Relationship of caregiver burden with coping strategies, social support, psychological morbidity, and quality of life in the caregivers of schizophrenia
Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Asian journal of psychiatry
10/2013; 6(5):380-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.03.014
To evaluate the relationship of caregiver burden as assessed by using Hindi Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ) with coping strategies, social support, psychological morbidity, and quality of life of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, the relationship of caregiver-burden with sociodemographic variables, and clinical variables, including severity of psychopathology and level of functioning of patients, was studied.
The study included 100 patients with schizophrenia and their caregivers recruited by purposive random sampling.
Among the four domains of IEQ, highest number of correlations emerged with tension domain. Tension domain had positive correlation with the caregiver being single, time spent in caregiving per day, and use of avoidance, collusion, and coercion as coping strategies. Additionally, tension domain was associated with poor quality of life in all the domains of WHO-QOL Bref and was associated with higher psychological morbidity. Worrying urging-I domain of IEQ correlated with frequency of visits, higher use of problem focused coping and poor physical health as per the WHO-QOL Bref. Worrying urging-II domain of IEQ had positive correlation with higher level of positive symptoms, lower level of functioning of the patient, younger age of caregiver, caregiver being unmarried, and higher use problem focused and seeking social support as coping strategies. Supervision domain of IEQ correlated positively with lower income, being an unmarried caregiver, from an urban locality and non-nuclear family. Supervision domain was associated with poor physical health as assessed by WHO-QOL Bref.
Caregiving burden, especially tension is associated with use of maladaptive coping strategies, poor quality of life and higher level of psychological morbidity in caregivers.
Available from: Maurizio Pompili
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present review was to examine objective and subjective burdens in primary caregivers (usually family members) of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and to list which symptoms of the patients are considered more burdensome by the caregivers. In order to provide a critical review about caregiver's burden in patients with bipolar disorder, we performed a detailed PubMed, BioMedCentral, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Elsevier Science Direct and Cochrane Library search to identify all papers and book chapters in English published during the period between 1963 and November 2011. The highest levels of distress were caused by the patient's behavior and the patient's role dysfunction (work, education and social relationships). Furthermore, the caregiving role compromises other social roles occupied by the caregiver, becoming part of the heavy social cost of bipolar affective disorder. There is a need to better understand caregivers' views and personal perceptions of the stresses and demands arising from caring for someone with BD in order to develop practical appropriate interventions and to improve the training of caregivers.
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ABSTRACT: Coping strategies are a potential way to improve interventions designed to manage the caregiver burden of dementia. The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention targeted towards improving coping strategies and to examine its effectiveness on reducing caregiver burden. A controlled study design was used. Fifty-seven caregivers of dementia patients were enrolled. Coping strategies were assessed with the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL-R) and caregiver burden was assessed with the Chinese version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory. The participants were randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group was offered a series of five interventions in which problem-solving skills, knowledge of dementia, social resources, and emotional support were taught every 2 weeks, and the control group was telephoned every 2 weeks for the usual clinical management. Two weeks after the end of the intervention, we again administered the WCCL-R and the Caregiver Burden Inventory. Two-way repeated-measure anova was used to evaluate the changes in coping strategies and caregiver burden. Forty-six participants completed the study. No statistically significant differences were noted in the demographic data between the two groups. On the problem-focused coping subscale on the WCCL-R, the intervention group's mean score increased by 3.8 points, and the control group's decreased by 5.1 points (F = 7.988, P = 0.007). On the seeking social support coping subscale on the WCCL-R, the intervention group's mean score increased by 3.8 points, and the control group's decreased by 3.1 points (F = 4.462, P = 0.04). On the Caregiver Burden Inventory, the intervention group's mean score decreased by 7.2 points, and the control group's increased by 2.2 points (F = 6.155, P = 0.017). Psychosocial intervention can help caregivers to adopt more problem-focused and social support coping strategies, which are beneficial in terms of reducing the caregiver burden.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate quality of life (QoL) and its predictors, psychological burden and level of perceived social support in caregivers of patients with disorder of consciousness.
World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF), State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Prolonged Grief Disorder Questionnaire, Coping Orientations to Problem Experiences, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) were administered. One-sample t-tests were performed to compare WHOQOL-BREF, STAI-Y and STAXI-2 mean scores to the respective normative sample (NS). Pearson correlation was calculated between time dedicated to patient's care, WHOQOL-BREF, BDI-II, STAI-Y and MOS-SSS scores. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate which variables have predictive power on QoL.
A total of 129 caregivers, 68.2% female, mean age 52.8 years, were enrolled. Three WHOQOL-BREF domains were significantly lower. Anxiety and anger were in line with NS. 28.7% of the sample reported high level of depressive symptoms; 20.9% satisfied the prolonged grief disorder criteria. No differences emerged between caregivers and chronic ill patients' scores at MOS-SSS. STAI-Y, BDI-II and WHOQOL-BREF scores positively correlated. MOS-SSS domains inversely correlate with BDI-II scores. BDI-II results the most relevant predictor of QoL.
Study results provided innovative information about caregivers' poor QoL, difficulties in social support and high levels of burden. Time dedicated to care is not strictly related to burden, while social support perceived is highly associated with caregivers' depressive symptoms that are strong predictor of poor QoL. Supportive intervention able to integrate psychological, social and environmental levels is needed.
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