DataPDF Available
1
Supplementary Information
Unexpected layers of cryptic diversity in Wood White Leptidea butterflies
Vlad Dincă, Vladimir A. Lukhtanov, Gerard Talavera
& Roger Vila
2
Supplementary Figure S1 | Leptidea Bayesian inference tree based on COI haplotypes. The COI-based tree revealed
the presence of three major clades ascribable to L. sinapis, L. reali and the previously unnoticed species L. juvernica.
Bayesian posterior probabilities and ML bootstrap
values (>50%) are shown above recovered branches. hs – haplotypes
of L. sinapis; hr haplotypes of L. reali; hj haplotypes of L. juvernica; IE Ireland; ES Spain; FR – France; IT
Italy; CH – Switzerland; AT – Austria; SI – Slovenia; CZ – Czech Republic; HR – Croatia; RO – Romania; BG
Bulgaria; GR – Greece; EE – Estonia; UA – Ukraine; RU – Russia; KZ – Kazakhstan.
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Supplementary Figure S2 | Leptidea Bayesian inference tree inferred from ND1 sequences. L. juvernica is
recovered as monophyletic. Bayesian posterior probabilities and ML bootstrap values (>50%) are shown above
recovered branches.
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Supplementary Figure S3 | Leptidea Bayesian inference tree inferred from ITS2 sequences. The tree has the same
topology as the one based on COI and supports the specific distinctness of L. juvernica. Bayesian posterior probabilities
and ML bootstrap values (>50%) are shown above recovered branches.
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Supplementary Figure S4 | Leptidea Bayesian inference tree inferred from Wg sequences. Despite low variability in
this marker, L. juvernica is recovered as monophyletic. Bayesian posterior probabilities and ML bootstrap values (>50%)
are shown above recovered branches.
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Supplementary Figure S5 | Bayesian tree inferred from Leptidea CAD sequences. Although relationships between L.
sinapis and L. reali are not resolved, L. juvernica is recovered as a distinct monophyletic entity. Bayesian posterior
probabilities and ML bootstrap values (>50%) are shown above recovered branches.
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Supplementary Figure S6 | Bayesian tree inferred from Leptidea ITS2 + Wg + CAD nuclear sequences. The
monophyly of each species, as well as the relationships among them, are very well supported. Bayesian posterior
probabilities (>50%) are shown above recovered branches.
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Supplementary Tables
Supplementary Table S1 | List of specimens included in this study. Sample ID and collecting data, as well as COI haplotype and chromosome number for specimens that produced
results, are shown.
Sample ID Taxon Chromosome
number
COI
haplo-
type
COI ND1 ITS2 Wg CAD
Genitalia
morpho-
metry
Locality & country Alt. (m)
RVcoll.09-X167 L. sinapis JF512910 x Carha Bridge, Caher River, Clare, Ireland 95
RVcoll.09-X168 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512687 JF512911 JF512958 x Bunnanagat South, Clare, Ireland 35
RVcoll.09-X170 L. sinapis JF512912 x Gortnahoon, Galway, Ireland 30
RVcoll.09-X171 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512688 x Gortnahoon, Galway, Ireland 30
RVcoll.09-X173 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512689 Oakfield, Galway, Ireland 25
RVcoll.09-X174 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512690 JF512913 JF512959 x Rockhill, Galway, Ireland 25
RVcoll.09-X180 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512691 JF512928 JF512815 JF512954 Dromore Nature Reserve, Clare, Ireland 25
GenBank L. sinapis AF485916 Spain
RVcoll.08-H275 L. sinapis 2n=106 hs 1 JF512589 JF512909 JF512813 JF512967 JF512737
x Viladrau, Barcelona, Spain 715
RVcoll.08-H278 L. sinapis hs 7 JF512667 x Viladrau, Barcelona, Spain 715
RVcoll.08-H281 L. sinapis 2n=106 hs 7 JF512594 JF512927 JF512814 JF512950 JF512726
x Viladrau, Barcelona, Spain 715
RVcoll.08-H903 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512668 x La Garganta, Cáceres, Spain 1010
RVcoll.09-V326 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512590 x Cànoves, Barcelona, Spain 650
RVcoll.07-C466 L. sinapis hs 7 JF512663 x Cànoves, Barcelona, Spain 650
RVcoll.07-C470 L. sinapis 2n=106 hs 1 JF512623 JF512906 JF512808 JF512943 JF512732
x Llinars del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain 200
GenBank L. sinapis hs 1 AY954565
Vallgrassa, Barcelona, Spain 285
GenBank L. sinapis AF485917 Provence, France
GenBank L. sinapis hs 1 GU828859
Cabrespine, Aude, Languedoc, France
RVcoll.07-E249 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512585 x Col de la Chaudière, Drôme, France 1025
RVcoll.07-E252 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512586 x NE. Bézaudun-sur-Bine, Drôme, France 735
RVcoll.07-E253 L. sinapis 2n=98 hs 1 JF512587 JF512926 JF512811 JF512956 JF512747
x NE. Bézaudun-sur-Bine, Drôme, France 735
RVcoll.07-E254 L. sinapis 2n=98 hs 6 JF512598 JF512916 JF512812 JF512949 JF512735
x NE. Bézaudun-sur-Bine, Drôme, France 735
RVcoll.07-E255 L. sinapis hs 5 JF512599 x NE. Bézaudun-sur-Bine, Drôme, France 735
RVcoll.07-E256 L. sinapis hs 5 JF512600 x NE. Bézaudun-sur-Bine, Drôme, France 735
RVcoll.160410QT77 L. sinapis hs 6 JF512707 JF512920 JF512831 JF512985 JF512731
Gampel Bratsch, Martigny, Valais, Switzerland 630
RVcoll.07-E140 L. sinapis 2n=87 hs 7 JF512593 JF512907 JF512809 JF512947 JF512745
x Borgo Val di Taro, Parma, Italy 620
RVcoll.07-E174 L. sinapis hs 3 JF512595 x Ozein-Visyes, Valle d'Aosta, Italy 1000
RVcoll.07-E215 L. sinapis hs 7 JF512665 x Mompantero Vecchio, Torino, Italy 1340
RVcoll.07-E216 L. sinapis hs 3 JF512666 x Mompantero Vecchio, Torino, Italy 1340
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Sample ID Taxon Chromosome
number
COI
haplo-
type
COI ND1 ITS2 Wg CAD
Genitalia
morpho-
metry
Locality & country Alt. (m)
RVcoll.07-E217 L. sinapis 2n=ca.84-86 hs 3 JF512596 JF512925 JF512827 JF512966 JF512746
x Mompantero Vecchio, Torino, Italy 720
RVcoll.07-E237 L. sinapis 2n=80 hs 3 JF512597 JF512921 JF512810 JF512948 JF512739
x Novalesa-Moncenisio, Torino, Italy 1155
RVcoll.10-C251 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512699 JF512914 JF512832 x Monte di Malo, Veneto, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C252 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512700 JF512919 JF512830 x Monte di Malo, Veneto, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C253 L. sinapis hs 3 JF512701 JF512922 JF512821 x Monte di Malo, Veneto, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C254 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512702 JF512923 JF512822 x Monte di Malo, Veneto, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C255 L. sinapis hs 3 JF512703 JF512924 x Monte di Malo, Veneto, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C276 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512705 x Norcia, Perugia, Italy 700
RVcoll.10-C277 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512706 x Norcia, Perugia, Italy 700
RVcoll.10-C278 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512591 Sant'Anatolia di Narco, Perugia, Italy 350
GenBank L. sinapis hs 8 HM393183
Zahmer Kaiser, Aschinger Alm, Tyrol, Austria 1000
RVcoll.10-C250 L. sinapis JF512903 x Oberinntal, Ladis, Tirol, Austria 1200
RVcoll.10-C245 L. sinapis hs 10 JF512697 JF512901 JF512847 Príbram, Bohemia, Czech Republic
RVcoll.10-C248 L. sinapis hs 10 JF512698 JF512902 JF512962 Príbram, Bohemia, Czech Republic 500
GenBank L. sinapis hs 10 EF599632 Vrhnika, Slovenia
GenBank L. sinapis hs 10 EF599633 Vrhnika, Slovenia
GenBank L. sinapis hs 3 EF599634 Tinjan, Slovenia
GenBank L. sinapis hs 1 EF599635 Vrhnika, Slovenia
GenBank L. sinapis hs 10 EF599636 Tinjan, Slovenia
GenBank L. sinapis hs 1 EF599637 Barje, Slovenia
GenBank L. sinapis hs 3 EF599638 Vrhnika, Slovenia
GenBank L. sinapis hs 1 EF599639 Vrhnika, Slovenia
RVcoll.LR08-D679 L. sinapis hs 10 JF512710 JF512905 JF512824 JF512986 JF512728
x Jagnjenica, Radeče, Slovenia 280
RVcoll.LR08-D756 L. sinapis hs 10 JF512711 Račice, Ilistra Bistrica, Slovenia 630
RVcoll.10-B457 L. sinapis hs 10 JF512695 JF512899 JF512819 JF512995 x Pećani, Lika-Senj, Croatia 600
RVcoll.10-B453 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512694 JF512918 JF512818 JF512994 x Žuljana, Ston, Peninsula Peljesac, Croatia 6
RVcoll.06-K559 L. sinapis 2n=72 hs 10 JF512580 JF512895 JF512807 JF512988 JF512723
x Bădeni, Cluj, Romania 450
RVcoll.07-C210 L. sinapis 2n=77 hs 11 JF512592 x Schitul Pahomie, Vâlcea, Romania 800
RVcoll.07-D500 L. sinapis 2n=74 hs 1 JF512584 JF512915 JF512825 JF512944 JF512730
x Cheile Babei, Maramureș, Romania 265
RVcoll.07-D940 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512662 x Ciupercenii de Olteș, Gorj, Romania 500
RVcoll.07-D962 L. sinapis 2n=71 hs 10 JF512581 JF512896 JF512848 JF512945 JF512738
x Valea Mare, Dâmbovișa, Romania 225
RVcoll.07-E362 L. sinapis [2n=ca.72-74] hs 10 JF512582 x Pecinișca, Caraș-Severin, Romania 270
RVcoll.10-B385 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512693 JF512917 JF512817 JF512961 x Paril village, Khadzhidimovo, Bulgaria 800
RVcoll.LR08-D577 L. sinapis hs 10 JF512721 JF512904 JF512823 JF512963 Rodopi Mts, Hvoyna, Chepelare, Bulgaria 800
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Sample ID Taxon Chromosome
number
COI
haplo-
type
COI ND1 ITS2 Wg CAD
Genitalia
morpho-
metry
Locality & country Alt. (m)
DQ387045 L. sinapis hs 4 Vrachneika, Peloponessos, Greece
RVcoll.LR08-D094 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512708 JF512826 x Kalavryta, Peloponessos, Greece 810
RVcoll.LR08-D203 L. sinapis hs 1 JF512709 JF512834 Eptalofos, Parnassos Mt., Greece 1150
RVcoll.10-A742 L. sinapis hs 10 JF512692 JF512898 JF512816 JF512993 Piusa, Polva county, Estonia 60
RVcoll.10-C197 L. sinapis hs 10 JF512696 JF512900 JF512820 Novaya Ilienko station, Derkul river, Luhansk
reg., Ukraine 40
GenBank L. sinapis hs 1 FJ663718 Saur Mts., Kendyrlik, Kazakhstan 1100
GenBank L. sinapis hs 1 FJ663719 Saur Mts., Kendyrlik, Kazakhstan 1100
RVcoll.06-H638 L. sinapis 2n=58 hs 10 JF512579 JF512894 JF512833 JF512953 JF512729
Landman, Kazakhstan 450
RVcoll.06-H640 L. sinapis 2n=59 hs 1 JF512583 x Landman, Kazakhstan 450
RVcoll.06-H641 L. sinapis hs 3 JF512664 x Landman, Kazakhstan 450
RVcoll.07-Z210 L. sinapis 2n=62 hs 9 JF512602 JF512897 JF512828 JF512984 JF512748
x Saur Mts, Malyi Zhemeney, Kazakhstan 1350
RVcoll.07-Z236 L. sinapis 2n=58 hs 1 JF512588 JF512908 JF512829 JF512989 JF512736
x Saur Mts, Malyi Zhemeney, Kazakhstan 2000
RVcoll.07-Z237 L. sinapis 2n=ca.56 hs 2 JF512601 x Saur Mts, Malyi Zhemeney, Kazakhstan 2000
GenBank L. reali AF485914 Spain
RVcoll.03-H535 L. reali 2n=53 hr 6 JF512617 JF512856 JF512790 JF512987 JF512722
Saldes, Barcelona, Spain 1200
RVcoll.07-C279 L. reali hr 1 JF512656 x Viladrau, Barcelona, Spain 715
RVcoll.07-C613 L. reali hr 1 JF512657 JF512791 x La Llavina, Barcelona, Spain 970
RVcoll.07-C636 L. reali hr 1 GU675654
Meranges, Girona, Spain 1555
RVcoll.07-F514 L. reali 2n=53 x La Calma, Barcelona, Spain 1100
RVcoll.07-W134 L. reali hr 1 JF512661 JF512796 x Bassa d´Arres, Lleida, Spain 1568
RVcoll.07-W154 L. reali hr 1 GU676968
x Vallibierna, Aragón, Spain 1800
RVcoll.08-H468 L. reali hr 4 GU676645
x Hormiguera, Cantabria, Spain 970
RVcoll.08-J396 L. reali 2n=52 hr 1 JF512603 JF512857 JF512797 JF512951 JF512740
x Viladrau, Barcelona, Spain 720
RVcoll.08-L078 L. reali hr 1 JF512669 x Vilafranca, com. Valenciana, Spain 1150
RVcoll.08-L090 L. reali hr 1 JF512670 JF512858 JF512798 JF512990 JF512741
El Vallecillo, Aragón, Spain 1531
RVcoll.08-R059 L. reali hr 1 GU676782
La Cambreta, com. Valenciana, Spain 1520
RVcoll.09-T203 L. reali hr 1 JF512720 JF512799 x Fonts del Cardener, Lleida, Spain 1100
RVcoll.09-V320 L. reali hr 1 JF512676 JF512855 x Meranges, Girona, Spain 1744
RVcoll.09-V321 L. reali hr 1 JF512677 x Meranges, Girona, Spain 1744
RVcoll.09-V325 L. reali hr 1 JF512678 Meranges, Girona, Spain 1744
RVcoll.09-V344 L. reali hr 1 JF512679 x Viladrau, Barcelona, Spain 720
RVcoll.09-V347 L. reali hr 1 JF512680 x Viladrau, Barcelona, Spain 720
RVcoll.09-V713 L. reali hr 1 JF512681 JF512859 JF512803 JF512957 JF512742
x Yésero, Aragón, Spain 1160
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Sample ID Taxon Chromosome
number
COI
haplo-
type
COI ND1 ITS2 Wg CAD
Genitalia
morpho-
metry
Locality & country Alt. (m)
RVcoll.09-V714 L. reali hr 1 JF512682 JF512804 x Yésero, Aragón, Spain 1160
RVcoll.09-V733 L. reali hr 1 JF512683 x Valle del Tena, Aragón, Spain 1650
RVcoll.09-V734 L. reali hr 1 JF512684 x Valle del Tena, Aragón, Spain 1650
RVcoll.09-V743 L. reali hr 1 JF512685 x Valle del Tena, Aragón, Spain 1650
RVcoll.09-V815 L. reali hr 1 JF512686 x Vilallonga de Ter, Girona, Spain 1140
GenBank L. reali AF485915 Eastern Pyrenees, France
RVcoll.09-T244 L. reali hr 1 JF512671 JF512743
x Flassan, Provence, France 890
RVcoll.09-T245 L. reali hr 1 JF512672 JF512864 JF512800 JF512941 JF512727
x Flassan, Provence, France 890
RVcoll.09-T246 L. reali hr 1 JF512604 x Flassan, Provence, France 890
RVcoll.09-T247 L. reali hr 1 JF512605 x Flassan, Provence, France 890
RVcoll.09-T249 L. reali hr 1 JF512606 x Flassan, Provence, France 890
RVcoll.09-T250 L. reali hr 1 JF512673 JF512865 JF512801 JF512942 JF512744
x Flassan, Provence, France 890
RVcoll.09-T251 L. reali hr 1 JF512674 x Flassan, Provence, France 890
RVcoll.09-V231 L. reali hr 1 JF512675 JF512802 x Flassan, Provence, France 400
RVcoll.10-A411 L. reali hr 1 JF512607 JF512866 JF512805 JF512960 x Digne les Bains, Alpes de Haute Provence,
France 710
RVcoll.10-A412 L. reali hr 1 JF512608 JF512867 JF512806 JF512952 x Digne les Bains, Alpes de Haute Provence,
France 710
RVcoll.07-E080 L. reali 2n=54 hr 1 JF512658 JF512860 JF512792 JF512964 JF512724
x Rocca Pia, L'Aquila, Italy 1215
RVcoll.07-E081 L. reali 2n=ca.54 hr 1 JF512659 JF512861 JF512793 JF512946 JF512733
x Roccaraso, L'Aquila, Italy 1180
RVcoll.07-E082 L. reali hr 1 JF512660 JF512862 JF512794 JF512965 JF512734
x Roccaraso, L'Aquila, Italy 1180
RVcoll.07-E083 L. reali hr 3 JF512712 JF512863 JF512795 JF512955 JF512725
x Roccaraso, L'Aquila, Italy 1180
RVcoll.10-C258 L. reali hr 1 JF512609 Sant'Anatolia di Narco, Perugia, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C259 L. reali hr 1 JF512610 Sant'Anatolia di Narco, Perugia, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C263 L. reali hr 1 JF512611 x Sant'Anatolia di Narco, Perugia, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C264 L. reali hr 5 JF512615 Cascia, Perugia, Italy 650
RVcoll.10-C268 L. reali hr 1 JF512612 x Cascia, Perugia, Italy 650
RVcoll.10-C269 L. reali hr 2 JF512616 x Cascia, Perugia, Italy 650
RVcoll.10-C270 L. reali hr 5 JF512704 x Sibillini Mountains, Italy
RVcoll.10-C271 L. reali hr 1 JF512613 x Sant'Anatolia di Narco, Perugia, Italy 350
RVcoll.10-C272 L. reali hr 1 JF512614 x Sant'Anatolia di Narco, Perugia, Italy 350
RVcoll.09-X175 L. juvernica JF512878 Quarry at Donegore Hill, Antrim, Ireland 160
RVcoll.09-X176 L. juvernica hj 7 JF512713 JF512879 JF512845 Murlough, Down, Ireland 3
RVcoll.09-X177 L. juvernica JF512880 Pilgrim Road, Offaly, Ireland 40
12
Sample ID Taxon Chromosome
number
COI
haplo-
type
COI ND1 ITS2 Wg CAD
Genitalia
morpho-
metry
Locality & country Alt. (m)
RVcoll.09-X178 L. juvernica hj 7 JF512714 JF512881 x Milltown, Roscommon, Ireland 60
RVcoll.09-X179 L. juvernica JF512882 x Milltown, Roscommon, Ireland 60
RVcoll.09-X181 L. juvernica hj 7 JF512715 JF512883 JF512788 JF512980 Kilternan, Dublin, Ireland 130
RVcoll.09-X182 L. juvernica JF512884 JF512844 JF512983 Corlea, Donegal, Ireland 40
RVcoll.09-X183 L. juvernica hj 7 JF512716 JF512885 JF512991 Gortmore Point, Lough Derg, Tipperary, Ireland 40
RVcoll.09-V987 L. juvernica JF512893 x Le Châtelet - Scierie, Loire, France 1100
RVcoll.09-V989 L. juvernica JF512877 Bonvillard, Savoie, France 1340
RVcoll.09-X268 L. juvernica hj 2 JF512650 JF512886 JF512782 JF512992 x St. Etienne, Loire, France 550
RVcoll.10-A259 L. juvernica hj 2 JF512651 JF512887 JF512783 JF512969 x Gresse-en-Vercors, Isère, France 1260
RVcoll.10-A262 L. juvernica hj 2 JF512652 JF512888 JF512784 JF512981 x Gresse-en-Vercors, Isère, France 1340
RVcoll.10-A263 L. juvernica hj 2 JF512653 JF512889 JF512785 JF512982 x Gresse-en-Vercors, Isère, France 1340
RVcoll.10-A264 L. juvernica hj 2 JF512654 x Gresse-en-Vercors, Isère, France 1340
RVcoll.10-A269 L. juvernica hj 2 JF512655 Gresse-en-Vercors, Isère, France 1340
GenBank L. juvernica hj 9 GU655014
Neustadt/Donau, Plattenberg, Bavaria, Germany 370
GenBank L. juvernica hj 1 GU707144
Sinzing, Alpiner Steig, Bavaria, Germany 405
GenBank L. juvernica hj 8 GU707187
Kallmuenz, Kirchenberg, Bavaria, Germany 390
RVcoll.10-C244 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512645 JF512890 JF512835 x Príbram, Bohemia, Czech Republic 500
GenBank L. juvernica hj 14 EF599640 Vrhnika, Slovenia
GenBank L. juvernica hj 12 EF599641 Vrhnika, Slovenia
GenBank L. juvernica hj 1 EF599642 Barje, Slovenia
GenBank L. juvernica hj 11 EF599643 Barje, Slovenia
GenBank L. juvernica hj 13 EF599644 Vrhnika, Slovenia
GenBank L. juvernica hj10 EF599645 Barje, Slovenia
GenBank L. juvernica hj 12 EF599646 Barje, Slovenia
RVcoll.LR08-D680 L. juvernica 2n=81 hj 1 JF512646 JF512891 JF512786 JF512973 JF512759
x Jagnjenica, Radeče, Slovenia 280
RVcoll.07-E553 L. juvernica 2n=80 hj 1 HQ004601
JF512870 JF512767 JF512970 JF512757
x Tohanul Nou, Brașov, Romania 700
RVcoll.08-M310 L. juvernica hj 1 HQ004600
x Gheorgheni, Harghita, Romania 850
RVcoll.08-M311 L. juvernica hj 1 HQ004599
x Gheorgheni, Harghita, Romania 850
RVcoll.08-M312 L. juvernica hj 1 HQ004595
x Gheorgheni, Harghita, Romania 850
RVcoll.08-M313 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512628 x Gheorgheni, Harghita, Romania 850
RVcoll.08-M331 L. juvernica hj 1 HQ004598
x Gheorgheni, Harghita, Romania 900
RVcoll.08-M322 L. juvernica 2n=ca.83-85 hj 5 HQ004596
JF512873 JF512789 JF512971 JF512764
x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1010
RVcoll.08-M323 L. juvernica hj 1 HQ004594
x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.08-M324 L. juvernica hj 1 HQ004597
x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
13
Sample ID Taxon Chromosome
number
COI
haplo-
type
COI ND1 ITS2 Wg CAD
Genitalia
morpho-
metry
Locality & country Alt. (m)
RVcoll.08-M325 L. juvernica 2n=ca.81-84 hj 1 JF512874 JF512769 JF512977 JF512760
x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1010
RVcoll.09-V633 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512635 JF512778 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V637 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512636 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V638 L. juvernica hj 5 JF512637 JF512779 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V639 L. juvernica 2n=ca.84 hj 1 JF512638 JF512780 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V641 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512639 JF512781 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V644 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512640 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V648 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512641 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V652 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512642 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V653 L. juvernica hj 5 JF512643 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.09-V655 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512644 x Valea Belchia, Harghita, Romania 1000
RVcoll.08-Y001 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512629 JF512770 x St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y002 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512630 JF512771 x St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y003 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512574 x St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y004 L. juvernica hj 6 JF512649 x St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y005 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512631 x St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y006 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512632 JF512772 x St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y009 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512633 JF512774 x St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y011 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512634 JF512776 x St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y007 L. juvernica 2n=80 hj 1 JF512575 JF512892 JF512773 JF512978 JF512755
x Peterhof, St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y008 L. juvernica 2n=82 hj 6 JF512578 x Peterhof, St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y010 L. juvernica 2n=84 hj 1 JF512576 JF512875 JF512775 JF512972 JF512758
x Peterhof, St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.08-Y012 L. juvernica 2n=84 hj 1 JF512577 JF512876 JF512777 JF512979 JF512756
x Peterhof, St. Petersburg, Russia
RVcoll.06-H636 L. juvernica hj 3 JF512647 JF512868 JF512846 JF512975 JF512751
x Landman, Zyryanovsk, Kazakhstan 450
RVcoll.06-H639 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512624 JF512869 JF512765 JF512976 JF512752
x Landman, Zyryanovsk, Kazakhstan 450
RVcoll.06-H642 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512625 x Landman, Zyryanovsk, Kazakhstan 450
RVcoll.06-H643 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512626 JF512766 x Landman, Zyryanovsk, Kazakhstan 450
RVcoll.07-Z081 L. juvernica hj 1 JF512627 JF512871 JF512787 JF512974 JF512753
x South Altai, Uspenka, Kazakhstan 1460
RVcoll.07-Z082 L. juvernica hj 4 JF512648 JF512872 JF512768 JF512968 JF512754
x South Altai, Uspenka, Kazakhstan 1460
RVcoll.08-M498 L. morsei HQ004591
JF512930 JF512840 JF512997 Bădeni, Cluj, Romania 450
GenBank L. morsei FJ663714 South Altai, Uspenka, Kazakhstan 1500
GenBank L. morsei FJ663715 South Altai, Uspenka, Kazakhstan 1500
RVcoll.07-Z083 L. morsei JF512619 JF512931 JF512837 JF512996 JF512749
South Altai, Uspenka, Kazakhstan 1460
RVcoll.07-Z124 L. morsei JF512618 JF512929 JF512839 JF512998 JF512750
South Altai, Markakol, Kazakhstan 1680
14
Sample ID Taxon Chromosome
number
COI
haplo-
type
COI ND1 ITS2 Wg CAD
Genitalia
morpho-
metry
Locality & country Alt. (m)
GenBank L. amurensis FJ663710 Sosnovka, Selenduma, Buryatia, Russia 700
GenBank L. amurensis FJ663711 Sosnovka, Selenduma, Buryatia, Russia 700
GenBank L. amurensis FJ663713 Altai, Myuta, Russia 800
RVcoll.10-C186 L. amurensis JF512622 JF512934 JF512841 JF512999 Jiexiu county, Shanxi, China 800-1200
RVcoll.Nz075 L. amurensis JF512620 JF512932 JF512843 JF513000 10 km NE Hishig-Ondor, central Mongolia
RVcoll.Nz091 L. amurensis JF512621 JF512933 JF512842 JF513001 Bulgan, central Mongolia
RVcoll.10-C189 L. lactea JF512717 JF512937 JF512849 JF513002 JF512761
Qin Ling Shan, Madao, Liuba county, Shaanxi,
China 750-1000
RVcoll.10-C194 L. lactea JF512719 JF512935 JF512850 JF513007 JF512762
Hekou vic., Fengxian county, Shaanxi, China 1000-1300
RVcoll.10-C195 L. lactea JF512718 JF512936 JF512851 JF513003 JF512763
Qin Ling Shan, Zhouzhi (Erqu) county, Shaanxi,
China 900-1200
RVcoll.09-V207 L.
duponcheli JF512569 JF512938 JF512852 JF513006 Oraison, Alpes de Haute Provence, France 500
RVcoll.10-A612 L.
duponcheli JF512570 JF512853 Digne les Bains, Alpes de Haute Provence,
France 710
RVcoll.10-B373 L.
duponcheli JF512571 JF512939 JF513004 Paril village, Khadzhidimovo, Bulgaria 800
RVcoll.10-C243 L.
duponcheli JF512572 JF512940 JF512854 JF513005 Elborz, 10km W Ghachsar, Iran 3200
15
Supplementary Table S2 | Structure matrix showing the correlation between the discriminant variables and the
standardized canonical discriminant functions used in the analysis when including L. sinapis, L. reali and L.
juvernica. The values of the best two discriminant variables for each function are shown in bold. The variables marked
with a star were not used in the analysis.
Function
Variable 1 2
PL 0.738 0.052
SL 0.679 0.713
VW -0.047 0.456
GL* 0.058 0.281
UL* 0.162 0.174
Supplementary Table S3 | Discriminant analysis classification results for Leptidea sinapis, L. reali, and L.
juvernica. The percentages of correctly identified specimens are shown in bold.
Predicted Group Membership
Category
L. sinapis L. reali L. juvernica
Total
Original Count L. sinapis 48 0 0 48
L. reali 0 24 15 39
L. juvernica 0 18 30 48
% L. sinapis 100.0 0 0 100.0
L. reali 0 61.5 38.5 100.0
L. juvernica 0 37.5 62.5 100.0
Cross-
validated
Count L. sinapis 48 0 0 48
L. reali 0 21 18 39
L. juvernica 0 20 28 48
% L. sinapis 100.0 0 0 100.0
L. reali 0 53.8 46.2 100.0
L. juvernica 0 41.7 58.3 100.0
Supplementary Table S4 | Table of estimated node ages (years).
Leptidea sinapis Mean 28,290
StDev of mean 1293.3
Median 26,934
Leptidea reali Mean 52,081
StDev of mean 1110.1
Median 45,559
Leptidea juvernica Mean 79,303
StDev of mean 935.9
Median 72,963
L. sinapis - L. reali Mean 133,800
StDev of mean 3,099.5
Median 120,700
(L. sinapis - L. reali) - L. juvernica Mean 289,200
StDev of mean 4008.8
Median 269,400
16
Supplementary Table S5 | Results of morphometric analyses of the male genitalia of Leptidea sinapis, L. reali and
L. juvernica. Values are given in millimeters.
Sample ID Taxon Country
Phallus
length
(PL)
Saccus
length
(SL)
Vinculum
width
(VW)
Genital
capsule
length
(CL)
Uncus
length
(UL)
RVcoll.09-X167 L. sinapis Ireland 1.71 0.66 0.87 0.93 0.71
RVcoll.09-X168 L. sinapis Ireland 1.72 0.70 0.90 0.93 0.69
RVcoll.09-X170 L. sinapis Ireland 1.74 0.62 0.89 0.92 0.69
RVcoll.09-X171 L. sinapis Ireland 1.66 0.65 0.91 1.04 0.66
RVcoll.09-X174 L. sinapis Ireland 1.55 0.64 0.83 0.90 0.68
RVcoll.07-C466 L. sinapis Spain 1.50 0.57 0.74 0.85 0.58
RVcoll.07-C470 L. sinapis Spain 1.50 0.57 0.76 0.87 0.57
RVcoll.08-H275 L. sinapis Spain 1.75 0.75 0.80 0.87 0.66
RVcoll.08-H278 L. sinapis Spain 1.56 0.61 0.78 0.89 0.62
RVcoll.08-H281 L. sinapis Spain 1.58 0.59 0.83 0.87 0.62
RVcoll.09-V326 L. sinapis Spain 1.60 0.63 0.73 0.86 0.62
RVcoll.08-H903 L. sinapis Spain 1.52 0.56 0.73 0.82 0.59
RVcoll.07-E249 L. sinapis France 1.63 0.65 0.76 0.87 0.61
RVcoll.07-E252 L. sinapis France 1.59 0.63 0.83 0.83 0.65
RVcoll.07-E253 L. sinapis France 1.56 0.60 0.80 0.87 0.64
RVcoll.07-E254 L. sinapis France 1.58 0.59 0.78 0.89 0.64
RVcoll.07-E255 L. sinapis France 1.57 0.66 0.79 0.90 0.65
RVcoll.07-E256 L. sinapis France 1.58 0.67 0.77 0.84 0.60
RVcoll.07-E140 L. sinapis Italy 1.66 0.67 0.84 0.91 0.65
RVcoll.07-E174 L. sinapis Italy 1.54 0.60 0.80 0.94 0.65
RVcoll.07-E215 L. sinapis Italy 1.54 0.58 0.78 0.86 0.59
RVcoll.07-E216 L. sinapis Italy 1.63 0.64 0.78 0.89 0.60
RVcoll.07-E217 L. sinapis Italy 1.71 0.66 0.78 0.87 0.64
RVcoll.07-E237 L. sinapis Italy 1.53 0.60 0.74 0.85 0.63
RVcoll.10-C251 L. sinapis Italy 1.58 0.58 0.81 0.95 0.67
RVcoll.10-C252 L. sinapis Italy 1.64 0.61 0.81 0.93 0.60
RVcoll.10-C253 L. sinapis Italy 1.62 0.66 0.76 0.88 0.56
RVcoll.10-C254 L. sinapis Italy 1.54 0.63 0.79 0.88 0.58
RVcoll.10-C255 L. sinapis Italy 1.55 0.58 0.74 0.92 0.61
RVcoll.10-C276 L. sinapis Italy 1.75 0.64 0.79 0.94 0.70
RVcoll.10-C277 L. sinapis Italy 1.61 0.65 0.82 0.92 0.67
RVcoll.10-C250 L. sinapis Austria 1.68 0.68 0.81 0.91 0.66
RVcoll.LR08-D679 L. sinapis Slovenia 1.50 0.58 0.74 0.84 0.60
RVcoll.10-B453 L. sinapis Croatia 1.42 0.62 0.69 0.78 0.58
RVcoll.10-B457 L. sinapis Croatia 1.59 0.60 0.75 0.88 0.62
RVcoll.10-B385 L. sinapis Bulgaria 1.69 0.59 0.81 0.95 0.64
RVcoll.LR08-D094 L. sinapis Greece 1.53 0.63 0.72 0.89 0.62
RVcoll.06-K559 L. sinapis Romania 1.65 0.63 0.80 0.90 0.61
RVcoll.07-C210 L. sinapis Romania 1.49 0.59 0.74 0.80 0.57
RVcoll.07-D500 L. sinapis Romania 1.51 0.66 0.75 0.95 0.62
RVcoll.07-D940 L. sinapis Romania 1.52 0.58 0.73 0.86 0.60
RVcoll.07-D962 L. sinapis Romania 1.53 0.62 0.76 0.85 0.59
RVcoll.07-E362 L. sinapis Romania 1.60 0.57 0.73 0.83 0.63
RVcoll.06-H640 L. sinapis Kazakhstan 1.59 0.62 0.79 0.92 0.63
RVcoll.06-H641 L. sinapis Kazakhstan 1.62 0.60 0.80 0.78 0.59
RVcoll.07-Z210 L. sinapis Kazakhstan 1.69 0.71 0.86 0.90 0.67
RVcoll.07-Z236 L. sinapis Kazakhstan 1.60 0.72 0.81 0.90 0.62
RVcoll.07-Z237 L. sinapis Kazakhstan 1.56 0.67 0.80 0.89 0.62
RVcoll.07-C279 L. reali Spain 1.91 0.90 0.70 0.75 0.54
RVcoll.07-C613 L. reali Spain 1.91 0.85 0.75 0.86 0.67
RVcoll.07-F514 L. reali Spain 2.09 0.95 0.78 0.87 0.66
RVcoll.07-W134 L. reali Spain 2.09 0.98 0.83 0.99 0.66
17
Sample ID Taxon Country
Phallus
length
(PL)
Saccus
length
(SL)
Vinculum
width
(VW)
Genital
capsule
length
(CL)
Uncus
length
(UL)
RVcoll.07-W154 L. reali Spain 2.20 1.07 0.85 0.91 0.66
RVcoll.08-H468 L. reali Spain 2.00 0.87 0.78 0.87 0.57
RVcoll.08-J396 L. reali Spain 2.12 1.09 0.75 0.89 0.62
RVcoll.08-L078 L. reali Spain 2.10 0.96 0.82 0.84 0.55
RVcoll.09-T203 L. reali Spain 2.07 0.90 0.78 0.80 0.55
RVcoll.09-V320 L. reali Spain 2.14 1.03 0.79 0.93 0.66
RVcoll.09-V321 L. reali Spain 2.30 0.99 0.84 0.96 0.73
RVcoll.09-V344 L. reali Spain 2.02 0.88 0.71 0.85 0.66
RVcoll.09-V347 L. reali Spain 1.97 0.88 0.76 0.86 0.64
RVcoll.09-V713 L. reali Spain 2.11 0.95 0.75 0.90 0.70
RVcoll.09-V714 L. reali Spain 2.00 0.91 0.79 0.85 0.62
RVcoll.09-V733 L. reali Spain 2.11 0.91 0.82 0.88 0.65
RVcoll.09-V734 L. reali Spain 2.13 1.01 0.86 0.93 0.69
RVcoll.09-V743 L. reali Spain 1.97 1.07 0.85 0.92 0.69
RVcoll.09-V815 L. reali Spain 1.98 0.90 0.79 0.88 0.66
RVcoll.09-T244 L. reali France 1.96 0.82 0.77 0.85 0.65
RVcoll.09-T245 L. reali France 1.88 0.87 0.80 0.91 0.65
RVcoll.09-T246 L. reali France 1.97 0.83 0.78 0.83 0.68
RVcoll.09-T247 L. reali France 1.93 0.88 0.78 0.91 0.68
RVcoll.09-T249 L. reali France 2.05 0.96 0.79 0.85 0.64
RVcoll.09-T250 L. reali France 1.92 0.84 0.76 0.87 0.66
RVcoll.09-T251 L. reali France 1.95 0.91 0.79 0.92 0.69
RVcoll.09-V231 L. reali France 2.08 0.91 0.80 0.92 0.69
RVcoll.10-A411 L. reali France 1.95 0.83 0.75 0.82 0.65
RVcoll.10-A412 L. reali France 1.99 0.87 0.80 0.89 0.65
RVcoll.07-E080 L. reali Italy 2.00 0.90 0.75 0.88 0.59
RVcoll.07-E081 L. reali Italy 1.92 0.88 0.74 0.85 0.61
RVcoll.07-E082 L. reali Italy 1.98 0.89 0.77 0.85 0.60
RVcoll.07-E083 L. reali Italy 1.97 0.87 0.75 0.85 0.60
RVcoll.10-C263 L. reali Italy 1.84 0.76 0.75 0.85 0.59
RVcoll.10-C268 L. reali Italy 1.84 0.85 0.76 0.88 0.61
RVcoll.10-C269 L. reali Italy 1.76 0.74 0.72 0.81 0.57
RVcoll.10-C270 L. reali Italy 2.02 0.86 0.82 0.90 0.57
RVcoll.10-C271 L. reali Italy 1.93 0.82 0.78 0.87 0.62
RVcoll.10-C272 L. reali Italy 2.01 0.83 0.80 0.93 0.64
RVcoll.09-X178 L. juvernica Ireland 2.11 0.90 0.78 0.83 0.63
RVcoll.09-X179 L. juvernica Ireland 2.01 0.83 0.81 0.93 0.65
RVcoll.09-V987 L. juvernica France 1.99 0.84 0.81 0.90 0.66
RVcoll.09-X268 L. juvernica France 2.16 0.90 0.88 1.04 0.65
RVcoll.10-A259 L. juvernica France 1.82 0.81 0.72 0.82 0.59
RVcoll.10-A262 L. juvernica France 1.98 0.88 0.75 0.84 0.63
RVcoll.10-A263 L. juvernica France 1.95 0.81 0.74 0.84 0.64
RVcoll.10-A264 L. juvernica France 1.94 0.81 0.70 0.92 0.66
RVcoll.10-C244 L. juvernica Czech
Republic 2.15 0.97 0.78 0.87 0.60
RVcoll.LR08-D680 L. juvernica Slovenia 1.90 0.78 0.76 0.84 0.61
RVcoll.07-E553 L. juvernica Romania 2.00 0.87 0.76 0.87 0.66
RVcoll.08-M310 L. juvernica Romania 2.00 0.91 0.77 0.91 0.63
RVcoll.08-M311 L. juvernica Romania 1.98 0.89 0.82 0.87 0.62
RVcoll.08-M312 L. juvernica Romania 2.04 0.94 0.83 0.86 0.68
RVcoll.08-M313 L. juvernica Romania 1.96 0.85 0.78 0.93 0.62
RVcoll.08-M322 L. juvernica Romania 2.02 0.92 0.75 0.92 0.69
RVcoll.08-M323 L. juvernica Romania 2.06 0.93 0.80 0.89 0.60
RVcoll.08-M324 L. juvernica Romania 1.97 0.86 0.79 0.87 0.65
RVcoll.08-M325 L. juvernica Romania 2.02 0.85 0.74 0.82 0.62
18
Sample ID Taxon Country
Phallus
length
(PL)
Saccus
length
(SL)
Vinculum
width
(VW)
Genital
capsule
length
(CL)
Uncus
length
(UL)
RVcoll.08-M331 L. juvernica Romania 2.08 0.92 0.84 0.92 0.64
RVcoll.09-V633 L. juvernica Romania 2.10 0.89 0.82 0.90 0.62
RVcoll.09-V637 L. juvernica Romania 1.91 0.91 0.78 0.95 0.62
RVcoll.09-V638 L. juvernica Romania 1.95 0.86 0.77 0.90 0.65
RVcoll.09-V639 L. juvernica Romania 1.89 0.87 0.76 0.86 0.60
RVcoll.09-V641 L. juvernica Romania 2.04 0.93 0.74 0.91 0.57
RVcoll.09-V644 L. juvernica Romania 2.03 0.96 0.76 0.85 0.63
RVcoll.09-V648 L. juvernica Romania 1.93 0.78 0.69 0.79 0.57
RVcoll.09-V652 L. juvernica Romania 1.94 0.90 0.75 0.88 0.62
RVcoll.09-V653 L. juvernica Romania 1.91 0.80 0.77 0.86 0.60
RVcoll.09-V655 L. juvernica Romania 2.00 0.92 0.75 0.91 0.63
RVcoll.08-Y001 L. juvernica Russia 2.08 0.77 0.75 0.88 0.66
RVcoll.08-Y002 L. juvernica Russia 1.94 0.81 0.74 0.94 0.63
RVcoll.08-Y003 L. juvernica Russia 1.95 0.87 0.73 0.86 0.58
RVcoll.08-Y004 L. juvernica Russia 1.94 0.84 0.76 0.88 0.67
RVcoll.08-Y005 L. juvernica Russia 2.06 0.91 0.83 0.93 0.68
RVcoll.08-Y006 L. juvernica Russia 1.96 0.89 0.79 0.91 0.62
RVcoll.08-Y007 L. juvernica Russia 1.97 0.94 0.78 0.88 0.65
RVcoll.08-Y008 L. juvernica Russia 1.93 0.79 0.74 0.89 0.60
RVcoll.08-Y009 L. juvernica Russia 1.85 0.77 0.73 0.82 0.55
RVcoll.08-Y010 L. juvernica Russia 1.88 0.80 0.78 0.89 0.64
RVcoll.08-Y011 L. juvernica Russia 1.96 0.87 0.77 0.89 0.67
RVcoll.08-Y012 L. juvernica Russia 1.94 0.79 0.75 0.86 0.61
RVcoll.06-H636 L. juvernica Kazakhstan 1.91 0.89 0.79 0.91 0.61
RVcoll.06-H639 L. juvernica Kazakhstan 1.90 0.79 0.76 0.84 0.57
RVcoll.06-H642 L. juvernica Kazakhstan 1.95 0.86 0.77 0.90 0.60
RVcoll.06-H643 L. juvernica Kazakhstan 2.00 0.85 0.79 0.92 0.65
RVcoll.07-Z081 L. juvernica Kazakhstan 1.95 0.89 0.77 0.86 0.60
RVcoll.07-Z082 L. juvernica Kazakhstan 1.90 0.80 0.78 0.95 0.62
19
Supplementary Note 1
Description of chromosomal results
Spain
L. reali (RVcoll.03-H535) 2n=53
In metaphase I of meiosis (MI) stage the plates with 25 bivalents and one multivalent (most likely
a trivalent) were observed. Two types of metaphase plates were found in cells with metaphase II of
meiosis (MII) demonstrating 26 and 27 chromosomes. Thus, this specimen was most likely
heterozygous for one chromosomal fusion/fission, and its diploid chromosome number was 2n=53.
L. reali (RVcoll.08-J396) 2n=52
Only MI cells were found in this specimen with all the metaphase plates demonstrating 26
bivalents. The diploid number can be estimated as 2n=52.
L. reali (RVcoll.07-F514) 2n=53
In MI stage the plates with 25 bivalents and one long multivalent (most likely a trivalent) were
observed. Two types of metaphase plates were found in MII cells demonstrating 26 and 27
chromosomes. Thus, this specimen was most likely heterozygous for one chromosomal
fusion/fission, and its diploid chromosome number was 2n=53.
Italy
L. reali (RVcoll.07-E080) 2n=54
In MI cells all metaphase plates demonstrated 27 bivalents. In MII cells all metaphase plates
demonstrated 27 chromosomes. Accordingly, the diploid number can be estimated as 2n=54.
L. reali (RVcoll.07-E081) 2n=ca. 54
Only MII cells were found. The number of chromosomes was established as ca. 27. Accordingly,
the diploid number can be approximately reconstructed as 2n=ca. 54.
Slovenia
L. juvernica (RVcoll.LR08-D680) 2n=81
This specimen was heterozygous for five chromosomal fusions/fissions. In MI stage 33 bivalents
and five trivalents were observed. Accordingly, the diploid number can be reconstructed as
2n=33×2+5×3=81.
Romania
20
L. juvernica (RVcoll.07-E553) 2n=80
This specimen was heterozygous for four chromosomal fusions/fissions. In MI stage 34 bivalents
and four trivalents were observed. Accordingly, the diploid number can be reconstructed as
2n=34×2+4×3=80.
L. juvernica (RVcoll.08-M322) 2n=ca. 83-85
Only mitotic cell divisions were found in this specimen. The diploid chromosome number was
approximately counted as ca. 83-85.
L. juvernica (RVcoll.08-M325) 2n=ca. 81-84
Only mitotic cell divisions were found in this specimen. The diploid chromosome number was
approximately counted as ca. 81-84.
L. juvernica (RVcoll.09-V639) 2n=ca. 84
Only mitotic cell divisions were found in this specimen. The diploid chromosome number was
approximately counted as ca. 84.
Russia
L. juvernica (RVcoll.08-Y007) 2n=80
This specimen was heterozygous for four chromosomal fusions/fissions. In MI stage 34 bivalents
and four long elements (possible trivalents) were observed. Accordingly, the diploid number can
be reconstructed as 2n=34×2+4×3=80.
L. juvernica (RVcoll.08-Y008) 2n=82
This specimen was heterozygous for six chromosomal fusions/fissions. In MI stage 32 bivalents
and six long elements (possible trivalents) were observed. Accordingly, the diploid number can be
reconstructed as 2n=32×2+6×3=82.
L. juvernica (RVcoll.08-Y010) 2n=84
Four types of metaphase plates were found in MII cells demonstrating 40, 41, 42 and 43
chromosomes. Most likely, this specimen was heterozygous for four chromosomal fusions/fissions.
We did not observe the MI stage in this individual, but it can be reconstructed as 36 bivalents + 4
trivalents (i.e. 2n=84) resulting in five different chromosome numbers n=40, n=41, n=42, n=43
and n=44 in the MII cells, of which the cells n=44 were not found.
L. juvernica (RVcoll.08-Y012) 2n=84
21
Only MI cells were found in this specimen with all the metaphase plates demonstrating 42
bivalents. The diploid number can be estimated as 2n=84.

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