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... β-myrcene, orally administered to experimental animals, has demonstrated important protective activity in a model of the gastric ulcer [31]. Sabinene has shown strong anti-inflammatory activity mediated by the inhibition of NO production in macrophages [32], compared to αand β-pinenes. Finally, p-cymene is one of the main compounds identified in thyme oil, and its ability to prevent lipidic peroxidation has been demonstrated [33]. ...
... On the other hand, we believe that regulation of the inflammatory response may occur by the wound repair since it has been shown that this EO has anti-inflammatory activity when used in topical form to treat plantar edema in rats [8]. Even more, several of its components have been identified as anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit the production of NO [28,32], while others increase the production of essential agents, such as FGF and PDGF, for wound repair and favor angiogenesis [28] and antioxidant activity, which may have a protective effect against the oxidative stress generated during the inflammatory stage [30,33]. Recently, it has been shown that α-phellandrene also inhibits leukocyte rolling and adhesion and production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as the degranulation of compound 48/80-induced mast cells. ...
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Bursera morelensis is used in Mexican folk medicine to treat wounds on the skin. It is an endemic tree known as “aceitillo”, and the antibacterial and antifungal activity of its essential oil has been verified; it also acts as an anti-inflammatory. All of these reported biological activities make the essential oil of B. morelensis a candidate to accelerate the wound-healing process. The objective was to determine the wound-healing properties of B. morelensis’ essential oil on a murine model. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation, and the chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the murine model, wound-healing efficacy (WHE) and wound contraction (WC) were evaluated. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro using peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. The results showed that 18 terpenoid-type compounds were identified in the essential oil. The essential oil had remarkable WHE regardless of the dose and accelerated WC and was not cytotoxic. In vitro tests with fibroblasts showed that cell viability was dose-dependent; by adding 1 mg/mL of essential oil (EO) to the culture medium, cell viability decreased below 80%, while, at doses of 0.1 and 0.01 mg/mL, it remained around 90%; thus, EO did not intervene in fibroblast proliferation, but it did influence fibroblast migration when wound-like was done in monolayer cultures. The results of this study demonstrated that the essential oil was a pro-wound-healing agent because it had good healing effectiveness with scars with good tensile strength and accelerated repair. The probable mechanism of action of the EO of B. morelensis, during the healing process, is the promotion of the migration of fibroblasts to the site of the wound, making them active in the production of collagen and promoting the remodeling of this collagen.
... Accordingly, they give strong evidence that the two Deverra oil nanoemulsions accelerated the wound-healing process. Among the major constituents of D. tortuosa is sabinene which is reported to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and -6 (Valente et al., 2009) and inhibition of NO production in macrophages (Valente et al., 2009). Also, it was reported that terpinen-4-ol exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 factors (Hart et al., 2000) and it represents a major component of much essential oil which is used as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent (Shapira et al., .2016). ...
... Accordingly, they give strong evidence that the two Deverra oil nanoemulsions accelerated the wound-healing process. Among the major constituents of D. tortuosa is sabinene which is reported to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and -6 (Valente et al., 2009) and inhibition of NO production in macrophages (Valente et al., 2009). Also, it was reported that terpinen-4-ol exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 factors (Hart et al., 2000) and it represents a major component of much essential oil which is used as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent (Shapira et al., .2016). ...
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Deverra tortuosa (Desf.) DC. and Deverra. triradiata Hochst. ex Bioss are perennial desert shrubs widely used traditionally for many purposes and they are characteristic for their essential oil. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vivo wound healing activity of the essential oil (EO) of D. tortuosa and D. triradiata through their encapsulation into nanoemulsion. EO nanoemulsion was prepared using an aqueous phase titration method, and nanoemulsion zones were identified through the construction of phase diagrams. The EO was prepared by hydrodistillation (HD), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed using GC/MS. D. tortuosa oil is rich in the non-oxygenated compound, representing 74.54, 73.02, and 41.19% in HD, MADH, and SFE, respectively, and sabinene represents the major monoterpene hydrocarbons. Moreover, D. triradiata is rich in oxygenated compounds being 69.77, 52.87, and 61.69% in HD, MADH, and SFE, respectively, with elemicin and myristicin as major phenylpropanoids. Topical application of the nanoemulsion of D. tortuosa and D. triradiata (1% or 2%) exhibited nearly 100% wound contraction and complete healing at day 16. Moreover, they exhibit significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and a significant increase in growth factors and hydroxyproline levels. Histopathological examination exhibited complete re-epithelialization accompanied by activated hair follicles and abundant collagen fibers, especially at a concentration of 2%. Therefore, the incorporation of the two Deverra species into nanoemulsion could professionally endorse different stages of wound healing.
... Hydro-distillation of O. fistulosa gave an essential oil of yellow color, with a very strong and persistent odor, and with a quantity of 1 ml which corresponds to a yield of 0.2% (v/m). The results obtained by [11] showing a yield of 0.3% (v/m) in another species of the same genus O. crocata were inconsistent with our results (0.2%) [11]. The low value of the extraction yield of aerial parts can be attributed to the nature of habitat and to the geographical position of the plant. ...
... Hydro-distillation of O. fistulosa gave an essential oil of yellow color, with a very strong and persistent odor, and with a quantity of 1 ml which corresponds to a yield of 0.2% (v/m). The results obtained by [11] showing a yield of 0.3% (v/m) in another species of the same genus O. crocata were inconsistent with our results (0.2%) [11]. The low value of the extraction yield of aerial parts can be attributed to the nature of habitat and to the geographical position of the plant. ...
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ABSTRACT Background: Oenanthe fistulosa is an Algerian medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat different diseases. Objective: This present research aimed to carry out the chemical composition of essential oils from the aerial parts of Oenanthe fistulosa. Methods: Oils were extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus, and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Eighteen components have been identified, and have been classified into six groups: oxygenated sesquiterpenes (7 components), hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (4 components), oxygenated diterpene (1 component), alkanes (3 components), aldehydes (2 components) and ketone isoprenoid (1 component). The major groups were alkanes and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (42.61 and 27.23%, respectively). In the alkanes groups we find three major components, such as: heptacosane (3.79%), 1-Eicosane (4.39%) and heneicosane (34.43%). In the sesquiterpene oxygenated we find two major components, which are: bylongipinocarveol (3.81%) andcaryophyllene oxide (14.30%). In the aldehydes group, the major components is octadecanal with a rate of 6.68%, where the diterpeneoxygenated group was represented by phytol component (5.05%). Conclusion: This study is the first investigation to the chemical composition of essential oil of the species O. fistulosa L. growing in Algeria. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oils reveals the presence of 23 components, in which 18 products were identified. Where the caryophyllene oxide as main copound, which is effective in preserving food, drugs and cosmetics.
... Linalool has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects (Peana et al., 2003). Sabinene also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects (Valente et al., 2013). δ-To- (Hsieh et al., 2010). ...
... In our study, the novel analysis of the terpenes and polyphenols found in HP confirmed the presence of several terpenes and polyphenols that may give the HP extract its antioxidant activity. The αpinene and its isomer camphene linalool, Sabinene, δ-tocotrienol, caryophyllene and terpinen have been detected in our study and were reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer effects (Kim et al., 2015;Li et al., 2016;Peana et al., 2003;Valente et al., 2013). These terpenes that found in our HP extract have increased its antioxidant activity. ...
... Although this is the first report on the anti-inflammatory potential of C. maritimum essential oil, other studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory potential of other essential oils rich in sabinene. Indeed, albeit the essential oils from Oenanthe crocata (sabinene 29 %) (Valente et al., 2013a) and Margotia gummifera (sabinene 21.0-23.5 %) (Valente et al., 2013b) have been reported as anti-inflammatory, their activity is weaker than the one reported herein. ...
... Other studies showed the anti-inflammatory potential of two major compounds, γ-terpinene and sabinene. Valente (Valente et al., 2013a(Valente et al., , 2013b showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of sabinene is only significant on high doses (1.05 mg/mL). In turn, γ-terpinene was shown to inhibit the inflammatory response in an animal model of inflammation (Ramalho et al., 2015). ...
Article
Aromatic and medicinal plants, such as those from the Apiaceae family, and their metabolites, namely essential oils are of great industrial interest and a source of biologically relevant compounds. Essential oils are the major resource obtained during the hydrodistillation of aromatic plants, however, this process also originates high amounts of residual water. Although this by-product is discarded, it is conceivable that this water may be rich in non-volatile compounds which possess interesting biological properties. Therefore, the aim of this work is to analyze the oil and the hydrodistillation residual water of Crithmum maritimum L. (sea fennel), a highly aromatic plant widely used in many European countries and highlight the bioactive potential of both products. High performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) analysis of the hydrodistillation residual water showed a profile rich in hydroxycinnamic acids and small amounts of flavone and flavonol glycosides. Chemical analysis of the essential oil by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-–MS) has revealed that γ-terpinene (33.6 %), sabinene (32.0 %) and thymol methyl ether (15.7 %) are the major compounds. The antioxidant potential of the residual water was disclosed by the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and a composition-activity relationship was unveiled by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The anti-inflammatory potential was demonstrated by using an in vitro model of inflammation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages). Furthermore, the antifungal potential was evaluated by the capacity to inhibit two important virulence factors in Candida albicans. Our results show that the residual water have a promising antioxidant potential as measured by DPPH scavenging assay (IC50 of 650 ± 160 μg/mL). Chlorogenic acid and quercetin derivatives found in the hydrodistillation residual water are the mainly contributors for this activity. The essential oil of C. maritimum (3.125 μg/mL) decreases the production of nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated macrophages by 37 % without affecting cell viability. In addition, the essential oil has a strong effect on virulence factors of C. albicans through inhibiting the formation of the germ tube by more than 50 % at 30 μg/mL besides, it is able to inhibit biofilm formation by decreasing both the biomass and the cell viability. Summing up, the present work highlights that the essential oil of Crithmum maritimum and the non-volatile extract rich in hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoid glycosides, obtained after the hydrodistillation process have important biological activities, thus endorsing the industrial exploitation of this plant.
... Hydro-distillation of O. fistulosa gave an essential oil of yellow color, with a very strong and persistent odor, and with a quantity of 1 ml which corresponds to a yield of 0.2% (v/m). The results obtained by [11] showing a yield of 0.3% (v/m) in another species of the same genus O. crocata were inconsistent with our results (0.2%) [11]. The low value of the extraction yield of aerial parts can be attributed to the nature of habitat and to the geographical position of the plant. ...
... Hydro-distillation of O. fistulosa gave an essential oil of yellow color, with a very strong and persistent odor, and with a quantity of 1 ml which corresponds to a yield of 0.2% (v/m). The results obtained by [11] showing a yield of 0.3% (v/m) in another species of the same genus O. crocata were inconsistent with our results (0.2%) [11]. The low value of the extraction yield of aerial parts can be attributed to the nature of habitat and to the geographical position of the plant. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Oenanthe fistulosa is an Algerian medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat different diseases. Objective: This present research aimed to carry out the chemical composition of essential oils from the aerial parts of Oenanthe fistulosa. Methods: Oils were extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus, and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Eighteen components have been identified, and have been classified into six groups: oxygenated sesquiterpenes (7 components), hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (4 components), oxygenated diterpene (1 component), alkanes (3 components), aldehydes (2 components) and ketone isoprenoid (1 component). The major groups were alkanes and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (42.61 and 27.23%, respectively). In the alkanes groups we find three major components, such as: heptacosane (3.79%), 1-Eicosane (4.39%) and heneicosane (34.43%). In the sesquiterpene oxygenated we find two major components, which are: bylongipinocarveol (3.81%) andcaryophyllene oxide (14.30%). In the aldehydes group, the major components is octadecanal with a rate of 6.68%, where the diterpeneoxygenated group was represented by phytol component (5.05%). Conclusion: This study is the first investigation to the chemical composition of essential oil of the species O. fistulosa L. growing in Algeria. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oils reveals the presence of 23 components, in which 18 products were identified. Where the caryophyllene oxide as main copound, which is effective in preserving food, drugs and cosmetics.
... Secondary metabolites are organic compounds produced by microorganisms and plants that play roles in a number of processes that give the plant or microorganism comparative advantage, may play a role in survival of the microorganism or plant, play a role in the aroma (terpenes), pigmentation and flavour of the plant (flavonoids), and that may have pharmacological/health benefits [80][81][82][83]. In addition to these roles, many cannabinoid-and non-cannabinoid secondary metabolites produced by C. sativa L., are analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant, relaxant, and antioxidant [35,39,[84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94]. ...
... Anticancer [39,[86][87][88][89][90][91] 5. ...
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Oral and dental diseases are a major global burden, the most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and may even affect an individual’s general quality of life and health. The most prevalent dental and oral health conditions are tooth decay (otherwise referred to as dental caries/cavities), oral cancers, gingivitis, periodontitis, periodontal (gum) disease, Noma, oro-dental trauma, oral manifestations of HIV, sensitive teeth, cracked teeth, broken teeth, and congenital anomalies such as cleft lip and palate. Herbs have been utilized for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese, African and Indian medicine and even in some Western countries, for the treatment of oral and dental conditions including but not limited to dental caries, gingivitis and toothaches, dental pulpitis, halitosis (bad breath), mucositis, sore throat, oral wound infections, and periodontal abscesses. Herbs have also been used as plaque removers (chew sticks), antimicrobials, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, and antiseptics. Cannabis sativa L. in particular has been utilized in traditional Asian medicine for tooth-pain management, prevention of dental caries and reduction in gum inflammation. The distribution of cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the mouth suggest that the endocannabinoid system may be a target for the treatment of oral and dental diseases. Most recently, interest has been geared toward the use of Cannabidiol (CBD), one of several secondary metabolites produced by C. sativa L. CBD is a known anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-microbial and anti-cancer agent, and as a result, may have therapeutic potential against conditions such burning mouth syndrome, dental anxiety, gingivitis, and possible oral cancer. Other major secondary metabolites of C. sativa L. such as terpenes and flavonoids also share anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic and anti-microbial properties and may also have dental and oral applications. This review will investigate the potential of secondary metabolites of C. sativa L. in the treatment of dental and oral diseases.
... Anti-inflammatory Analgesic [20] Antispasmic in gut muscles [21] Humulene Antiallergy; anticancer [20] Ocimene Antifungal; antibacterial; antioxidant; antiviral; anti-inflammatory [29][30][31][32][33] The Medical Cannabis Network also reports that a current study is being undertaken by researchers at the Israel Institute of Technology investigating the therapeutic efficacy of a cannabis terpene inhalant formulation in suppressing the immune system response against COVID-19. ...
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The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) produces an estimated 545 chemical compounds of different biogenetic classes. In addition to economic value, many of these phytochemicals have medicinal and physiological activity. The plant is most popularly known for its two most-prominent and most-studied secondary metabolites—Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Both Δ9-THC and CBD have a wide therapeutic window across many ailments and form part of a class of secondary metabolites called cannabinoids—of which approximately over 104 exist. This review will focus on non-cannabinoid metabolites of Cannabis sativa that also have therapeutic potential, some of which share medicinal properties similar to those of cannabinoids. The most notable of these non-cannabinoid phytochemicals are flavonoids and terpenes. We will also discuss future directions in cannabis research and development of cannabis-based pharmaceuticals. Caflanone, a flavonoid molecule with selective activity against the human viruses including the coronavirus OC43 (HCov-OC43) that is responsible for COVID-19, and certain cancers, is one of the most promising non-cannabinoid molecules that is being advanced into clinical trials. As validated by thousands of years of the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes, vast anecdotal evidence abounds on the medicinal benefits of the plant. These benefits are attributed to the many phytochemicals in this plant, including non-cannabinoids. The most promising non-cannabinoids with potential to alleviate global disease burdens are discussed.
... It inhibited pro inflammatory cytokines such as TNF α, IL-1 β and IL-6 and also have greatest scavenging capacity to inhibit iNOS expression. Due to the scavenging and inhibitory activity of INOS expression it shows important antiinflammatory activity 40 . ...
Article
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A considerable preponderance of population throughout the globe has consistently manipulated medicinal plants as pioneer informant of health protection to oppose contagious and non-contagious diseases. The bulk of these pharmaceutical plants have scientific affirmation to be contemplated in prevailing application. Inflammation is the crucial problem interconnected with copious infection. Every living creature can sense sick, feverish and weak as our body struggle to over through the infection and recuperates itself. Inflammation is absolutely important to conserve us healthy. However, sometimes the inflammatory response of our body can be a bit overenthusiastic, not arrest when it is expected to; which can cause numerous complications and even condition of disease. To completely comprehend and be able to competently treat these disorders, we require a more desirable and satisfactory comprehension of how and why these long lasting chronic infection happens. Now in present time, inflammation is rehabilitated by NSAIDS. These drugs unfortunately accomplish appalling possibilities of blood clots leading to strokes and cardiac arrest. Therefore, the essential universal products are currently under applications in order to develop the dynamic anti-inflammatory drugs. For the rehabilitation of various disease linked with inflammation, the essential crude products from important medicinal plants performs a decisive factor. To get rid of the side effects of present day drugs, there is a necessity for the development of advance drugs with minor or no secondary responses. The current review designed towards gathering of particular information on auspicious curative plants especially experimented in inflammatory model manipulating accurate scientific experimental system.
... This compound is mainly present in plants and is an important component of various plant essential oils (Hakola et al., 2003;Rossi et al., 2007). Currently, sabinene is used in the perfume and flavor industries or in the pharmaceutical industry because of its pleasant odor or its anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively (Cao et al., 2017;Menon & Padmakumari, 2005;Valente, Zuzarte, Gonalves, Lopes, & Cruz, 2013). When native ERG20p was engineered into a GPP synthase and the sabinene synthase from S. pomifera was also expressed in S. cerevisiae, 17.5 mg/L sabinene was yielded in flask fermentation (Ignea, Pontini, Maffei, Makris, & Kampranis, 2014). ...
Chapter
Isoprenoids, as the largest group of chemicals in the domains of life, constitute more than 50,000 members. These compounds consist of different numbers of isoprene units (C5H8), by which they are typically classified into hemiterpenoids (C5), monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), diterpenoids (C20), triterpenoids (C30), and tetraterpenoids (C40). In recent years, isoprenoids have been employed as food additives, in the pharmaceutical industry, as advanced biofuels, and so on. To realize the sufficient and efficient production of valuable isoprenoids on an industrial scale, fermentation using engineered microorganisms is a promising strategy compared to traditional plant extraction and chemical synthesis. Due to the advantages of mature genetic manipulation, robustness and applicability to industrial bioprocesses, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an attractive microbial host for biochemical production, including that of various isoprenoids. In this review, we summarized the advances in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids in engineered S. cerevisiae over several decades, including synthetic pathway engineering, microbial host engineering, and central carbon pathway engineering. Furthermore, the challenges and corresponding strategies towards improving isoprenoid production in engineered S. cerevisiae were also summarized. Finally, suggestions and directions for isoprenoid production in engineered S. cerevisiae in the future are discussed.
... In addition, allergic contact dermatitis has been reported following the use of α-pinene, β-pinene, and myrcene [175,177,178,190]. This issue draws attention on the need to further explore the safe concentrations of terpenes for therapeutic proposes [191]. In this context, contact of BVOCs during forest bathing may be safer, albeit less beneficial compared to direct intake or application on skin. ...
Article
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Forest trees are a major source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Terpenes and terpenoids are known as the main BVOCs of forest aerosols. These compounds have been shown to display a broad range of biological activities in various human disease models, thus implying that forest aerosols containing these compounds may be related to beneficial effects of forest bathing. In this review, we surveyed studies analyzing BVOCs and selected the most abundant 23 terpenes and terpenoids emitted in forested areas of the Northern Hemisphere, which were reported to display anti-inflammatory activities. We categorized anti-inflammatory processes related to the functions of these compounds into six groups and summarized their molecular mechanisms of action. Finally, among the major 23 compounds, we examined the therapeutic potentials of 12 compounds known to be effective against respiratory inflammation, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and neuroinflammation among various inflammatory diseases. In conclusion, the updated studies support the beneficial effects of forest aerosols and propose their potential use as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents for treating various inflammatory diseases.
... It has been identified in EOs of many plants and species of the Apiaceae family 37,38 . Previous studies reported its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as its effectiveness against parasites [39][40][41][42][43] . Furthermore, p-cymene is a well-known aromatic monoterpene that has been identified up to 100 plant species and it has exhibited great pharmacological effects such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, anticancer and anti-atherosclerotic [44][45][46][47] . ...
Article
Crithmum maritimum L. (Apiaceae), known as Sea fennel, is a perennial plant, growing wild mainly on maritime rocks along with the Mediterranean countries, Pacific and Atlantic coasts. Traditionally, various parts of this plant have been used as a tonic, antiscorbutic, carminative, vermifuge and diuretic. Over the last years, the essential oil (EO) of sea fennel is widely used in the food and cosmetic industry. In the present study, the EOs of the aerial parts obtained from cultivated populations of two consecutive years (2016; 2017; Larissa-Central Greece) were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compounds of the EO derived from the cultivar of 2016 were sabinene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (17.5 %), p-cymene (16.7 %), β-phellandrene (15.5 %), thymol methyl ether (9.3 %), terpinen-4-ol (4.8 %) and dillapiole (2.0 %). Though, the sample of 2017 included β-phellandrene (30.9 %), γ-terpinene (19.6 %), sabinene (15.8 %), thymol methyl ether (7.6 %), terpinen-4-ol (4.8 %) and dillapiole (0.1 %). A comparison was made between the two samples, as well as with the previous literature data. This is the first study deals with the chemical analysis of EOs from Greek cultivated C. maritimum. Our data revealed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons as the major constituents in both EOs and confirmed the presence of dillapiole in the Greek EOs of the specific plant.
... In this context, essential oils (EOs) appear as a very promising antifungal agent (Nazzaro et al. 2017). Many studies have reported several biological activities, including antifungal, particularly in plants belonging to the Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae families (Edris 2007;Pinto et al. 2006Pinto et al. , 2009Pinto et al. , 2013aPinto et al. , 2013bValente et al. 2013;Alves-Silva et al. 2016;Zuzarte et al. 2018). Teucrium L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic genus mainly found in the Mediterranean region, however, some species can be found scattered across Europe, North Africa and temperate parts of Asia. ...
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The chemical composition of two populations of Teucrium capitatum L. one from the coastline and the other one from the mountainous area of Sardinia (Italy) was assessed. Two chemotypes were identified: limonene/α-pinene/(E)-nerolidol chemotype predominant in the coastline, and limonene/α-pinene/α-trans-bergamotene/humulene epoxide II chemotype common in plants growing in the mountainous area. In addition, our results showed that the sample growing in the coastline had a more promising antifungal activity. Furthermore, this sample was highly effective in inhibiting C. albicans germ tube formation, at doses well below its MIC. Overall, this study shows that the edaphoclimatic characteristics play an important role on the essential oil composition and biological activity of Teucrium capitatum L.
... Sabinene is a high-value monoterpene, for use in many industrial fields [20]. Due to its complex bicyclic structure, it has high energy density and high heat of combustion, which makes it a useful component of aviation fuel [21,22]. ...
Article
Geranyl diphosphate (GPP) is a direct precursor in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Previous studies focused on the manipulation of metabolic flux to improve GPP supply in yeast. However, if the subcellular distribution of GPP with monoterpene synthase is not coordinated, the usage of GPP becomes sub-optimal. Therefore, taking sabinene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an exemplar, we confirmed the location of N-truncated sabinene synthase (t34SabS1) to be primarily in the cytosol. We also revealed the existence of GPP pools in the peroxisomes and mitochondria. Combined targeting of t34SabS1 into different combinations of subcellular locations demonstrated that the highest production of sabinene was obtained when expressed simultaneously in the cytosol and mitochondria. Further overexpression of mitochondria-related genes uncovered four novel molecular targets (FIS1, LSB3, MBA1, and AIM25) associated with sabinene output, with AIM25 resulting in the highest production. Eventually, integrating all of these engineered genes into the host chromosome achieved a sabinene production of 154.9 mg/L, an almost 60-fold increase from our original titer. This research highlights the strategy of organelle engineering to improve precursor utilization and to enhance compartmentalized pathways. It also provides a good reference for the synthesis of other valuable monoterpenes and their derivatives, in a eukaryotic host.
... 49 Sabinene inhibits the nitric oxide (NO) production. 50 Borneol reduces the level of inflammatory factors including NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. 51 Borneol improves the efficacy of edaravone against DSS-induced colitis by promoting M2 macrophages polarization via the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway. ...
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Background/aims: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with indefinite etiology; however, environmental, genetic, immune factors and microbial agents could be implicated in its pathogenesis. UC treatment is lifelong, therefore; the potential side effects and cost of the therapy are significant. Yarrow is a promising medicinal plant with the ability to treat many disorders, owing to its bioactive compounds especially the essential oil. The main aim of this research was to investigate the therapeutic effect of the yarrow oil on colitis including the involved mechanism of action. Methods: In 21-female C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups; control group, colitis model group, and oil-treated group. Groups 2 and 3 received 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 9 days, and concomitantly, only group 3 was given 100 mg/kg yarrow oil. Mice were examined for their body weight, stool consistency and bleeding, and the disease activity indexes were calculated. Results: Oral administration of yarrow oil markedly repressed the severity of UC via the reduction of the inflammatory signs and restoring colon length. The oil was able to down-regulate nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), up-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and enhance transforming growth factor-β expression. The oil normalized the tumor necrosis factor-α expression, restored the normal serum level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and reduced the serum level of IL-6. Conclusions: Yarrow oil mitigated UC symptoms and regulated the inflammatory cytokines secretion via regulation of NF-κB and PPAR-γ pathways in the mice model, however, this recommendation requires further investigations using clinical studies to confirm the use of the oil on humans.
... Oenanthotoxin and dihydrooenanthotoxin isolated from Oenanthe fistulosa were found to potently block GABAergic responses leading to neurotoxic activity and providing a molecular rationale for the symptoms of poisoning from water-dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) and related plants [2]. The essential oil of Oenanthe crocata was reported to have antifungal, antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities [5]. ...
Article
Abstract: Introduction: Oenanthe fistulosa L. (Apiaceae) is often associated with damp soils. Its underground parts and the young leaves are mainly cooked with other vegetables. Objective: The aim of the current work was to investigate the chemical profile of dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions of O. fistulosa through analysis of 37 phytochemicals by LC-MS/MS and to evaluate their biological activities such as antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antityrosinase for the first time. Methods: Analysis of 37 phytochemicals was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using five in vitro assays, while anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities were performed using Ellman and Dopachrome methods, respectively. Results: The number of phenolic compounds detected in DCM, EA and BuOH fractions was found to be 9, 15, and 12; respectively. More specifically, 9 phenolic acids were detected and among them, chlorogenic, tr-ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant. While 8 flavonoids were detected and apigetrin, rutin, and quercitrin were the most abundant. In addition, 3 non-phenolic organic acids (quinic, malic and fumaric acids) were detected in large quantities. Furthermore, the tested plant fractions demonstrated a noteworthy and strong antioxidant action. The plant displayed very strong action against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes; and BuOH fraction was the most potent one. Finally, BuOH and DCM fractions showed good tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, O. fistulosa might be a promising candidate for the alleviation of oxidative stress, neurodegenerative (such as Alzheimer’s disease) and hyperpigmentation disorders.
... (Z)-and (E)-β-Ocimene do not appear to be particularly active. [13][14][15][16] On the other hand, several investigations have shown β-caryophyllene 17,18 and germacrene D 16 to be broadly antimicrobial. In addition, essential oils rich in both bicyclogermacrene and β-caryophyllene have shown pronounced antimicrobial activity. ...
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Leaves of Actinodaphne pilosa were collected at 2 different seasons from the Pù Hoạt Nature Reserve, Vietnam. The leaf samples were hydrodistilled to give essential oils, which were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry and GC-flame ionization detection. The major components in the essential oils were α-pinene, ( Z)-β-ocimene, ( E)-β-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. The essential oils were screened for antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, as well as mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Actinodaphne pilosa leaf essential oils showed broad antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration = 32, 64, 64, 16, and 16 μg/mL against E. faecalis, S. aureus, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, respectively) and excellent larvicidal activity (24-hour 50% lethal concentration = 19.0, 24.7, and 48.1 μg/mL against A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively).
... α-Pinene significantly decreases the LPS-induced production of IL-6, TNF-α and nitric oxide in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages [37]. Sabinene from Oenanthe crocata essential oil significantly inhibits nitric oxide production in LPS and IFNγ-treated macrophages [38]. Limonene has a significantly decreased manifestation of inflammatory signals in rat models of ulcerative colitis via regulation of iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE2, and ERK [39]. ...
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Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) essential oil has antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. We have recently demonstrated that hydrodistillation of nutmeg essential oil by applying magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient significantly increases both the content and amount of bioactive substances in the oil and hydrolats. In this study, we aimed to compare the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity of hydrolats and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the presence and absence of magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method revealed that magnesium aluminometasilicate did not significantly improved antioxidant activity of both essential oil and hydrolat. Antibacterial efficiency was evaluated by monitoring growth of 15 bacterial strains treated by a range of dilutions of the essential oil and the hydrolats. Essential oil with an excipient completely inhibited the growth of E. faecalis, S. mutans (referent), and P. multocida, whereas the pure oil was only efficient against the latter strain. Finally, the anti-inflammatory properties of the substances were assessed in a fibroblast cell culture treated with viral dsRNR mimetic Poly I:C. The essential oil with an excipient protected cells against Poly I:C-induced necrosis more efficiently compared to pure essential oil. Also, both the oil and the hydrolats with aluminometasilicate were more efficient in preventing IL-6 release in the presence of Poly I:C. Our results show that the use of magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient might change and in some cases improve the biological activities of nutmeg essential oil and hydrolats.
... In vitro experiments suggest anti-nociceptive properties [35] and a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage and liver failure [36]. α-Terpineol, which prevailed in the fruits, shows antihypertensive and antiproliferative effect on human erythroleukemic cells [37,38], as well as antioxidant, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiulcer, anti-nociceptive, and anti-inflammatory actions [39][40][41][42][43]. Finally, sabinene, principally abundant in the leaves, is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties [44]. In particular, Matias et al. reported that sabinene extracted from Cordia verbenacea leaves was able to enhance the effect of aminoglycosides [45]. ...
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In the present paper, we focused our attention on Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl. (Lauraceae), studied at three levels: (i) micromorphological, with the analysis of the secretory structures and a novel in-depth histochemical characterization of the secreted compounds; (ii) phytochemical, with the characterization of the essential oils from young stems, fruits, and leaves, subjected to different conservation procedures (fresh, dried, stored at −20 °C, stored at −80 °C) and collected in two different years; (iii) bioactive, consisting of a study of the potential antibacterial activity of the essential oils. The micromorphological investigation proved the presence of secretory cells characterized by a multi-layered wall in the young stems and leaves. They resulted in two different types: mucilage cells producing muco-polysaccharides and oil cells with an exclusive terpene production. The phytochemical investigations showed a predominance of monoterpenes over sesquiterpene derivatives; among them, the main components retrieved in all samples were 1,8-cineole followed by α-terpineol and sabinene. Conservation procedures seem to only influence the amounts of specific components, i.e., 1,8-cineole and α-terpineol, while analyses on each plant part revealed the presence of some peculiar secondary constituents for each of them. Finally, the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the essential oil showed a promising activity against various microorganisms, as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In conclusion, we combined a micromorphological and phytochemical approach of the study on different plant parts of C. camphora, linking the occurrence of secretory cells to the production of essential oils. We compared, for the first time, the composition of essential oils derived from different plant matrices conserved with different procedures, allowing us to highlight a relation between the conservation technique and the main components of the profiles. Moreover, the preliminary antibacterial studies evidenced the potential activity of the essential oils against various microorganisms potentially dangerous for plants and humans.
... Sabinene is highly reactive towards ozone [13] and hydroxyl radicals OH [14] and produces many potential precursors of SOAs such as sabina ketone, formaldehyde, and formic acid [15][16][17][18] . Apart from being a main biogenic volatile organic compound, sabinene has some medicinal benefits as an anti-inflammatory [19] . It can also be used as perfume additives and flavorings, [20] and enters in the oil composition of the black pepper [21] . ...
Article
The rotational spectrum and the gas phase structure of the bicyclic monoterpene sabinene (C10H16-4-methylene-1-(1-methyl ethyl)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane), a main biogenic volatile organic compound precursor of secondary organic aerosols, was reinvestigated theoretically and experimentally employing a combination of quantum chemical calculations and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled to a supersonic jet expansion in the 2−20GHz frequency region. The spectra of the parent species and of all singly substituted 13C isotopologues have been analysed in natural abundance. The 11 sets of rotational constants allowed to determine the partial substitution and effective structures of sabinene. They are in fair agreement with the optimized ones at the B3LYP, M06-2X and MP2 levels associated with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Our results correct the conclusions issued from the early low-resolution study of Kisiel and Legon [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100 (1978), 8166-8169]. The dihedral angle ϕ defining the boat arrangement of the five-membered ring was determined to be 55∘ while we determined it to be 26.9∘. The structure of sabinene reveals the same structural parameters as bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane and two of its derivatives bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-one and 2, 4-dioxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one.
... These compounds are widely used in medicine, food additives, perfume, energy industry, and many other fields [2,3]. Sabinene, a bicyclic monoterpene, is also widely applied in the above fields [4,5]. Sabinene has ...
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Background: Biosynthesis of sabinene, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been accomplished in engineered microorganisms by introducing heterologous pathways and using renewable sugar as a carbon source. However, the efficiency and titers of this method are limited by the low host tolerance to sabinene (in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes). Results: In this study, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was selected as the strain for adaptive laboratory evolution. The strain was evolved by serial passaging in the medium supplemented with gradually increasing concentration of sabinene, and the evolved strain XYF(DE3), which exhibited significant tolerance to sabinene, was obtained. Then, XYF(DE3) was used as the host for sabinene production and an 8.43-fold higher sabinene production was achieved compared with the parental BL21(DE3), reaching 191.76 mg/L. Whole genomes resequencing suggested the XYF(DE3) strain is a hypermutator. A comparative analysis of transcriptomes of XYF(DE3) and BL21(DE3) was carried out to reveal the mechanism underlying the improvement of sabinene tolerance, and 734 up-regulated genes and 857 down-regulated genes were identified. We further tested the roles of the identified genes in sabinene tolerance via reverse engineering. The results demonstrated that overexpressions of ybcK gene of the DLP12 family, the inner membrane protein gene ygiZ, and the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase gene scpA could increase sabinene tolerance of BL21(DE3) by 127.7%, 71.1%, and 75.4%, respectively. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy was applied to monitor cell morphology. Under sabinene stress, the parental BL21(DE3) showed increased cell length, whereas XYF(DE3) showed normal cell morphology. In addition, overexpression of ybcK, ygiZ or scpA could partially rescue cell morphology under sabinene stress and overexpression of ygiZ or scpA could increase sabinene production in BL21(DE3). Conclusions: This study not only obtained a sabinene-tolerant strain for microbial production of sabinene but also revealed potential regulatory mechanisms that are important for sabinene tolerance. In addition, for the first time, ybcK, ygiZ, and scpA were identified to be important for terpene tolerance in E. coli BL21(DE3).
... In addition, other cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) were also suppressed (Yoon et al., 2010). Sabinene isolated from Oenanthe crocata and Zornia diphylla Pers, showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggered (Valente et al., 2013;Kumar et al., 2014). Therefore, the mechanism of pain and anti-inflammatory of WIEO could be attributed to the ability of the major constituents to inhibit several pain mediators synthesized during the study. ...
Article
This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant. Resumen: Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.
... Medicinal treatments involving essential oils are also reliable as most of them show antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects that are useful for medicinal purposes [8][9][10]. Thai basil (Ocimum bacilicum L.), Vietnamese coriander (Persicaria odorata) and Chinese parsley (Coriandrum sativum L.) locally known in Malaysia as Selasih, Kesum and Ketumbar respectively are herbs which are commonly found in Southeast Asian countries, either eaten raw or used in cooking. ...
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Calcium oxalate is one of the most common components in urolithiasis. Its treatment includes the use of synthetic drugs, ultrasound and surgery. However, cheaper alternative treatment using herbal medicine with less adverse side effect is preferred. Essential oils from Thai basil (Ocimum bacilicum L.), Vietnamese coriander (Persicaria odorata) and Chinese parsley (Coriandum sativum L.) were extracted and investigated for antiurolithic activity based on calcium oxalate crystallisation. Most of the crystals formed in control sample were hexagonal calcium oxalate monohydrate with sizes ranging between 3 to 4 m. The size of the crystals was found to be slightly reduced in O. bacilicum oil (2-4 m) at high concentration with less aggregation of crystals. Samples with P. odorata oil gave smaller crystal size (3 m) mainly in dehydrate form and the oil was also found to inhibit the aggregation of the crystals at high concentration. C. sativum oil enhanced crystallisation (5-6 m) with increased concentration and showed high aggregation of the crystals. This preliminary study shows the therapeutic potential of these medicinal plants to be used in traditional anti-urolithic therapy.
... 14.4% in oil [444]; 26.61% in oil [446], none to 35.39% [443] Anti-inflammation [275,297,364] Myrcene: 1.4% in oil [444] Anti-inflammation [275,278,337] Ocimene: 2.4% to 2.6% in oil [444] Anti-inflammation [17,337,372] 4-Terpineol, terpinen-4-ol (isomer of terpineol): 0.1% to 5.8% in oils depending on location [445], none to 8.07% [443] Anti-inflammation [275,278] Anti-viral: [408] Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Anti-inflammation: [336] Citronellol: 1.10% in oil from Guangxi, China [448], 2.95% in oil [447], 0.35% to 0.51% in oil [449] Anti-inflammation [275,278,290,291] Geraniol: 1.55% in oil from Guangxi, China [448], 2.15% in oil [447], 5.11% in oil [338] Anti-inflammation [275,278,290,291] Anti-viral: [408] Geranyl acetate: 1.06% to 2.16% in oil [449], 2.27% in oil [447], 2.89% in oil [338] Anti-inflammation [297,332] [447], 0.33% in oil [338] Anti-inflammation [275,278,297] Linalool: 1.12% in oil from Guangxi, China [448], 0.58% to 0.87% [449], 1.45% in oil [338] Anti-inflammation [19][20][21][22]275,278,290,296,297]. ...
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The year 2020 became the year of the outbreak of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which escalated into a worldwide pandemic and continued into 2021. One of the unique symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 disease, COVID-19, is the loss of chemical senses, i.e., smell and taste. Smell training is one of the methods used in facilitating recovery of the olfactory sense, and it uses essential oils of lemon, rose, clove, and eucalyptus. These essential oils were not selected based on their chemical constituents. Although scientific studies have shown that they improve recovery, there may be better combinations for facilitating recovery. Many phytochemicals have bioactive properties with anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. In this review, we describe the chemical compounds with anti- inflammatory and anti-viral effects, and we list the plants that contain these chemical compounds. We expand the review from terpenes to the less volatile flavonoids in order to propose a combination of essential oils and diets that can be used to develop a new taste training method, as there has been no taste training so far. Finally, we discuss the possible use of these in clinical settings.
... Oenanthotoxin and dihydrooenanthotoxin isolated from Oenanthe fistulosa were found to potently block GABAergic responses leading to neurotoxic activity and providing a molecular rationale for the symptoms of poisoning from water-dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) and related plants [2]. The essential oil of Oenanthe crocata was reported to have antifungal, antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities [5]. ...
Article
Introduction: Oenanthe fistulosa L. (Apiaceae) is often associated with damp soils. Its underground parts and the young leaves are mainly cooked with other vegetables. Objective: The aim of the current work was to investigate the chemical profile of dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions of O. fistulosa through analysis of 37 phytochemicals by LC-MS/MS and to evaluate their biological activities such as antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antityrosinase for the first time. Methods: Analysis of 37 phytochemicals was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using five in vitro assays, while anti-cholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities were performed using Ellman and Dopachrome methods, respectively. Results: The number of phenolic compounds detected in DCM, EA and BuOH fractions were found to be 9, 15, and 12; respectively. More specifically, 9 phenolic acids were detected and among them chlorogenic, tr-ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant. While 8 flavonoids were detected and apigetrin, rutin, and quercitrin were the most abundant. In addition, 3 non-phenolic organic acids (quinic, malic and fumaric acids) were detected in large quantities. Furthermore, the tested plant fractions demonstrated a noteworthy and strong antioxidant action. The plant displayed very strong action against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes; and BuOH fraction was the most potent one. Finally, BuOH and DCM fractions showed good tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, O. fistulosa might be a promising candidate for aleviation of oxidative stress, neurodegenerative (such as Alzheimer’s disease) and hyperpigmentation disorders.
... The review is concluded with a perspective on promising directions of future endeavors. (Maltzman et al., 1989;Vuuren & Viljoen, 2007;Wei & Shibamoto, 2007;Yoon et al., 2010) β-Pinene Possessing potential anticancer activity (Yao-Lan Li et al., 2009) α-Pinene Possessing potential anticancer activity (Lampronti et al., 2006) β-Phellandrene Being used in fragrance and flavoring industry (Iscan et al., 2011) Sabinene Possessing anti-inflammatory activity (Valente et al., 2013) C 10 H 16 O Perillyl alcohol Possessing anticancer, neuroprotective, insect-repellent activities (Anis et al., 2018;Belanger, 1998;Mayeku et al., 2014) OH C 10 H 18 O Linalool Possessing potential antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, anticancer, and neuroprotective activities (Pereira et al., 2018) Geraniol Being used in cosmetics industry; Possessing potential anti-inflammatory, and cardio-protective activities (Crespo et al., 2017;Jiang et al., 2017) α-Terpineol Possessing cardio-protective, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antibronchitis, and insecticidal activities (Christina et al., 2018) Nerol Possessing potential activities to treat Alzheimer's disease (Ghashghaei et al., 2019) typically exists in prokaryotes and plant plastids (Goldstein & Brown, 1990;Rohmer, 1999). Specifically, the MVA pathway starts with the condensation of two acetyl-CoA into acetoacetyl-CoA, which is transformed into IPP in five steps; the MEP pathway is initiated by the condensation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate. ...
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Monoterpenoids are C10 isoprenoids and constitute a large family of natural products. They have been used as ingredients in food, cosmetics and therapeutic products. Many monoterpenoids such as linalool, geraniol, limonene and pinene are volatile and can be found in plant essential oils. Conventionally, these bioactive compounds are obtained from plant extracts by using organic solvents or by distillation method, which are costly and laborious if high purity product is desired. In recent years, microbial biosynthesis has emerged as alternative source of monoterpenoids with great promise for meeting the increasing global demand for these compounds. However, current methods of production are not yet at levels required for commercialization. Production efficiency of monoterpenoids in microbial hosts is often restricted by high volatility of the monoterpenoids, a lack of enzymatic activity and selectivity, and/or product cytotoxicity to the microbial hosts. In this review, we summarize advances in microbial production of monoterpenoids over the past three years with particular focus on the key metabolic engineering strategies for different monoterpenoid products. We also provide our perspective on the promise of future endeavors to improve monoterpenoid productivity.
... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Clausena species has confirmed the presence of terpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and phenylpropanoids as the major components which include estragole methyl chavicol , E -anethole, β-pinene, sabinene, germacrene-D, linalool, pulegone and 1,8-cineole 13 16 . Furthermore, the studies have also found a wide spectrum of biological activities such as anticancer, anticholinesterase and insecticidal activities 17,18 . However, the search for new and effective natural functional foods agents for the complementary treatment of diabetes with less toxicity and side-effects has remained an area of great interest. ...
Article
Diabetes mellitus constitutes one of the most important public health problems. It is defined as a metabolic disorder characterized by a chronic hyperglycemic condition. The inhibition of α-glucosidase and inflammation effects is still considered a strategy for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to search for new and effective natural functional foods agents for the complementary treatment of diabetes and other related complications. The essential oils from the leaves of three Clausena plants collected in Thailand: C. harmandiana, C. guillauminii and C. excavata were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions, antioxidant, anti-α-glucosidase and anti-inflammatory activities of these essential oils were evaluated. The C. excavata and C. harmandiana essential oils contained seselin and terpinen-4-ol, respectively, as the major components and showed strong inhibition of DPPH free radical, α-glucosidase, lipoxygenase and nitric oxide activities with the IC50 values ranging from 0.031±0.005 to 0.702±0.003 mg/mL. From these results, it may be concluded that seselin and terpinen-4-ol are important for high antioxidant, anti-α-glucosidase, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, these Clausena essential oils may be useful in industrial applications for the treatment of diabetes and other related complications. graphical abstract Fullsize Image
... Previous studies revealed that Oenanthe javanica has many pharmacological activities including hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, immune enhancement, ethanol elimination, antioxidant, and antiviral. 7 Essential oil of Oenanthe crocata was reported to has antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [8]. Also, essential oil of Oenanthe pimpinelloides, which contains mainly nonoxygenated monoterpenes, possessed strong larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae [9]. ...
Article
Introduction: Oenanthe fistulosa L. (Apiaceae) is often associated with damp soils. Its underground parts and the young leaves are mainly cooked with other vegetables. Objective: The aim of the current work was to investigate the chemical profile of dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions of O. fistulosa through analysis of 37 phytochemicals by LC-MS/MS and to evaluate their biological activities such as antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antityrosinase for the first time. Methods: Analysis of 37 phytochemicals was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using five in vitro assays, while anti-cholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities were performed using Ellman and Dopachrome methods, respectively. Results: The number of phenolic compounds detected in DCM, EA and BuOH fractions were found to be 9, 15, and 12; respectively. More specifically, 9 phenolic acids were detected and among them chlorogenic, tr-ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant. While 8 flavonoids were detected and apigetrin, rutin, and quercitrin were the most abundant. In addition, 3 non-phenolic organic acids (quinic, malic and fumaric acids) were detected in large quantities. Furthermore, the tested plant fractions demonstrated a noteworthy and strong antioxidant action. The plant displayed very strong action against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes; and BuOH fraction was the most potent one. Finally, BuOH and DCM fractions showed good tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, O. fistulosa might be a promising candidate for aleviation of oxidative stress, neurodegenerative (such as Alzheimer’s disease) and hyperpigmentation disorders.
... Table 5 shows the binding energy (∆G: kcal/mol) and inhibition constant (Ki: µM). Figure 4 shows the interaction of Myristicin with antifungal and antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant receptors. Myristicin has been reported as the primary compound responsible for antifungal activity in studies [36,48]. In the present study, two antifungal targets, N-myristoyl transferase (1IYK) and cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (3LD6), were docked with Myristicin. ...
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The herbal plant Petroselinum crispum (P. crispum) (Mill) is commonly available around the world. In this study, the leaves of the herbal plant P. crispum were collected from the central region of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia, to explore their in vitro pharmacological activity. Essential oil from the leaves of P. crispum was isolated using the hydrodistillation method. The composition of P. crispum essential oil (PCEO) was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 67 components were identified, representing approximately 96.02% of the total volatile composition. Myristicin was identified as the principal constituent (41.45%). The in vitro biological activity was assessed to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potential of PCEO. PCEO showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus among all the evaluated microbial species. In vitro anti-inflammatory evaluation using albumin and trypsin assays showed the excellent anti-inflammatory potential of PCEO compared to the standard drugs. An in silico study of the primary PCEO compound was conducted using online tools such as PASS, Swiss ADME, and Molecular docking. In silico PASS prediction results supported our in vitro findings. Swiss ADME revealed the drug likeness and safety properties of the major metabolites present in PCEO. Molecular docking results were obtained by studying the interaction of Myristicin with an antifungal (PDB: 1IYL and 3LD6), antibacterial (PDB: 1AJ6 and 1JIJ), antioxidant (PDB: 3NM8 and 1HD2), and anti-inflammatory (3N8Y and 3LN1) receptors supported the in vitro results. Therefore, PCEO or Myristicin might be valuable for developing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial drugs.
... Previous studies revealed that Oenanthe javanica has many pharmacological activities including hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, immune enhancement, ethanol elimination, antioxidant, and antiviral. 7 Essential oil of Oenanthe crocata was reported to has antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [8]. Also, essential oil of Oenanthe pimpinelloides, which contains mainly nonoxygenated monoterpenes, possessed strong larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae [9]. ...
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Introduction Oenanthe fistulosa L. (Apiaceae) is often associated with damp soils. Its underground parts and the young leaves are mainly cooked with other vegetables. Objective The aim of the current work was to investigate the chemical profile of dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions of O. fistulosa through analysis of 37 phytochemicals by LC-MS/MS and to evaluate their biological activities such as antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antityrosinase for the first time. Methods Analysis of 37 phytochemicals was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using five in vitro assays, while anti-cholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities were performed using Ellman and Dopachrome methods, respectively. Results The number of phenolic compounds detected in DCM, EA and BuOH fractions were found to be 9, 15, and 12; respectively. More specifically, 9 phenolic acids were detected and among them chlorogenic, tr-ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant. While 8 flavonoids were detected and apigetrin, rutin, and quercitrin were the most abundant. In addition, 3 non-phenolic organic acids (quinic, malic and fumaric acids) were detected in large quantities. Furthermore, the tested plant fractions demonstrated a noteworthy and strong antioxidant action. The plant displayed very strong action against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes; and BuOH fraction was the most potent one. Finally, BuOH and DCM fractions showed good tyrosinase inhibitory activity Conclusion According to the obtained results, O. fistulosa might be a promising candidate for aleviation of oxidative stress, neurodegenerative (such as Alzheimer’s disease) and hyperpigmentation disorders.
... Accumulated evidence indicates that the use of sabinene has potential as a therapy against a variety of diseases [31][32][33][34]. Sabinene has biological properties such as anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activities [35,36]. In addition, it has been demonstrated that sabinene might have an antioxidant activity [24][25][26] and an anti-radical activity in relation to DPPH radicals [27]. ...
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... Hence, the membrane stabilizing activity can be correlated to antiinflammatory effect (Mounnissamy et al., 2008). Sabinene has been reported to exhibit strong antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma-triggered macrophages (Valente et al., 2013). 1% sabinene was observed to inhibit lens protein-induced inflammation in rabbit's eye (Quan-Sheng et al., 1993). ...
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
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This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed a peculiar composition of irregular monoterpenes. Significant differences between the samples occurred in the amounts of 1,8-cineole, fenchone and trans-α-necrodyl acetate. The oil with higher amounts of irregular monoterpenes was the most effective. The influence of the oils on the dimorphic transition in C. albicans was also studied through the germ tube inhibition assay. Filamentation was completely inhibited at concentrations sixteen times lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results support the use of L. luiseiri essential oils in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals and food preservatives and emphasise its antifungal properties at concentrations not cytotoxic or with very low detrimental effects on mammalian cells.
Article
In the last few years more and more studies on the biological properties of essential oils have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile the studies of 2009, 2008 and the second part of 2007. Such an overview covering the scientific literature mainly from 2000 onwards, up to the first half of the year 2007, has been published recently. The focus of this overview lies on the anti-nociceptive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, penetration-enhancing, insect repellent, antiviral and antioxidative properties of essential oils. Many essential oils have been used for centuries in folk medicine and in recent years the biological properties of various essential oils have been proved by a number of studies. Their use in the treatment of pain, inflammation, viral diseases and cancer and their potential to enhance the penetration of other drugs, their insect repellent activity and their antioxidative effects were confirmed. Nonetheless, more studies are necessary to analyse the biological properties of other essential oils or to prove their mechanism of action. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Several aromatic plants and their essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Distichoselinum tenuifolium (Lag.) Garcia Martin & Silvestre, an Iberian endemism, is traditionally used in the treatment of contact dermatitis and skin infections. However, the cellular mechanisms through which this plant exerts their beneficial effects are not known. The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from Distichoselinum tenuifolium, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil as an antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the antifungal activity (minimal inhibitory concentrations: MIC and minimal lethal concentrations: MLC) were evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of Distichoselinum tenuifolium oil was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production induced by LPS, in the absence or in the presence of the oil, in a mouse macrophage cell line. The oils are predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, being myrcene the main compound (47.7-84.6%). The oils revealed significant antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability at concentrations ranging from 0.64 microL/mL to 1.25 microL/mL. These findings add significant information to the pharmacological activity of Distichoselinum tenuifolium essential oils, specifically to its antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties, thus justifying and reinforcing the use of this plant on traditional medicine. Therefore, their beneficial effects and use in disease prevention, especially those related to fungal infections and inflammation, should be explored in more depth.
Article
In this study, the chemical composition of Cryptomeria japonica essential oil (CJE) was analyzed and its biological activities were tested. CJE was obtained by steam distillation from leaves collected from Jeju Island and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS. Kaurene (17.20%), elemol (10.88%), gamma-eudesmol (9.41%), and sabinene (8.86%) were the major components in CJE. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of CJE against drug-susceptible and -resistant skin pathogens have been not reported previously. Thus, we determined the anti-bacterial activities of CJE using the disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. CJE showed excellent antibacterial activities against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which are acne-causing bacteria. The MIC of CJE against drug-susceptible and -resistant P. acens and S. epidermidis ranged from 0.16 to 10.0 microl/ml. In addition, the effects of CJE on nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. Pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator tests indicated that CJE has excellent dose-dependent inhibitory activities. Therefore, based on these results, we propose that CJE is an attractive acne-mitigating candidate for skin health.
Article
The essential oils of Ridolfia segetum (L.) Moris and Oenanthe crocata L. (Apiaceae), collected in Sardinia (Italy), have been assayed for two enzyme-associated activities of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT): RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP) activity and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity. In biochemical assays, the essential oils inhibited HIV-1 RT RDDP activity in a dose-dependent manner, while they were inactive towards RNase H activity. Furthermore, the oils were cytotoxic towards K (562) cell replication. GC-MS analysis of the essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the aerial parts showed that the main components of R. segetum were alpha-phellandrene, alpha-terpinolene, beta-phellandrene, and dillapiol and those of O. crocata were sabinene, TRANS-beta-ocimene, CIS-beta-ocimene, and beta-pinene.
Article
Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known in Portugal as thyme and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes. The present work reports on the state of the art on the information available on the taxonomy, ethnobotany, cell and molecular biology of the Portuguese representatives of these genera and on the chemotaxonomy and antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of their essential oils and other volatile-containing extracts.
Article
A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
Article
The synthesis of (+/-)-11alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-6alphaH,7alphaH, 10betaMe-eudesman-1,2-4,5-dien-6,12-olide (1), previously isolated from Melanoselinum decipiens, is described, and its structure has been corrected.
Article
The increasing recognition and importance of fungal infections, the difficulties encountered in their treatment and the increase in resistance to antifungals have stimulated the search for therapeutic alternatives. Essential oils have been used empirically. The essential oils of Thymus (Thymus vulgaris, T. zygis subspecies zygis and T. mastichina subspecies mastichina) have often been used in folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate objectively the antifungal activity of Thymus oils according to classical bacteriological methodologies - determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) - as well as flow cytometric evaluation. The effect of essential oils upon germ tube formation, an important virulence factor, was also studied. The mechanism of action was studied by flow cytometry, after staining with propidium iodide. The chemical composition of the essential oils was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the major components (carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and also possible interactions between them were also investigated. The essential oils of T. vulgaris and T. zygis showed similar antifungal activity, which was greater than T. mastichina. MIC and MLC values were similar for all the compounds tested. At MIC values of the essential oils, propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells, indicating that the fungicidal effect resulted primarily from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Concentrations below the MIC values significantly inhibited germ tube formation. This study describes the potent antifungal activity of the essential oils of Thymus on Candida spp., warranting future therapeutical trials on mucocutaneous candidosis.
Article
The essential oils from four samples of Teucrium lusitanicum and one sample of Teucrium algarbiensis, grown in Algarve (southern Portugal) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Seventy-one volatile compounds were identified. Major compounds of T. algarbiensis oil were alpha-pinene (8.3%), sabinene (7.2%), beta-pinene (10.2%), limonene (11.8%) and germacrene D (7.6%). Concerning T. lusitanicum, some quantitative differences were found with regards to the major constituents of the oils from four populations: alpha-pinene (0.8-8.5%), sabinene (2.1-9.6%), beta-pinene (2.5-11.9%), limonene (1.2-11.5%) and elemol (2.6-12.0%).
Article
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of methanol extracts of Oenanthe crocata roots revealed that oenanthotoxin co-eluted with another major polyalkyne, 2,3-dihydro-oenanthotoxin, using the existing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (isocratic elution from C18 with aqueous methanol) for investigating Oenanthe poisoning. Positive ES or APCI gave [(M+H)-H(2)O](+) and its methanol adduct as major ion species for oenanthotoxin, whereas 2,3-dihydro-oenanthotoxin formed [M+H](+) and its methanol adduct. The two polyalkynes could be chromatographically resolved on C18 by gradient elution with aqueous acetonitrile. This provides superior analysis for oenanthotoxin using HPLC with photodiode array (PDA) detection alone, but for LC-MS/MS aqueous acetonitrile was less suitable due to poor ionisation and, with APCI, an increase in the relative abundance of a [M-1](+) species, which could confuse compound assignment. HPLC-PDA and LC-MS/MS methods using an aqueous acetonitrile or aqueous methanol mobile phase, respectively, were successful when applied to the analysis of the stomach contents of a pony suspected to have eaten O. crocata. Relevant product ion spectra, by ion trap MS/MS, accurate mass data and complete sets of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral assignments are given for the two compounds.
Article
Organic compounds from terrestrial and marine organisms have extensive past and present use in the treatment of many diseases and serve as compounds of interest both in their natural form and as templates for synthetic modification. Over 20 new drugs launched on the market between 2000 and 2005, originating from terrestrial plants, terrestrial microorganisms, marine organisms, and terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates, are described. These approved substances, representative of very wide chemical diversity, together with several other natural products or their analogs undergoing clinical trials, continue to demonstrate the importance of compounds from natural sources in modern drug discovery efforts.
Plantas e Produtos Vegetais em Fitoterapia
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