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E-government services in developing countries: Factors that influence citizens' utilisation of service


Abstract and Figures

In recent years, developing countries have witnessed an increase in availability of e-government services. This is good news for all stakeholders, especially citizens, as it ensures that services delivered by governments and interaction between governments and citizens can be facilitated, and then evaluated for efficient and effective delivery. However, despite this positive trend, a low citizen uptake and adoption of e-government services is apparent. E-government services are implemented as technical projects and with implicit assumptions that citizens will use these services. As a result, citizens' expectations of such services are not met. However, to measure citizen's satisfaction in such situations, there is the need to have sound information systems management practices, inter alia, effective strategies for the evaluation of implemented systems. Given this background, new research is required to investigate and develop a citizen centric evaluation framework for e-government services. The aims of the research are to identify evaluation criteria and to develop an effective and adaptable means to assess e-government services. Using content analysis, this paper reports on the first stage of the research: the identification and understanding of the factors that influence citizens' adoption and utilisation of e-government services. The evidence at hand confirms that e-government services are underutilised, and the case for developing sound e-government evaluation is thus made.
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E-government services in developing countries: Factors that influence
citizens’ utilisation of service
Annastellah Sigwejo
Andy Bytheway
Shaun Pather
In recent years, developing countries have witnessed an increase in availability of e-
government services. This is good news for all stakeholders, especially citizens, as it
ensures that services delivered by governments and interaction between
governments and citizens can be facilitated, and then evaluated for efficient and
effective delivery. However, despite this positive trend, a low citizen uptake and
adoption of e-government services is apparent. E-government services are
implemented as technical projects and with implicit assumptions that citizens will use
these services. As a result, citizens’ expectations of such services are not met.
However, to measure citizen’s satisfaction in such situations, there is the need to
have sound information systems management practices, inter alia, effective
strategies for the evaluation of implemented systems. Given this background, new
research is required to investigate and develop a citizen centric evaluation framework
for e-government services. The aims of the research are to identify evaluation criteria
and to develop an effective and adaptable means to assess e-government services.
Using content analysis, this paper reports on the first stage of the research: the
identification and understanding of the factors that influence citizens’ adoption and
utilisation of e-government services. The evidence at hand confirms that e-
government services are underutilised, and the case for developing sound e-
government evaluation is thus made.
Key words: E-government, e-government service evaluation, evaluation factor,
citizen and evaluation framework
1. Introduction
In this era of constantly evolving information and communication technologies (ICTs)
governmental institutions are under continuous pressure. Since the 1990s, when e-
government initiatives were emerging globally, governments worldwide have been
working hard to deliver information and services electronically. E-government
services are becoming more and more important because individual organisations
and businesses need the efficiency and effectiveness benefits. For example, the
availability of 24/7 services reduces time and cost to the government and to its
constituent partners as well. This becomes attractive for all stakeholders, but it
demands that services delivered by governments and the interactions between
governments and citizens are evaluated for efficient and effective delivery, otherwise
the benefits might be just an illusion. Evaluation of Information Systems (IS) projects,
which has been prominent on the IS research agenda since the 1980s has posed
some difficulties for practitioners (Pather & Usabuwera, 2010). These authors argue
that notwithstanding the difficulty involved in developing measures of effectiveness,
businesses [and other organisations] still need to have suitable indicators of the
success of their IS investment.
Although e-government services are high on the agenda and many resources are set
aside for it, the success of electronic services delivery is not always clear. Most of
the services are implemented as technical projects (Verdegem & Verleye, 2009) that
do not properly address the citizens’ expectations, and it is implicitly assumed that
citizens will use the services. One of the consequences of this is there is only a low
uptake of the e-government services. The low uptake becomes a challenge as
greater efficiency and other benefits that justify the investment are only possible with
wide use of e-government services (Verdegem & Verleye, 2009). In such situations,
sound information system management practices are required, which include, inter
alia, strategies for the effective evaluation of implemented systems.
An information system (IS) is usually part of a human social structure (Irani et al.,
2005), and therefore the implementation of systems can have cascading negative
effects throughout an entire organisation, if the users expectations and needs
(including cultural and structural issues) are not adequately addressed. Therefore,
there is a need to develop a user oriented or citizen-centric e-government evaluation
approach. One of the key issues in this regard is the identification of the factors that
influence citizens to adopt and utilise e-government services.
Therefore, this research focuses on the development of an evaluation framework for
e-government service. Such a framework should be based on providing e-
government practitioners with an indication of IS success from the citizen’s
perspective. The aims of the research thus are to identify evaluation factors and to
develop these into an effective and adaptable means to assess e-government
services. Gomez & Pather, (2012) in arguing that the evaluation field may be too
narrowly focused on measuring the tangible and quantifiable economic benefits,
suggest that intangible impacts of ICTs have been neglected. Based on the
foregoing, the investigation into e-government evaluation must take into account both
tangible and intangible benefits of e-government. Dimensions of the latter would
include social, economical and technical aspects, amongst others. Such a framework
will provide valuable feedback for future planning and implementation of e-
government programmes.
2. Research Background
2.1. The literature
Existing literature highlights the revolutionary nature of e-government in
governments, and provides a basis to investigate the evaluation of this phenomenon
from a perspective of citizen derived value and benefits (Jones, Iran, & Amir Sharif,
2007; Grimsely & Meehan, 2007; Lee et al., 2008). However some scholars suggest
that the evaluation of e-government is neglected, underdeveloped and under-
managed (Jones et al., 2007; Curie, 2008). This is not the result of exclusion, but it
shows the extent of complexity that is fundamental to deriving an appropriate
evaluation criteria (Grimsley & Meehan, 2007). According to Grimsley and Meehan,
the most frequently designated reasons for deficiency of in evaluation are problems
of identifying and quantifying benefits and opportunity costs, lack of evaluation
methods and techniques, and difficulty in interpreting results.
Some studies do take on traditional evaluation approach to evaluate e-government
services. However, for accurate evaluations of e-government services consideration
of multiple perspectives of stakeholders is essential, (Sarmad et al., 2007).The focus
here is to take a broader perspective, acknowledging that e-government not only
permeates government agencies and their operational practices but also society,
citizens and their social activities. Lee et al., (2008), argue that the relationship
between citizens and government services can be successfully transformed only if
the citizens’ perspectives of government services are objectively measured and the
areas of improvement are correctly identified. This implies that the precise evaluation
of e-government service needs to include not only all stakeholders’ perspectives and
the social and technical context of use but also consider inclusion of the specific
needs of several groups of citizens which are using a specific e-government service
such student, professional, and so forth (Sarmad et al., 2007). Generally, to precisely
determine the benefits that associated with e-government evaluation are required
though is difficult. E-government initiatives goals and objectives in practice are very
varied as a result the gained benefits also vary, and the evaluations of the initiatives
obviously will vary according to the different stakeholders’ perspectives on the value
of these benefits Beynon-Davies, (2005).
2.2. Analysis of e-government services evaluation approaches
A number of e-government service evaluation approaches have been proposed and
investigated worldwide in developed countries, but relatively few studies have
investigated projects in developing countries. Generally these approaches were
designed to address either tangible or intangible benefits. Tangible benefits are
generally concerned with accounting and financial outcomes while intangible benefits
are concerned with the organisational, social, political or cultural impact of the
system. According to Orange et al., (2007) there are only few evaluation frameworks
approaches that combine both hard and soft aspects.
The different e-government service evaluation approaches that have been endorsed
in developed countries are based on different theoretical foundations or models, and
are mostly focused on a particular aspect of e-government evaluation such cost
analysis. For developing countries, very few evaluation studies have been done and
there is no guarantee that the theoretical foundations or models are applicable in a
developing country due to the differences in economic, social and structural factors,
and people’s attitudes (Chen, Chen, Huang, & Ching, 2006). In developing countries
the citizens’ influence on the use of e-government services might differ, and the
evaluation approach as well. This paper proposes a set of factors which influence the
citizens not to utilise e-government services in a typical developing country-
2.3. Tanzania as a developing country
The United Republic of Tanzania (URT) has a territorial area of 945,000 km
and is
classified as a developing country in East Africa. The majority of its citizens live in the
rural areas, where typically there is low ICT readiness, low ICT literacy, low
household Internet penetration and poor information (Bjørn & Stein, 2007). The URT
government has put in place a national ICT policy (URT, 2003) that emphasises an
e-government strategy. The national ICT policy intends to provide a more
coordinated and citizen-driven focus to Tanzanian’s e-government initiatives, and
thus ensure the delivery of services in a citizen-centred manner through an
organised adoption of technologies (URT, 2008).
E-government in Tanzania is still in its nascent stages (Yonazi, 2010), however,
substantial progress has been made in implementing e-government initiatives. These
include the establishment of:
e-Government Agency (e-GA) that is charged with the mandate of providing
coordination, oversight of e-government initiatives and enforcement of e-
government standards in the country.
A customs transit network connecting all Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA)
offices for enhanced efficiency in revenue collection.
The Central Admission System (CAS) for admission of students in higher
learning institutions in a more efficient manner.
Land Management System (LMS) for application, tracing and obtaining land
related document in a more efficient manner.
Tanzania Parliament online, for Tanzanian citizens to access information or to
comment about the Tanzanian parliament.
These initiatives aim to enhance work efficiency and improve services delivery to
meet the needs of the citizens in a responsive and transparent manner, (URT, 2008).
Despite this significant progress that Tanzania has made using information and
communication technology, the utilization of e-government services by the citizens
remains a challenge. The government recognises the potential value of e-
government in promoting and improving efficiency in public service delivery and
strengthening citizen’s participation and engagement. However, the low uptake of the
services by the citizens becomes an issue and for the government needs to realise
greater e-government investment and wider use of the service is required.
Having provided an overview of the Tanzanian e-government initiatives, the
remainder of the paper is organised as follows: a summary of factors identified in the
literature are discussed; then through the analysis of qualitative data obtained in
interviews and focus groups, the general list of factors is critically reviewed and
adapted to the perceived needs of citizens in Tanzania.
3. General factors obtained from the literature
In the literature discussion in the previous section, the importance of e-government
service evaluation was highlighted. In addition, the important issue of ensuring that
all e-government stakeholder perspectives are considered was also emphasised.
The factors that influence the utilisation of e-government service were synthesised
from the literature discussed and summarised as indicated in the table 1.
Table 1: Summarised factors deduced from the literature review
E-government services awareness among
(Choudrie & Dwivedi,
2005);(Al-jaghoub, Al-
yaseen, & Al-hourani, 2010),
The degree to which it can enable citizens
to personalise information and services
according to their own need and
circumstances, and by how fast it can
(Wang, Bretschneider, &
Gant, 2005);(Carter &
Bélanger, 2005); (Corradini,
Polzonetti, Re, & Tesei,
Political Desire
Lack of political desire can lead to slow or
low uptake of e-service
(Schwester, 2009)
Lack of trust between end user (citizens)
and government. Citizens’ trust requires
maintaining security in handling of
information, protecting the privacy of
citizens, and assuring them that their
personal information will be treated
Without this assurance it will be difficult to
promote the use of e-government services
(Belanger, Hiller, & Smith,
2002); (Aichholzer, 2004)
(Carter & Bélanger, 2005);
(Papadomichelaki &
Mentzas, 2009); (Godwin
Kaisara & Pather, 2011)
(Al-adawi, Yousafzai, &
Pallister, 2005)
Value of information in terms of quality and
transparency that government agencies
provide to the citizens
(Eschenfelder & Miller,
2005); (Sarmad, Alahmary, &
Alalwany, 2007)
Right technical skills is important to use e-
government services
Esteves and Joseph, 2008
The ease of understanding (what?) and
information that is interpretable. Up to date
information completeness, accuracy,
conciseness and relevance
(Papadomichelaki &
Mentzas, 2009) (Kaisara &
Pather, 2011)
An effective and efficient user interface
(Terry & Zaphiris, 2003);
(Abanumy, Al-badi, &
2005)(Papadomichelaki &
Mentzas, 2009)
Knowing how to do it.
Stakeholders willingness and ability to use
e-government services is important and
lead to successfulness
(Gilbert, Balestrini, &
Littleboy, 2004); (Goings,
Young, & Hendry, 2003)
Sufficient hardware and software and
communications capacity to meet peak
demand. Develop a system that can be
displayed and used independently of the
(Papadomichelaki &
Mentzas, 2009); (M. Kumar &
Charles, 2010); (Iwaarden,
Wiele, Ball, & Millen, 2003)
web browser used.
Quality of Service
The uptake will rise only if e-government
services will offer a service level that is at
least equal or superior to the basic service.
This includes ease-of-use, minimal down
time of IT (for maintenance or error
(Singgih & Ardhiyani, 2010);
(Zhao, Lu, Zhang, & Chau,
2012); (Halaris, Magoutas, &
Papadomichelaki, 2007)(G
Kaisara & Pather, 2009)
Citizens will only use e-government
services when they can be reasonably
confident that there will be no risks involved
with using e-services. Protection of
personal data is key, as well as easy-to-use
security function e.g. via smart card ID.
(Lam, 2005), Altameem et
al., (2006), (Goings et al.,
2003) Schwester, (2009)
No budget no project
(Lam, 2005), (Esteves &
Joseph, 2008) (Goings et al.,
2003) (Al-adawi et al., 2005)
As explained in section 2.2 most of the e-government services evaluation
approaches have been undertaken in developed countries. Therefore the literature
on this issue is based mainly on factors, which are related to developed countries.
Therefore the factors that are empirically developed in developed countries’ contexts
may or may not be applicable in developing countries. Thus the factors drawn from
the current literature provide a useful starting point for the research.
4. Research Approach
In order to carry out this research, it was necessary to select an appropriate research
approach that would effectively and reliably investigate the citizensperspective of e-
government services and to identify the key factors which influence citizens’
utilisation of e-government services. The use of content analysis as a research
method was chosen as a way of analysing data that will bring out issues of general
factors for adoption of e-government services. This was done for the purposes of
developing an evaluation framework in Tanzania. The research design and strategy
were based on a critical review and analysis of a number of articles and published
empirical case studies. In addition empirical evidence drawn from focus groups and
semi-structured interviews were applied in determining the findings. The articles and
the sources of empirical data were carefully selected, specifically looking at those
that intended to evaluate the e-government services from a citizens' perspective.
Because of the current and rapidly evolving nature of the e-government field, the
need to support literature analysis with empirical data was important. The research
strategy considered the multidisciplinary nature of the research domain dealing with
the wide range of data required. This covered all aspects of evaluation, including the
tangible and intangible benefits that influence citizens’ utilisation of e-government
services. This strategy also considers the social and technical context of use. The
data obtained in this progress research will be used as a basis in future research
The data collections for this paper was underpinned by interpretivism approach whilst
the documentation and focus group interviews were the methods applied for
collection of data. These were done with the focus on exploring the factors that
influence the citizen to utilise e-government services in Tanzania. The examinations
registration system service that is provided by National Examination Council of
Tanzania (NECTA) was selected as one of e-government services that are online
delivered national wide. Two focus group interviews of forty citizens who are using e-
government services (examination registration system) were conducted. Each of the
focus groups was conducted using the same moderator guide with a set of common
group questions and in each focus group session participants were split into four
sub-groups. Participants were encouraged to reflect on both their personal
experiences with the e-government services as well as their experience during the
focus group task. The moderator facilitates the discussion and the data were
recorded on digital media.
The qualitative data from the document and focus group was subjected to content
analysis techniques as described by Corbin & Strauss, (2008). Analysis entailed
coding and categories that developed from synthesising data collected from the
different documentation and focus groups. These categories were labelled based on
the meanings evoked during analysis (see Appendix I). Eleven e-governments
service evaluation factors were derived from the analysis: Awareness, IT Skill, Mind-
set, Preference for face to face, Inadequate infrastructure, Perceived
unpreparedness, Service quality, Perceived benefits, Trust, Inadequate access
technologies, Inadequate infrastructure (see Appendix 1). Through an iterative
process of the analysis of underlying and refinement thereof, some of the factors that
give inherent similarities were merge and the influencing factors were further
interpreted and organised within four categories: User Characteristic, Government
Readiness, Service and e-Government infrastructure (figure 1). Each category is
described based on the understanding gleaned from the evidence.
Figure 1: Summary of proposed factors that influence citizen utilisation of e-
government services
5. Result from the analysis
Hence, based on the analysis described in the forgoing section, four e-government
service evaluation factors were proposed. Based on the understanding gleaned from
the evidence each of the factor are describe below.
User Characteristic
User characteristics such as awareness, IT skill, mind-set, and preference for face-
to-face can have a direct impact on utilization of e-government services. The user
characteristics also differ between different groups of users; different users from
different situations have different user characteristics. The literature present
approaches to determine user characteristics (Kumar, Mukerji, Butt, & Persaud,
2007; Pilling & Heike Boeltzig, 2007) and accordingly, the understanding the
characteristic of users and deliver the service that citizen demand most is proposed.
Service issue related to various aspects of the service intended to be used by the
citizens, this include service quality, perceived benefits and trust. These issues have
direct impact on utilisation of e-government services. For e-government service to be
utilised, it needs to have characteristics that meet and exceed citizens’ expectations.
Infrastructure issues such as inadequate access technology and inadequate
infrastructure are very important for the citizen to utilise the e-government services. It
points out the multichannel accessibility (such as mobile phone, Internet kiosk,
telecentres), a wider distribution of services of e-government services. These very
important issues to be address for the government services to be utilised and realise
the returns from e-government investment.
Government readiness
Government readiness issues such as perceived unpreparedness and inadequate
can have impact on the usage of e-government services. As indicated in the
literature, the progress of the e-government can be measured by assessing the
preparedness of the government towards delivering services in an electronic
environment (UN, 2008). Hence a proper designed communications must be
employed to guarantee that a government is prepared to deliver services online
6. Conclusion
The work presented in this paper describes an effort to provide a clear and adaptable
set of e-government service evaluation factors. This can be applied in Tanzania, a
prime example of a developing country, to help achieve better citizen uptake of e-
government services. The authors’ critical analysis of e-government services
evaluation approaches revealed that few evaluation approaches covered the citizens
perspectives, and this is even lesser in the developing countries and absent in
Tanzania. Hence, evaluation factors were proposed that covers the user
characteristic, service, infrastructure and government relationship affecting the
citizen uptake of the e-government services.
The empirical validation and examination of the proposed factors are the limitation of
this paper, as they have not been applied in the fieldwork. Therefore, the authors in
the next stage, will perform an empirical validation of the proposed factors. Applying
a case study strategy, which will form the basis for further research, will do this. It is
hope the resulting outcome will help identify the real factors that will measure
citizenssatisfaction in e-government services.
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Appendix 1.
Factors that influence citizen utilisation of e-government services derived from
focus group
Open cording
Axial coding (Factors)
Awareness {15}
User Characteristic
Education {20}
Knowledge on ICT{21}
ICT Skill
User exposure (AWARENESS) {19}
Mindset {19}
Trust on the Government {16}
Face to face preference {17
Preference for face to face
Poor user Identification system {7-0}
Inadequate infrastructure
Guarantee {21-0}
Perceived unpreparedness
Manual Practice in e-Services {19-0}
Poor Government practices in service provision {20-0}
Slow innovativeness of the Government {12-0}
Political Will {22-0}
Trust on the Government {19-0}
Unethical government employees {1-0}
Marketing {2-0}
Unsupportive practices for e-Government {25-0}
Accessibility {2-0}
Service quality
Services issues
Affordability {3-0}
Availability {1-0}
Service Reliability {19-0}
Easy to Access {19-0}
Poor Quality Service {19-0}
Easy to use {25-0}
Kiswahili {13-0}
Multilingual {10-0}
Multichannel {10-0}
Benefits {17-0} }
Perceived benefits
Incentive {11-0
Cost {24-0}
Timeliness {21-0}
Usefulness/Relevance {19-0}
User Friendliness {20-0}
Security of service {12-0}
Trust {14-0}
Trust on the Government {15-0}
Availability {19-0}
Inadequate Access technologies
ICT Penetration {2-0}
Lack of Access equipment {19-0}
Availability {19-0}
ICT Penetration {21-0}
Lack of Access equipment {18-0}
Coverage of Network {29-0}
Inadequate infrastructure
Lack of e-payment systems {11-0}
Lack of electricity {32-0}
Multichannel {16-0}
Poor infrastructure {18-0}
Poor user Identification system {19-0}
... As a result, practical evaluation of E-Government requires creating a usercentered or citizen-centric approach. Identifying the factors that influence people's desire to embrace and use E-Government applications and services is a critical topic to address in this regard (Sigwejo et al., 2013). E-Government is frequently defined as the use of information technology to (1) facilitate citizens' and businesses' access to government information and services; (2) enhance the quality of services through increased speed, completeness, and process efficiency; and (3) enable citizens to participate in a variety of democratic processes. ...
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E-Government services have become more widely available in developing countries in recent years. This is beneficial for all stakeholders, especially for people, because it enables the facilitation of government services and contacts with citizens, which can then be evaluated for efficiency and effectiveness. Additionally, as internet use and digitalization have expanded, governments worldwide have taken the essential steps toward E-Governance, integrating government procedures with information technology. Despite this encouraging trend, there is evidence of limited citizen uptake and use of E-Government services. Electronic government services are implemented as technological initiatives, with the underlying premise that citizens will use them. As a result, citizens' expectations for these services are not realized. This study evaluates current research on E-Government to identify gaps, limitations, and future research paths. A recent study in this area primarily focuses on the national level, with little concentration on the local level. As a result, future research proposals focus on E-Government at the municipal level.
Conference Paper
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Over the past decade the World Wide Web (WWW) has had far reaching implications on the way in which information is shared, and services are rendered by both public and private organisations. One important issue on the research agenda has been the adoption of the web by the public sector, in the form of electronic government or e-government. Previous studies show that the benefits brought about by e-government adoption include increased convenience for citizens in areas such as filing tax returns, increased transparency on government activities and greater access to government information. Nevertheless, governments face great challenges to make their investments in the web more successful. This paper examines two factors that influence e-government success, viz, service quality dimensions in the online environment; and citizens' attitudes towards e-government and their expectations in respect of government responsibilities in facilitating access and adoption thereof. Based on a literature review, six service quality items fundamental to the success of e-government websites were identified and reported on in WWW 2008. This paper expands on the initial findings by providing an in-depth discussion of the service quality dimensions which were identified in the previous paper. In addition, this paper also reports on citizens' expectations and attitudes in relation to the accessibility and adoption of e-government services, and government efforts to make accessibility and adoption achievable. The paper concludes that without also integrating strategies to facilitate access to and adoption of e-government services for the majority of the citizens, then service quality in e-government would only benefit few citizens, thus rendering e-government a tool for socioeconomic divide.
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PT Pos Indonesia is currently still lacking in serving and satisfying customers, this company has little attention to customer complaints and this will have an impact on customer loyalty. Fulfillment of customer expectations yields the customer satisfaction and brings benefit to the company especially PT Pos Indonesia as this project's object. Knowing the level of customer satisfactions is not enough because new phenomenon indicates that customer satisfaction levels can be distinguished into categories one dimensional, must be and attractive. To understand this customer behavior very well, an integrated SERVQUAL and Kano into QFD is necessary to be implemented. Needed information is obtained from the distributed questionnaires through SERVQUAL questionnaires and Kano questionnaires to the customers who ever experienced the service of the company and its competitor. Collected data then processed with SERVQUAL method and grouped into Kano's category then QFD as improvement design. From this research, several aspects need to be improved by the management are complaint handling, safety and cleanliness on shipment and delivery process, safety and security in office, warehouses and parking lots, customer relation and satisfaction, employee Behaviour, employee training, employee's knowledge about company's service, automated facilities, simple bureaucracy and process flow.
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The evaluation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in development activities has metamorphised through different phases in the last 30 years. In this paper we explore the experiences of ICT evaluation in the broad business environment and draw parallels with the ICT for development (ICTD) environment. The paper motivates the need for a fundamental paradigm shift in ICTD evaluation. We argue that it is not sufficient to focus on the easily measurable tangible and quantifiable benefits of ICT. We motivate that the intangible benefits of ICT on development such as empowerment, self-esteem and social cohesion are more important from a developmental perspective. Consequently, a more detailed exploration of the theoretical and methodological implications of this shift in the ICTD field is warranted.
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Digital services can be thought as internet based applications that fulfil users' needs and their quality represents a basic element during the delivery process. In such a context, usability is one the main quality parameters and it refers to the ease of benefiting from the functionalities and the information the service provides. We propose a list of quality parameters and a formal model suitable for the quality assessment of digital services. In order to examine the effectiveness of our model, we report the results of an experimentation that we carried out to study the quality of a digital e-government service.
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The e-government field is growing to a considerable size, both in its contents and position with respect to other research fields. The government to citizen segment of e- government is taking the lead in terms of its impor tance and size. Like the evaluation of all other information system s initiatives, the evaluation of e- governments in both theory and practice has proved to be important but complex. The complexity of evaluation is mostly due to the multi ple perspectives involved, the difficulties of quantifying benefits, and the socia l and technical context of use. The importance of e-government evaluation is due to the enormous investment of governments on delivering e-government services, and to the considerable pace of growing in the e-government field. However, despite the importance of the evaluation of e-government services, literature shows that e-gove rnment evaluation is still an immature area in terms of development and management. This work is part of a research effort that aims to develop a holistic evaluation framework for e-government systems. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the citizen' perspective in evaluating e-government services, an d present a set of evaluating factors that influence citizens' utilization of e-governmen t services. These evaluation factors can serve as part of an e-government evaluation framework. Moreover, the evaluation factors can also be used as means of providing valuable fee dback for the planning of future e- government initiatives.
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The primary objective of most e-governments is to better serve citizens, however, very little has been written on citizens' likelihood to use e-government. This paper presents the citizens aspect of e- government. The objective is to understand how citizens perceive e-government as a primary government interaction channel and the factors that affect their level of usage. The proposed conceptual model of citizen adoption of e-government integrates constructs from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (1), trust and risk literature. The paper differentiates between citizen's intention to get government information and citizen's intention to conduct government transactions on e-government website. The model will assist governments in increasing citizens' adoption of their online services. In addition, it will fill the gap in the literature by providing a unique model of citizens' e-government adoption especially considering trust and risk issues.
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In an effort to identify the quality factors perceived to be most important in relation to the use of Web sites, a survey was undertaken. The questionnaire utilized was based on the SERVQUAL instrument that identifies five quality dimensions in service environments. The results indicate that the quality dimensions found applicable in the service sector are also applicable to Web sites. The items that have been identified as most important in relation to the quality of Web sites are tangibles (the appearance of the Web site, navigation, search options, and structure), reliability (the ability to judge the trustworthiness of the offered service and the organization performing the service), responsiveness (the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service), assurance (the ability of the Web site to convey trust and confidence in the organisation behind it with respect to security and privacy), and empathy (the provision of caring, individualized attention to customers, including user recognition and customization).
The area of electronic government (eGovernment) has received increased prominence and attention over the last few years. In spite of the current developments, many avenues in the area of eGovernment remain unexplored. One such area is the comprehensive assessment of eGovernment projects. We propose that understanding the value of projects drives the assessment process. Assessment of information technology (IT) initiatives is conducted either as an ex-ante (before implementation) or ex-post (after implementation) procedure. In this study, we present an ex-post framework for the assessment of eGovernment projects. Assessment identifies the value of the eGovernment project post-implementation. This paper examines a three-dimensional framework for the assessment of eGovernment initiatives. The three dimensions are eGovernment maturity level, stakeholders, and assessment levels.
Similar to other developing countries, Jordan started a national e-Government initiative aiming to streamline government procedures and make information and government services available to business and citizens online. This paper presents the results of a pilot study that aims to assess factors which could influence the awareness and use of e-Government services in Jordan. It investigates issues such as: accessibility of e- government, citizen's attitude toward various privacy and security, the required services and costs. The data was collected using quantitative and qualitative methods including a survey and interviews with e-Government officials. The results of this preliminary study suggest that awareness of e-government did not reach the required level. These findings are hoped to be useful for researchers, practitioners and policy makers.