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Tracing the origin of disjunct distributions: a case of biogeographical convergence in Pyrgus butterflies
Juan L. Hernández-Roldán, Cesc Múrria, Helena Romo, Gerard Talavera, Evgeny Zakharov, Paul D.N. Hebert and Roger Vila
Journal of Biogeography
Appendix S1 Details of Pyrgus spp. and sequences used in the present study.
Species
name
Sample code Locatity COI
GB code
ITS-2
GB code
COI
haplotype
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-W024 Armenia, 10 km to East from Yerevan, Geghadir village, 1650 m JF283342 HQ996654 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-W025 Armenia, 10 km to East from Yerevan, Geghadir village, 1700 m JF283341 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-W026 Armenia, 10 km to East from Yerevan, Geghadir village, 1700 m JF283340 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-W258 Armenia, Yeghegnadzor sub., 150 Km SE from Yerevan, Aiozdzorsky range, 1800 m JF283339 HQ996649 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-J454 Armenia, Aragatz mountains, 2800 m GU675644 6
P. cinarae Rvcoll.08-J455 Armenia, Aragatz mountains, 2200-3600 m HQ996665 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-J456 Armenia, Aragatz mountains, 2800 m GU675639 7
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-J457 Armenia, South Arodzorsky range Gryschik, 2000 m GU675640 7
P. cinarae Rvcoll.08-J458 Armenia, South Arodzorsky range Gryschik, 2000 m HQ996666 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-P502 Armenia, 29 Km E Yerevan, dry canyon, Garni village suburbs, 1800 m JF283338 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-P504 Armenia, 29 Km E Yerevan, dry canyon, Garni village suburbs, 1800 m JF283337 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-P505 Armenia, 29 Km E Yerevan, dry canyon, Garni village suburbs, 1800 m JF283336 HQ996655 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X604 Armenia, 150 km to SE from Yerevan, Aiotzdzorsky range, 1800 m HM400944 6
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-C538 Greece, Florina, Vatochori, 890 m GU675649 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-C539 Greece, Florina, Vatochori, 890 m GU675645 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-C540 Greece, Florina, Vatochori, 890 m GU675646 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-C541 Greece, Florina, Vatochori, 890 m GU675647 HQ996653 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-D411 Greece, Greece Central, Smolikas Mts, Pades, 1497 m GU675668 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-D412 Greece, Greece Central, Smolikas Mts, Pades, 1497 m JF283335 5
P. cinarae Rvcoll.08-J447 Greece, Florina, Vernon-Oros, vic Pil., 1100 m HQ996667 4
P. cinarae Rvcoll.08-J448 Greece, Florina, Vernon-Oros, vic Pil., 1100 m HQ996668 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-W023 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo vill., 450 m GU675673 1
P. cinarae Rvcoll.08-J450 Russia, Ural, Orenburg, 150 m HQ996669 1
P. cinarae Rvcoll.08-J452 Russia, South Urals mts., Novotrock, Distr. Orsk, 300 m HQ996670 1
P. cinarae Rvcoll.08-J453 Russia, South Urals mts., Novotrock, Distr. Orsk, 300 m HQ996671 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-R495 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m GU675666 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-R496 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283334 HQ996650 2
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-R497 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283333 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.08-R498 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m GU675667 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X605 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400945 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X606 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400946 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X607 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400947 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X608 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400948 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X609 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400949 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X610 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400950 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X612 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400951 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X613 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400952 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X614 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400953 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X615 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400954 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X616 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400955 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X617 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400956 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X618 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m HM400957 HQ996656 1
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-W220 Spain, Cuenca, Huélamo, Serranía de Cuenca, 1237 m JF283332 8
P. cinarae RVcoll.07-W241 Spain, Cuenca, Huélamo, Serranía de Cuenca, 1237 m JF283331 HQ996659 8
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-T100 Spain, Cuenca, Huélamo, Serranía de Cuenca, 1237 m JF283343 8
P. cinarae Rvcoll.09-T107 Spain, Cuenca, Serranía de Cuenca, 1300 m GU676058 HQ996657 8
P. cinarae Rvcoll.09-T109 Spain, Cuenca, Serranía de Cuenca, 1300 m GU676055 HQ996658 8
P. cinarae Rvcoll.09-T110 Spain, Cuenca, Serranía de Cuenca, 1300 m GU676059 8
P. cinarae Rvcoll.09-T111 Spain, Cuenca, Serranía de Cuenca, 1300 m GU676056 8
P. cinarae Rvcoll.09-T112 Spain, Cuenca, Serranía de Cuenca, 1300 m GU676052 8
P. cinarae Rvcoll.09-T113 Spain, Cuenca, Serranía de Cuenca, 1300 m GU676061 8
P. cinarae Rvcoll.09-T116 Spain, Cuenca, Serranía de Cuenca, 1300 m GU676057 8
P. cinarae Rvcoll.09-T117 Spain, Cuenca, Serranía de Cuenca, 1300 m GU676054 8
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X600 Spain, Ávila, Sierra de Ávila, 1450 m HM400941 HQ996660 8
P. cinarae RVcoll.04-G141 Turkey, Ankara, Kargasekmez GeAidi, Kizilcahamam, 1150 m JF283330 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.04-G146 Turkey, Ankara, Kargasekmez GeAidi, Kizilcahamam, 1150 m JF283329 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.04-G150 Turkey, Ankara, Kargasekmez GeAidi, Kizilcahamam, 1150 m JF283328 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.04-G162 Turkey, Ankara, Kargasekmez GeAidi, Kizilcahamam, 1150 m JF283327 HQ996652 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.04-G393 Turkey, Adana, Saimbeyli Valley, 1445 m JF283326 HQ996651 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X601 Ukraine, Feodosia distr., Kara-Dag, 500 m HM400942 4
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X602 Ukraine, Feodosia distr., Kara-Dag, 500 m HM400943 3
P. cinarae RVcoll.09-X603 Ukraine, Feodosia distr., Kara-Dag, 500 m HM901835 4
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W007 Armenia, Aragats Mts., Geharot river, 2250 m JF283370 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W008 Armenia, Aragats Mts., Geharot river, 2250 m JF283369 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W009 Armenia, Aragats Mts., Geharot river, 2250 m JF283368 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W017 Armenia, Aragats Mts., Geharot river, 2250 m JF283367 HQ996639 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W018 Armenia, Aragats Mts., Geharot river, 2250 m JF283366 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W254 Armenia, Meghri suburbs, 400 Km to SE from Yerevan, Araks River, 1000 m JF283365 HQ996628 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W255 Armenia, Meghri suburbs, 400 Km to SE from Yerevan, Araks River, 1000 m JF283364 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W256 Armenia, Meghri suburbs, 400 Km to SE from Yerevan, Araks River, 1000 m JF283363 11
P. sidae RVcoll.08-J443 Armenia, Dzha-Dzhur Pass, Gymri region, 1800 m GU675643 11
P. sidae RVcoll.08-P510 Armenia, 55 Km N Yerevan, Aghveran suburbs, 1900 m JF283362 11
P. sidae RVcoll.08-P511 Armenia, 29 Km E Yerevan, dry canyon, Garni village suburbs, 1600 m JF283361 11
P. sidae RVcoll.08-P512 Armenia, 29 Km E Yerevan, dry canyon, Garni village suburbs, 1600 m JF283360 11
P. sidae RVcoll.08-P527 Azerbaijan, Kalvaz vil. Circ., Talysh, Zuvand, 1600 m JF283359 HQ996640 5
P. sidae RVcoll.08-P528 Azerbaijan, Kalvaz vil. Circ., Talysh, Zuvand, 1600 m JF283358 5
P. sidae Rvcoll.09-V371 Bulgaria, SW Bulgaria, Mt. Pirin. Road between Paril and Nova Loutcha vill., 750 m GU676053 5
P. sidae Rvcoll.09-V372 Bulgaria, SE Bulgaria, E Stara Planina, Sinite kamari N Sliven, 400 m GU676050 HQ996635 5
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W036 France, Var, Provence, Route D64, Mazaugues, 366 m JF283357 HQ996643 15
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W037 France, Var, Provence, Route D64, Mazaugues, 366 m JF283356 HQ996645 4
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W049 France, Var, Provence, Domaine de la chasse de Puits de Rians, 450 m JF283355 15
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W050 France, Var, Provence, Domaine de la chasse de Puits de Rians, 450 m JF283354 15
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W051 France, Var, Provence, Route D23, Pourrieres, 475 m JF283353 15
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W052 France, Var, Provence, Domaine de la chasse de Puits de Rians, 450 m JF283352 15
P. sidae RVcoll.09-V217 France, Var, Provence, Domaine de la chasse de Puits de Rians, 450 m JF283393 HQ996627 15
P. sidae RVcoll.09-V218 France, Var, Provence, Domaine de la chasse de Puits de Rians, 450 m JF283392 HQ996646 15
P. sidae RVcoll.09-V219 France, Var, Provence, Domaine de la chasse de Puits de Rians, 450 m JF283391 HQ996644 15
P. sidae RVcoll.09-V220 France, Var, Provence, Domaine de la chasse de Puits de Rians, 450 m JF283390 15
P. sidae RVcoll.09-V221 France, Var, Provence, Domaine de la chasse de Puits de Rians, 450 m JF283389 15
P. sidae RVcoll.07-C514 Greece, Provinz Florina, Kristallopigi, Triklario-Geb., 1100 m GU675648 HQ996631 10
P. sidae RVcoll.07-C561 Greece, Provinz Florina, Kristallopigi, Triklario-Geb., 1100 m GU675641 5
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W297 Greece, NW Grecia, Monodendri, 1250 m JF283351 5
P. sidae RVcoll.06-A275 Italy, Liguria, Colle Ponzone, Bric Berton, 700 m JF283350 HQ996641 15
P. sidae RVcoll.09-T191 Italy, Roma, Lazio, Cineto R., 800 m HM400990 HQ996647 15
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X650 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400969 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X651 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400970 HQ996642 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X652 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400971 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X653 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400972 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X654 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400973 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X655 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400974 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X656 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400975 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X657 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400976 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X658 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400977 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X659 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400978 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X660 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400979 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X661 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400980 3
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X662 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400981 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X663 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400982 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-X664 Kyrghyzstan, N Tian-Shan, Chon-Kemin rezerve, Trans Ili range, 1800 m HM400983 2
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W277 Kyrghyzstan, Chandalash Mt. mg., Chakmak-Sun riv., 1200 m JF283349 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-T005 Kyrghyzstan, Chatkal Mt. range, Chapchyrna pass, 2800 m JF283388 2
P. sidae RVcoll.09-T006 Kyrghyzstan, Chatkal Mt. range, Chapchyrna pass, 2800 m JF283387 2
P. sidae RVcoll.06-M918 Romania, Cluj, Cluj-Napoca, dl. Bogomaia, Fana ele Clujului, 450 m HQ996661 7
P. sidae RVcoll.06-N024 Romania, Alba, Muntii Apuseni, Rimetea (Piatra Secuiului), 750 m HQ996662 7
P. sidae RVcoll.07-D024 Romania, Constanta, Canaraua Fetei, Baneasa, 15 m HQ996663 5
P. sidae RVcoll.07-D039 Romania, Tulcea, Babadag forest, Babadag, 115 m HQ996664 HQ996637 5
P. sidae RVcoll.07-D166 Romania, Constanta, Sipote, 90 m HQ005143 5
P. sidae RVcoll.07-D189 Romania, Constanta, Canaraua Fetei, Baneasa, 15 m HQ005142 5
P. sidae RVcoll.07-D412 Romania, Cluj, Suatu, 400 m HQ005141 HQ996638 7
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W019 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283348 6
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W020 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283347 HQ996632 8
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W021 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283346 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W022 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283345 6
P. sidae RVcoll.08-J440 Russia, South Ural mts., Novotrock, Distr.Orsk, 300 m GU675642 11
P. sidae RVcoll.08-L624 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283344 6
P. sidae RVcoll.08-R493 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283381 HQ996630 6
P. sidae RVcoll.08-R494 Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, South Ural, Yantyshevo village, 450 m JF283380 11
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W091 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283379 HQ996633 14
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W092 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283378 HQ996634 9
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W099 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283377 12
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W100 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283376 13
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W101 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m GU675676 14
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W102 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283375 HQ996629 14
P. sidae RVcoll.09-T039 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283386 12
P. sidae RVcoll.09-T040 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283385 HQ996636 13
P. sidae RVcoll.09-T041 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283384 HQ996648 14
P. sidae RVcoll.09-T042 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283383 14
P. sidae RVcoll.09-T043 Spain, Salamanca, Sierra de Candelario, 1350 m JF283382 14
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W000 Tajikistan, Ganishob, Peter I Mts., 2100 m JF283374 1
P. sidae RVcoll.07-W278 Tajikistan, Langar v., Peter I Mts., 2600 m JF283373 HQ996626 1
P. sidae RVcoll.08-P500 Turkey, Van, 15 Km E. Tavtan, 1900 m JF283372 11
P. sidae RVcoll.08-R499 Turkey, Caglayan, Erzincan, 1300 m JF283371 11
P. carthami RVcoll.09-V526 Spain, Granada, Loma de San Francisco, Sierra Nevada, 2315 m JF283325
P. armoricanus RVcoll.07C232 Turkey, Nidge, Yelatan, 1330 m JF267329
P. communis USA, California AF170857
Appendix S2 Generalized mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model applied to a maximum
likelihood tree of COI haplotypes for Pyrgus sidae and P. cinarae, as well as for the
outgroups P. carthami and P. communis. Red shading indicates branches allocated to the
coalescent by the GMYC model.
Appendix S3 Heuristic estimate of relative contributions of the environmental variables
to the MAXENT distribution model in Pyrgus sidae and P. cinarae.
P. sidae Variable Per cent contribution (%)
Temperature annual range 38.8
Precipitation of the warmest quarter 27.2
Annual precipitation 9.4
Mean diurnal range 8.6
Precipitation seasonality 7.4
Annual mean temperature 6.7
Mean temperature of wettest quarter 1.5
Precipitation of the wettest period 0.3
P. cinarae
Precipitation of the warmest quarter 32.8
Temperature annual range 26.3
Mean diurnal range 25.4
Mean temperature of wettest quarter 10.1
Annual precipitation 2.9
Annual mean temperature 1.7
Precipitation seasonality 0.8
Precipitation of the wettest period 0.1
Appendix S4 Pearson correlations between species scores on principal components
analysis (PCA) axes and environmental descriptors ordered from higher to lower values
on the first PCA axis. Environmental descriptors are: BIO1, annual mean temperature;
BIO2, mean diurnal range; BIO7, temperature annual range; BIO8, mean temperature of
wettest quarter; BIO12, annual precipitation; BIO13, precipitation of the wettest period;
BIO15, precipitation seasonality; BIO18, precipitation of the warmest quarter. *P <
0.05; n=229.
PCA1 PCA2
BIO7 0.74* 0.25*
BIO2 0.44* 0.56*
BIO18 0.16* -0.89*
BIO8 0.14* -0.28*
BIO1 -0.13* 0.62*
BIO15 -0.71* 0.48*
BIO12 -0.87* -0.18*
BIO13 -0.91* -0.01

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