Using Pneumococcal Carriage Data to Monitor Postvaccination Changes in Invasive Disease

American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 09/2013; 178(9). DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwt156
Source: PubMed


Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced worldwide. However, few developing countries have high-quality surveillance systems available for monitoring vaccine impact. We evaluated whether data from nasopharyngeal carriage studies can be used to accurately monitor post-PCV changes in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children under 5 years of age. For various dates during 1991-2010, data on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and on IPD before and after administration of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) were available from England and Wales, the Netherlands, the Navajo and White Mountain Apache American Indian populations, and the US states of Massachusetts and Alaska. We estimated the change in carriage prevalence for each serotype in each study and then either calculated the average change (inverse variance-weighted) among vaccine and nonvaccine serotypes (model 1) or used mixed-effects models to estimate the change for each serotype individually, pooling serotype data within or between studies (models 2 and 3). We then multiplied these values by the proportion of IPD caused by each serotype during the pre-PCV7 period to obtain an estimate of post-PCV7 disease incidence. Model 1 accurately captured overall changes in IPD incidence following PCV7 introduction for most studies, while the more detailed models, models 2 and 3, were less accurate. Carriage data can be used in this simple model to estimate post-PCV changes in IPD incidence.

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Available from: Lindsay Grant, Jul 31, 2014
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    • "Replacement with pneumococcal serotypes that have a lower invasiveness potential (as measured by case:carrier ratios; CCRs) than the PCV13 serotypes should produce a net reduction in IPD, while emergence of highly invasive serotypes indicates the potential for replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. The invasiveness of different pneumococcal serotypes will therefore determine the extent to which serotype replacement in carriage will result in changes to IPD in the population [11] [12]. "
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