B.
Kury; CNPq Postdoctoral fellowship to A. Pérez G.
nAsPini P. & trAjAno E. 1994. Brazilian cave invertebrates, with a checklist of troglo-
morphic taxa. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 38 (3/4): 549-584.
ury A.B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida,
Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología (vol. especial monográfico)
1: 1-337.
ury A.B. 2008. Two new troglomorph Pachylinae (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonylepti-
dae) from caves in Bahia, Brazil. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment
43 (2) [in press].
ello-leitão C.F. de 1940. Mais alguns novos Opiliões Sul-Americanos. Anais da Aca-
demia Brasileira de Ciências 12 (2): 93-107.
érez-Gonlez A. & Kury A.B. 2002. A new remarkable troglomorphic gonyleptid
from Brazil (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología
into-dA-rochA R. 1995. Sinopse da fauna cavernícola do Brasil. Papéis Avulsos de
Zoologia 39 (6): 61-173.
into-dA-rochA R. 1996. Iandumoema uai, a new genus and species of troglobitic har-
vestman from Brazil (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae).
Revista Brasileira de
Zoologia 13 (4): 843-848.
ilhAvý V. 1974. A new subfamily of Gonyleptidae from Brazilian caves, Pachylospel-
einae subfam. n. (Op. Gon.).
Revue Suisse de Zoologie 81 (4): 893-898.
oAres H.E.M. 1966. Novos opiliões da coleção Otto Schubart (Opiliones: Cosmeti-
dae, Gonyleptidae, Phalangodidae). Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia
18 (11): 103-115.
oAres H.E.M. 1972. Opera Opiliologica Varia II (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae, Phalangii-
dae, Phalangodidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, Rio de Janeiro 32 (1): 65-74.
rAjAno E. & GnAsPini-netto P. 1991. Composão da fauna cavercola brasileira
com uma análise preliminar da distribuão dos xons. Revista Brasileira de
Zoologia 7: 383-407.
rAjAno E., secutti S., Bichuette M.E., Guil A.L.F., Felice V., PelleGAtti-FrAnco F. &
erPétuo G.H.S. 2007. Gruta da Morena, Cordisburgo, MG: relevância faunísti-
ca e necessidade de preservação. Carste 2007, II Encontro Brasileiro de Estudos
do Carste, Instituto de Geociências da USP, Livro de Resumos,
p. 105.
... The morphology of Otilioleptes marcelae revealed well-defined troglomorphic traits: depigmentation, weak tegumentary sclerotization, extreme reduction of eyes, elongation of appendages, fading of scutal grooves, and enlargement of pedipalp spines (Fig 1). All those features are typical for cave-adapted harvestmen [3,4,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21] and strongly suggest its condition as a true troglobite, i.e., a species confined into the cave through its entire life cycle [2,22]. Aside from the extreme simplification of external traits shown by O. marcelae, this species bears several unique puzzling features not referable to hypogean life (especially the genital morphology) that hindered any straightforward assessment of its systematic affinities, even at a coarse familial level. ...
... Author [15,[17][18][19]80]. Likewise, genital morphology of cave triaenonychids studied by [20] maintains a close resemblance to their epigean relatives. ...
... Inspired on Ringuelet (1978) [10], Maury (1986) [4] explained the presence of "Parabalta" in Las Brujas and Chorriaca caves by the former extension of the 'subtropical' biota, which retreated northwards as aridity increased after the rise of the Andes; in this view, these harvestmen would represent relics of subtropical origin. A comparable relictual condition, involving withdrawal of ancestral forests, has been suggested for other cave gonyleptoids in Brazil [19,82]. This scenario is consistent with the 'Climatic Relict Hypothesis' proposed by Thomas Barr in the 1960s, in which the parental epigean populations become extinct because of climatic change, leaving relictual survivors in the cave [88]. ...
Full-text available
The troglomorphic harvestman Otilioleptes marcelae gen. nov., sp. nov. from the basaltic cave Doña Otilia, Payunia region, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is described. Its systematic affinities were studied through cladistic and Bayesian analyses that included representatives of Gonyleptoidea; it was determined to represent a new monotypic family, Otilioleptidae fam. nov., occupying a basal position within the clade Laminata. This species shows accentuated troglomorphic traits, typical for troglobitic harvestmen: elongated appendages, depigmentation, reduction of eyes and fading of scutal sulci. Additionally, it almost lacks sexual dimorphism, the distal portion of coxa IV is not completely fused to the stigmatic segment, and penis morphology is remarkably divergent with other Laminata; these features cannot be attributed to cave adaptation and may reflect early lineage divergence. Otilioleptes marcelae is the first troglobitic gonyleptoid known from a lava tube. The xeric environments around the cave (Patagonian ecoregion) and the paleoenvironmental history of the area suggest the relictual character of O. marcelae. Scattered evidence supports a long time evolutionary scenario and a presumable relationship with the Chilean opiliofauna (especially with genus Osornogyndes). A comparative overview of all known troglobitic gonyleptoids is provided. The urgent need to protect this new species and its unique cave environment is emphasized.
... The two previously conditions may be facultative, while the troglobitic species are exclusively found in caves and generally present morphological modifications, such as eye reduction, depigmentation and elongation of legs, which are considered adaptations to subterranean conditions (e.g. Spinopilar moria Kury & González, 2008, Giupponia chagasi González & Kury, 2002. It has been shown by several studies that caves are natural shelters for many epigean harvestmen species (Ferreira et al. 2005, DaSilva and Gnaspini 2010, Chelini et al. 2011. ...
... Previously known distribution of the genus. Alto Paraná (Paraguai), Argentina (province not specified), Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina (Sørensen 1932, Mello-Leitão 1940, Roewer 1949, Soares et al. 1985, Kury 1992, Acosta and Maury 1998, Kury and Pérez-González 2008. ...
Full-text available
Several species of harvestmen occur in natural subterranean cavities using these habitats as shelters and sites of oviposition. Many species have evolved in these environments, thus becoming cave-dwellers. In a few cases harvestmen have been reported in artificial cavities (mines), but without details about their distribution or natural history. Based on faunal inventories carried out in 111 artificial cavities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, this work aimed to register species of harvestmen that are associated with these artificial cavities. Seventeen species were found in 12 municipalities, in addition to new occurrences for 14 of these species and some new behavioral notes. Two undescribed species were also recorded. This study highlights that artificial cavities may be used as shelters by harvestmen, mainly in human-modified landscapes.
... The isolation of troglophilic populations in caves resulting from their extinction on the surface by climate change, in turn, promotes evolution and speciation, giving rise to troglobitic species (Howarth 1980). This geographic relict hypothesis has already been proposed for other troglobitic species in Brazil, as the harvestman Spinopilar moria (Kury & Pérez-González 2008) and the hydrometrid hemipterans Cephalometra and Spelaeometra (Polhemus & Ferreira 2018). ...
Full-text available
We describe the first Neotropical troglobitic species of the genus Perigona Castelnau, 1835 from specimens collected in eight caves located in the Arcos-Pains-Doresópolis speleological province (APD), southeastern Brazil. Perigona spelunca sp. nov. is the fourth known microphthalmous species of the genus, and the second of the subgenus Neoperigona. Other specialisations to the subterranean environment include brachyptery, elongation of appendages and orangish brown body coloration. The new species has an umbilicate series of punctures on the 8th stria with 15 setae arranged linearly and not divided in three groups. We also provide historic biogeographical remarks on the new species.
... However, many of these regions have not yet been explored with the necessary scientific scrutiny. In our study, of the 40 troglobitic species listed, only five are formally described: Eukoenenia sagarana , Eukoenenia maquinensis (Souza & Ferreira, 2010), Spinopilar moria (Kury & Pérez-González, 2008), Spaeleoleptes spaeleus (Soares, 1966), and Lygromma ybyguara (Rheims & Brescovit, 2004), all of them included in some category of threat in the Red Book of Brazilian Threatened Fauna (ICMBio/MMA., 2018). ...
Full-text available
In the last decade, the scientific community brought to the debate gaps that slow down the advance of knowledge regarding global biodiversity. More recently, this discussion has reached subterranean environments, where these gaps are even more dramatic due to the relict and vulnerable nature of their species. In this context, we tested ecological metrics related to some of these gaps, checking if the biological relevance of the caves would change depending on ecological attributes related to each metric. The study was carried out in caves from southeastern Brazil, located in a region presenting a high richness of troglobitic species restricted to a narrow geographical extent. Thus, we verified: (a) the cave invertebrate communities' vulnerability with the Vulnerability Index and the Importance Value for Cave Conservation; (b) the distribution and endemicity of the troglobitic species with the Endemicity Index; (c) the phylogenetic diversity of the troglobitic species considering the average taxonomic distinction (∆+), their richness and evenness. We observed a considerable change in the ordering of the caves' biological relevance according to each tested attribute (index). We discussed how each of these metrics and their attributes indirectly relate to: (a) the preservation and maintenance of the phylogenetic diversity of subterranean communities; (b) the spatial restrictions of different groups, where the greater their restrictions, the greater their vulnerability; (c) the preservation of caves with high biological relevance considering these different attributes together. Thus, we recommend the use of different metrics so that different ecological attributes can be considered, supporting actions that aim to preserve caves in highly altered regions. Finally, we find that the most biologically important cave in the region is not protected (Gruta da Morena Cave). We warn that this cave needs to be contemplated by a conservation unit in the region urgently.
... The nomenclature and description follow Kury and Pérez-González (2008) and Villarreal et al. (2007). Depository of material are Museo del Instituto de Zoología Agrícola, Universidad Central de Venezuela-Maracay (MIZA) and Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ). ...
Full-text available
Licornus tama sp. nov. is described from Táchira State in Venezuelan Andes. This is the first record of real Gonyleptidaefrom this country, although in the past some Venezuelan species, currently placed in other families, have been assigned toGonyleptidae. The genus Licornus Roewer, 1932 had hitherto two species, both endemic to Ecuador. Male genitalmorphology of a species of Licornus is for the first time illustrated and described. Original placement of Licornus in theCranaidae: Cranainae is not supported by morphology of the included species and Licornus is here formally placed in Gonyleptidae: Ampycinae. An emended diagnosis is given to Ampycinae.
... Appendage elongation is also a trait generally considered a troglomorphism and well documented in troglobitic salamanders and several aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates (Kury 2008;Santos et al. 2013;Miranda et al. 2016), including spiders (Jager 2005;Bayer & Jager 2009;Ruzicka et al. 2013). Miller (2005) compared morphological traits of epigean and subterranean species of Anthrobia Tellkampf, 1844 (Linyphiidae) and found that, in addition to lacking eyes, these species have much longer legs, both absolutely and proportionally. ...
Paracymbiomma gen. nov. is proposed to include six new species from Brazil: P. angelim sp. nov. (♂ ♀) from São Paulo, P. carajas sp. nov. (♂ ♀), P. bocaina sp. nov. (♂ ♀) and P. caecus sp. nov. (♂ ♀) from Pará, P. doisirmaos sp. nov. (♂) from Pernambuco and P. pauferrense sp. nov. (♂) from Paraíba. The genus is included in Theuminae by having the sternum with posterior region without rebordered margins, strongly protruding between coxae IV and with numerous long and erect setae, and by the vulva with highly convoluted ducts. It can be distinguished from the other members of the subfamily by the male palp with paracymbium, single RTA, bulb with sclerotized conductor and partly sclerotized median apophysis, and by the female epigyne with posteromedian atrium and sclerotized margin, and vulva with copulatory ducts long, strongly convoluted laterally with proximal part (closest to copulatory openings) translucent. Paracymbiomma carajas sp. nov., P. bocaina sp. nov. and P. caecus sp. nov. occur exclusively in ferruginous caves. We provide a discussion on specializations and adaptations of Paracymbiomma gen. nov. and other species of Prodidomidae to the subterranean environment.
... Os troglomorfismos vistos em aracnídeos não diferem muito do que é observado em outros artrópodes. Em ácaros, ocorre o alongamento e atenuação das quelíceras , pedipalpos, pernas, tricobótrios e ocorre redução ou perda de olhos, ao menos na família Rhagidiidae (); em amblipígeos, aranhas, opiliões e Ricinulei, há casos descritos de redução ou perda de olhos e alongamento de apêndices (Cokendolpher e Enríquez , 2004; Kury e González, 2008; Rahmadi et al., 2010; Snowman et al., 2010) (Figs. 1 e 2); em Palpigradi e pseudo-escorpiões, foi descrito o alongamento de apêndices (Harvey e Volschenk, 2007; Souza e Ferreira, 2010); em Schizomida, pode haver perda das manchas ocelares (Humphreys et al., 1989 ) e escorpiões exibem perda ou redução de ocelos, atenuação de pernas e pedipalpos e redução no número de dentes do pente (Prendini et al., 2010). Diferenças na disposição das cerdas sensoriais entre troglóbios e epígeos também foram descritas em Palpigradi e siologia, Neurobiologia, Neurofisiologia, Cronobiologia, Ecologia Sensorial, Ecologia Comportamental, Evolução, Zoologia, Biologia molecular, Genética e Etologia. ...
The troglobitic harvestman Jimeneziella decui Avram, 1970 is known from four neighboring caves (Cueva de Majana, Cueva de los Golondrinos, Cueva Perla del Agua, and Cueva de Mximo) located in eastern Cuba. We present the first ecological data on a population of this endangered species in Cueva de Mximo. The sex ratio of the population estimated in the main gallery of the cave was not different from 1:1. The spatial distribution observed was uniform, and the density of individuals was 0.48 individuals/m2 (FebruaryMarch) and 0.84 individuals/m2 (November). We describe morphological differences between the sexes and between males. Preliminary morphological and behavioral data suggests the possible existence of two male morphs in J. decui (robust and slender males). The slender males possessed less developed armature on leg IV; and the chelicerae, coxa IV and femur IV were less swollen than robust males. Our observations on male-male interactions suggest that robust males are more aggressive than slender males, which never initiated an attack on robust males, but in some occasions responded to attacks from robust males. The non-aggressive behavior exhibited by robust males towards slender males also suggests that the slender morph is not only a sneaker, but potentially a female mimic, which is also consistent with the morphology of slender males. Ecological and behavioral information also suggests the possible existence of territories defended by robust males with their well-developed weapons, and the presence of females inside them.
The genus Spinopilar Mello-Leitão, 1940 currently has seven species distributed in eastern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Three species are hitherto known from Rio de Janeiro state (RJ), in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In this paper, five species from Rio de Janeiro state (RJ) are studied as follows: (1) Spinopilar armatus Mello-Leitão, 1940, the type species of Spinopilar, originally described without illustrations, is herein redescribed based on additional material from the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro city. (2) Spinopilar anomalis (Sørensen, 1932) is a species never recorded again after the original description. A new diagnosis is provided for S. anomalis based on a translation of the original Latin description. (3) Spinopilar jocheni spec. nov. is described from Barra de Guaratiba, Southeast RJ. It is characterized by the unarmed mesotergal areas. (4) Spinopilar martialis spec. nov. is described from Macaé, northern RJ. It is characterized by the pars stridens of the stridulatory organ on the pedipalpal femur, the unusual armature of scutal areas (2-2-10-10) and the extremely complex lobes of the stigmatic area in males, which connect the apophyses of coxa and trochanter IV. (5) Spinopilar magistralis spec. nov. is described from Búzios. It is characterized by extreme stoutness of leg IV and an elevated campaniform ocularium. A key is provided to 9 of the 10 species of Spinopilar and a new diagnosis is given for the genus. Two novel structures so far known only in Spinopilar are described: (1) a third type of pars stridens, which is different from the Tibangara-type and the Bissulla/Pseudopachylus-type both in topology and in structure of the ridges; (2) a proximal primary trochanteral cluster (PTC) composed of modified setae situated on the main apophysis of trochanter IV of males.
In Brazil, the order Opiliones has been well studied, making this country the leader in research with the group, but few extensive works have been made on the distribution of harvestmen associated with caves. In this context, the present paper aims to list all records of the superfamily Gonyleptoidea associated with Brazilian caves, using records from the literature and unreported data from scientific collections. The compiled checklist contains the largest number of harvestmen species recorded for caves in one country, worldwide. A total of 155 species belonging to 7 families were recorded from 952 caves throughout 152 municipalities and 17 states of Brazil. A considerable number of 46 putative (undescribed) new species were recognized, including 9 troglomorphic species. Additionally, 161 new municipal records where found for 58 known species. The most diverse family was Gonyleptidae (104 spp.), with the subfamilies Pachylinae (55 spp.), followed by Goniosomatinae (18 spp.) and Mitobatinae (16 spp.). The number of described species analysed in the present work represents about 12% of the Brazilian opiliofauna of Gonyleptoidea, with many species widely distributed, being indicative of affinity of the group with the cave environments. Thus, the compilation of distribution data of such species (mainly the troglobitic and troglomorphic) can directly contribute to a higher valuation of their habitats, leading to better preservation policies, as well as being useful for future ecological and biogeographical studies.
Full-text available
All the systematic literature (774 references) of the suborder Laniatores of the Americas up to year 2002 is tabulated to generate a thorough annotated classification. 2372 species in 746 genera of Laniatores of the New World are listed. 26 families of Laniatores are recognized as valid, of which 21 occur in the New World. The most diverse family is Gonyleptidae (823 species), followed by Cosmetidae (710 species), both endemic to the New World. Synonymies, revalidations, replacement names and emended spellings are done when necessary. The complete list of nomenclatural acts herein proposed is given. The new family Escadabiidae Kury & Pérez is proposed, the new subfamily Ampycinae Kury is proposed in Gonyleptidae. Countries and ultramarine departments included are 1) South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela; 2) Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama; 3) Antilles: Bahamas, Bermuda Island, Caicos Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Netherland Antilles, Puerto Rico, Tortuga Island, UK Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Windward Islands; 4) North America: Canada, Greenland, Mexico, U.S.A. First order administrative divisions (departments, provinces, states) for all most diverse countries are interpolated in the locality names. A list of species by first order administrative divisions is provided for all countries treated. The most diverse country is Brazil, with 855 species of Laniatores, followed by Venezuela with 328 species. An exhaustive list of the depository institutions of the type material with curators and contacts addresses is given.
Full-text available
The study ofthe Brazilian cave fauna began with A. R. Ferreirak observations on the 18th century. Few data (mainly descriptions of new species) were published until 1980. Since then, important new data on the knowledge of the cavernicolous fauna have been published due the regional surveys made in Vale do Ribeira, Bambui and Altamira-Itaituba Speleological Provinces. A list of 613 taxa (537 invertebrates, 76 vertebrates) from 282 caves, based on bibliography and original data is presented. Informations on ecological evolutionary classiJcation, feeding habits, bibliography and collecting localities are provided.
Full-text available
A new genus and species of harvestman, Iandumoema uai, is described based on material from Gruta Olhos d'Agua, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Its hoglo- morphisms include depigrnentation on body, legs and eyes. It is the third troglobitic species of harvestman recorded from Brazilian caves and the second in the family Gonyleptidae.
Full-text available
New data on Brazilian cave fauna are added to previous surveys and the relative abundance and distribution of the cavernicolous taxa is discussed. Terrestrial representatives of several arthropod families and genera are common in both tropical and subtropical Brazilian caves: Endecous and Eidmanacris crickets, Reduviidae heteropterans, Carabidae, Catopinae and Ptilodactylidae beetles, dipterans such as the Chironomidae, Keroplatidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae, Hydropsychidae trichopterans, Pseudonnanolenidae and Chelodesnidae millipedes, Plato, Ctenus, Loxosceles and Blechroscelis spiders, Pachylinae opilionids, Chernetidae pseudoscorpions and acarians such as the Macrochelidae and Uropodidae. Other taxa are mainly or exclusively tropical Blattelidae, Blattidae and BlaberidaE cockroaches, Histeridae beetles, Noctuoidea moths, social insects as termites and ants, Styloniscidae isopods, Migalomorpha spiders, Amblypigi On the other hand, Psauridae spiders, Goniosoma and Tricommatinae opilionids, Elmidae beetles, and Philosciidae isopods seems to be mainly subtropical. Brazilian aquatic cave fauna seems to be less diversified than the terrestrial one. Siluriform fishes such as pimelodids, trichomycterids and loricariids predominate throughout the country, besides decapod (Macrobrachium shrimps, Potamidae crabs, Aegla anomurans, the latter exclusive of subtropical caves) and amphipod (Spelaeogammarus, in tropical caves, and Hyalella) crustaceans. Insect larvae (e.g. Elmidae coleopterans, Nematocera dipterans, trichopterans) and adults (e.g. Veliidae and Naucoridae heteropterans, Dytiscidae coleopterans), oligochaetes and gastropods such as the Hydrobiidae, are also relatively common. Blechroscelis spiders, Goniosoma opilionids, Zelurus heteropterans, Eidmanacris crickets, Keroplatidae dipterans and Macrobrachium shrimps, among others, live next to the entrance zone in the majority of the caves. But, these animals become troglofiles under certain circunstances (an exceptional input of energy, or the absence of competition with cave-adapted species more efficient).
Full-text available
The new genus Giupponia is described for the new species Giupponia chagasi from two limestone caves in Serra do Ramalho, Carinhanha, Bahia State, Brazil. This species shows remarkable troglomorphisms, such as complete depigmentation, very elongate appendages, very high tarsal segmentation and complete loss of the ocular structures. This is the first anophthalmic cave dwelling harvestman from Brazil. The affinities of Giupponia are discussed on the grounds of external and genital morphology. Placement in the family Gonyleptidae, subfamily Pachylinae is supported by external morphology and genital features. The new genus is compared to the other two described troglomorp- hic gonyleptid species, Pachylospeleus strinatii Šilhavý, 1974 and Iandumoema uai Pinto-da-Rocha, 1996.
Full-text available
Two new species of troglomorph Pachylinae are described from caves in a xeric biome of eastern Brazil. Both are assigned to extant genera, known from epigean environment – Discocyrtus Holmberg, 1878 and Eusarcus Perty, 1833. These are the first records of Opiliones from the caves “Gruna do Brejo & Verruga” and “Caverna Pedra Furada,” Sistema Lapa Doce in the Brazilian state of Bahia. Both species show moderate troglomorph features such as partial depigmentation and elongation of appendages.
opera opiliologica Varia II (opiliones: Gonyleptidae, Phalangiidae , Phalangodidae)
soAres H.E.M. 1972. opera opiliologica Varia II (opiliones: Gonyleptidae, Phalangiidae, Phalangodidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, Rio de Janeiro 32 (1): 65-74.
relevância faunística e necessidade de preservação. Carste
  • E Secutti
  • S Bichuette
  • M E Guil
  • A L F Felice
  • V Pellegatti-Franco
  • F Perpétuo
trAjAno E., secutti S., Bichuette M.E., Guil A.L.F., Felice V., PelleGAtti-FrAnco F. & PerPétuo G.H.S. 2007. Gruta da Morena, Cordisburgo, MG: relevância faunística e necessidade de preservação. Carste 2007, II Encontro Brasileiro de Estudos do Carste, Instituto de Geociências da USP, livro de Resumos, p. 105.