Chapter

Location Based Overlapped Mobility Aware network Model

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The mobile devices provide dynamic behavior in different geographical locations. The location based information plays integral part for enhancing the performance of mobile devices. The right selection of location improves the smooth transition process of context aware services to mobile devices. For example location based information services cover the shopping, travel information, entertainment, different navigation, event information and tracking services. All of these services depend on the actual position of the users. The efficiency and smooth transfer of data contexts also relate to the type of services available to mobile devices. Therefore, the proper selection of technology and positioning methods need to be chosen carefully to obtain the desired accuracy. Several models have been proposed to improve the performance of mobile devices. This paper proposes new approach of location based overlapping that augments the performance of mobile devices and also provides better quality of service (QoS). The proposal is supported by an algorithm that helps to choose the best location for mobile device where signals are stronger. The mobile devices select strong signal- providing base station and each mobile device is free to select any overlapped area. To prove the claim, the proposed model is simulated in ns2 and findings are compared with existing models.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
With the more than one billion cellular phones in the world in 2002, joined by other wireless handheld computing devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs) and pocket PCs, there are significant opportunities for mobile commerce growth. Although mobile commerce enables access to goods and service regardless of the location of either buyer or seller, in many situations the specific location of the buyer and seller is critical to the transaction. A host of new location-aware applications and services are emerging with significant implications for the future of e-commerce. Much like the experience with the dot.com era, however, the development of location-based services has fallen somewhat short of expectations. In this chapter, we attempt to provide a realistic assessment of the potential for location- based services, examining the market opportunity, technological origins, likely services, emerging policy issues, and potential future directions.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Context -aware computing often involves tracking peoples' location. Many studies and applications highlight the importance of keeping people's location information private. We discuss two types of locat ion- based services; location-tracking services that are based on other parties tracking the user's location and position-aware services that rely on the device's knowledge of its own location. We present an experimental case study that examines people's concern for location privacy and compare this to the use of location-based services. We find that even though the perceived usefulness of the two different types of services is the same, location- tracking services generate more concern for privacy than posit ion-aware services. We conclude that development emphasis should be given to position -aware services but that location-tracking services have a potential for success if users are given a simple option for turning the location-tracking off.
Article
Full-text available
Applications for the location of subscribers of wireless services continue to expand. Consequently, location techniques for wireless technologies are being investigated. With code-division multiple access (CDMA) being deployed by a variety of cellular and PCS providers, developing an approach for location in CDMA networks is imperative. This article discusses the applications of location technology, the methods available for its implementation in CDMA networks, and the problems that are encountered when using CDMA networks for positioning
Article
An empirical formula for propagation loss is derived from Okumura's report in order to put his propagation prediction method to computational use. The propagation loss in an urban area is presented in a simple form: A + B log10R, where A and B are frequency and antenna height functions and R is the distance. The introduced formula is applicable to system designs for UHF and VHF land mobile radio services, with a small formulation error, under the following conditions: frequency range 100-1500 MHz, distance 1-20 km, base station antenna height 30-200 m, and vehicular antenna height 1-10 m.
Article
This paper traces the history of location-based service (LBS) standards that arose from North American requirements in the work on GSM standards in the late 1990s. It also describes how interest in GSM/UMTS outside Europe led to the creation of the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for developing UMTS standards (which include standards for the 3G mobile Internet). In addition, the paper covers the role of other standards bodies and interest groups involved in the creation of LBS standards such as the new Open Mobile Alliance. Different location methods for detecting the position of mobiles are described and a summary of the current work in 3GPP on LBS-based services and architecture for UMTS is given. The paper also covers work on wireless access protocols in the old WAP Forum
Article
Most people are stressed out and overstrained after accidents even if no one is hurt. Consequently, they may face some difficulty in reporting the accident to the police and civil defense, or they may provide them with inaccurate information about the location of the accident. Moreover, even if they were able to provide the necessary information it may take them some time to deliver it to a human counterpart and hence it will take the police and civil defense more time to reach the accident location in the appropriate time to rescue people. This paper proposes the use of location based services to develop a system that can be used easily to report and locate an accident more quickly and precisely.
Conference Paper
Location-based services are a new class of services, where the service offering for a mobile user is tailored to his actual geographical position. Examples include location-based billing, new information services giving e.g. information on nearby restaurants or gas stations, as well as a number of tracking and navigation services. All these services, need an estimate of the users position. The required accuracy of these estimates depends on the actual type of service. While billing and information applications tolerate positioning errors to some extent, the requested accuracy for tracking and navigation services is quite high. Therefore, the positioning technology needs to be chosen carefully in order to meet the requirements (see Drane, C. et al., IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol.36, no.4, p.46-59, 1998; Fischer, S. et al., Proc. IEEE 49th Vehicular Technology Conference - VTC 1999, vol.3, p.1962-6, 1999). We propose a new positioning method which is applicable to billing and information services, offering enhanced accuracy over existing methods without adding constraints to the mobile terminals. Though the test results presented here cover the application of this method to GSM, the algorithm is very generic and can be equally well applied to UMTS and other 3G technologies.
Conference Paper
In response to the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) wireless E-911 phase II requirement for emergency location, mobile station (MS) location testing and verification have become an important issue for wireless carriers and the vendors. Currently, the FCC ruled that carriers begin selling and activating ALI (automatic location identification) capable handsets no later than October 1, 2001 and also granted a limited waiver of location accuracy to certain wireless carriers. Since MS location information can be used for many location-dependent applications to enhance the system performance, there is also an explosive interest in the development of new location-based commercial services to add value to mobile devices. We present a summary of the location technologies that have been MS location solutions to comply with the E-911 ruling. We also discuss the emergence of MS location commercial services and address how MS location information can be used (1) to improve performance of the systems through vertical layers, and (2) to increase wireless system functionality for location commercial services.
Conference Paper
Many location based routing protocols have been developed for ad hoc networks. This paper presents the results of a detailed performance evaluation on two of these protocols: location-aided routing (LAR) and distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (DREAM). We compare the performance of these two protocols with the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol and a minimum standard (i.e., a protocol that floods all data packets). We used NS-2 to simulate 50 nodes moving according to the random waypoint model. Our main goal for the performance investigation was to stress the evaluated protocols with high data loads during both low and high speeds. Our performance investigation produced the following conclusions. First, the added protocol complexity of DREAM does not appear to provide benefits over a flooding protocol. Second, promiscuous mode operation improves the performance of DSR significantly. Third, adding location information to DSR (i.e., similar to LAR) increases both the network load and the data packet delivery ratio; our results conclude that the increase in performance is worth the increase in cost. Lastly, our implementation of DREAM provides a simple location service that could be used with other ad hoc network routing protocols.
Article
Due to the FCC requirement that operators of mobile communications networks be able to accurately locate mobile callers requesting emergency assistance via 911 by the year 2001, there has been a lot of activity among cellular and PCS providers to examine cellular positioning options. This article examines positioning solutions for the GSM group of standards. Worldwide deployment of GSM systems is well underway, and the positioning characteristics of the various systems are similar. The authors examine the ability to derive position information from GSM signals, based on their May 1996 achievement of accurate position measurements using GSM. Features of GSM signals relevant to positioning are analyzed as well as results achieved and the authors' ongoing positioning trials. Finally, other issues related to GSM positioning and mobile phone positioning in general are covered
Article
Some useful services in cellular radio networks and also a class of handover algorithms require knowledge of the present position and velocity of mobiles. This paper deals with a method to track mobiles by on-line monitoring of field strength data of surrounding base stations at successive time points. Such data is available in present global system for mobile communication (GSM) systems each 0.48 s and also in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems for transmission control. Because of strong random fluctuations of the signals, appropriate smoothing is the key point of the procedure. We develop a locally linear prediction model of successive positions as a basis for Kalman filtering. This approach turns out to be extremely successful, achieving average mislocations of 70 m in simulated test runs. Further improvement is possible by using external geographical information
Article
In recent years, many location based routing protocols have been developed for ad hoc networks. This paper presents the results of a detailed performance evaluation on two of these protocols: Location-Aided Routing (LAR) and Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM). We compare the performance of these two protocols with the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol and a minimum standard (i.e., a protocol that floods all data packets). We used NS-2 to simulate 50 nodes moving according to the random waypoint model. Our main goal for the performance investigation was to stress the protocols evaluated with high data load during both low and high speeds. Our performance investigation produced the following conclusions. First, the added protocol complexity of DREAM does not appear to provide benefits over a flooding protocol. Second, promiscuous mode operation improves the performance of DSR significantly. Third, adding location information to DSR (i.e., similar to LAR) increases both the network load and the data packet delivery ratio; our results conclude that the increase in performance is worth the increase in cost. Lastly, our implementation of DREAM provides a simple location service that could be used with other ad hoc network routing protocols.
Mobile E-commerce and location based services technology and requirements. Technical report, financially supported by Finnish National Technology Agency and the Special Account for Research Grants of the
  • A Tsalgatidou
  • J Jouni
  • M Katasonov
  • S Hadjiefthymiades
A new network-based Positioning Method for Location Services in 2G and 3G mobile communications matthas schreiner
  • M Tangemann
  • D Nikolai
  • Sel Alcarel
  • Ag
Positioning GSM telephone
  • C Drane
  • M Macmugthan
  • C Scott