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As a result of the research processing in the computing field, a new computing model appeared based on the development of many computing models such as parallel computing, distributed computing, and grid computing. Many normal distributed computers collaborate of achieve a function like a super computer. The computation will be assigned to this super computer rather than local computer or remote server. This is the basic concept of cloud computing. However, there is a new implementation of cloud computing was introduced based on using the internet millions of computers connected to a super cloud. Cloud computing has several advantages such as; user does not need to worry about how the cloud runs, viruses, maintenance, etc. We would expect that cloud computing is going to reshape the IT industry. In this paper we discuss cloud computing from different angles such as concept, characteristics and classifications of cloud computing. KEYWORDS Cloud computing and grid computing.
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International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
DOI : 10.5121/ijdps.2012.3401 1
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OMPUTING
:
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UTURE OF
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NDUSTRY
Munther Abualkibash and Khaled Elleithy
Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT, USA
mabualki@bridgeport.edu, elleithy@bridgeport.edu
A
BSTRACT
As a result of the research processing in the computing field, a new computing model appeared based on
the development of many computing models such as parallel computing, distributed computing, and grid
computing. Many normal distributed computers collaborate of achieve a function like a super computer.
The computation will be assigned to this super computer rather than local computer or remote server.
This is the basic concept of cloud computing. However, there is a new implementation of cloud
computing was introduced based on using the internet millions of computers connected to a super cloud.
Cloud computing has several advantages such as; user does not need to worry about how the cloud runs,
viruses, maintenance, etc. We would expect that cloud computing is going to reshape the IT industry. In
this paper we discuss cloud computing from different angles such as concept, characteristics and
classifications of cloud computing.
K
EYWORDS
Cloud computing and grid computing.
1. I
NTRODUCTION
Now a days, cloud computing has become widely liked. Cloud services provided by many
companies such as Amazon, Google, IBM, Yahoo and Microsoft, especially for business
customers. These services installed on cloud provider’s virtualized servers are approached over
the Internet. Many companies like using these services, without any need to own and maintain
server infrastructure. The major differences of cloud computing to the classic rented servers are
the contracts and payment models. In cloud services, user pays relying on used resources, i.e.
CPU-hours, data storage. Purchasing resources is determined by current need.
Cloud computing makes virtual server infrastructures available for companies. The intentional
advantage is that business organizations do not have to buy their own hardware to make
services available for their customers. Therefore, end users use derived service instead of raw
cloud service [1].
2. W
HAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING
?
Cloud computing is not consisting of one part concept, it is a theoretical term. Various cloud
providers make different services available. To understand cloud computing, we have to show
the difference between four kinds of cloud services that exist at this time:
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
2
1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), provides low-level services like virtual machines which
can be booted with a user-defined hard disk image, i.e. Amazon EC2 [2]. Virtual hard disks
that can be accessed from different virtual machines are another example of infrastructure
as a service.
2. Platform as a Service (PaaS) means that the cloud operator provides an API which can be
used by an application developer to develop "number-crunching" applications or web
applications with friendly user-interfaces. An example of Paas is Google's App Engine [3].
3. Software as a Service (SaaS) is useful for end-users. Examples are web-based office
applications like Google Docs or Calendar [1].
4. Hardware as a Service (HaaS), this model is beneficial to the business organization users,
since they do not need to commit in creating and taking care of data centers [8].
Clouds are a large group of virtualized resources able and very convenient to be used such as
hardware, development platforms and/or services. These resources characterized by
continuously and slightly restructure in order to achieve the desired variable load (scale), giving
also the best act of using resources [4].
3. W
HAT IS A
G
RID
C
OMPUTING
?
The definition of the grid as a set of resources coordinated to work together as parts of a
mechanism or an interconnecting network not subjected to centralized control to provide a
service with significant quality that is not quick and easy to accomplish normally in other
systems, by using an open and standard interfaces and general purpose protocols. [5].
3.1. Differences between cloud and grid
3.1.1. Resource Sharing
Grids provide an improved way of resource pooling to guarantee sharing resources fairly, from
one side of business organizations to the other [4], [14]. However, clouds make the resources
that the service provider requires available on demand [4].
3.1.2. Heterogeneity
One of the challenges is to find ways to establish an area data intensive programming and
scheduling framework in heterogeneous [13]. Heterogeneous hardware as well as software
resources are assembled and maintained the gather by both cloud and grid models [4].
3.1.3. Virtualization
Resource heterogeneity supported by grid services with interfaces, a large individual resource
pool consists of virtualized sum of parts. Therefore, Virtualization covers data and computing
resources [6]. But cloud Computing adds the virtualization of hardware resources [4].
3.1.4. Security
Virtualization and security are associated, since virtualization makes the complete
environments separation possible. Therefore, in clouds each user has his access to an individual
virtualized environment different than other user. However, end user security is not that big
issue in grids [4], [7]. Furthermore, in a Virtual Organization all the available resources can be
accessed by authorized representative as part of security services [4] [6].
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
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3.1.5. High Level Services
Data transfer and metadata search are some of a few services provided by grid. In case of cloud,
it is badly effected of an absence of some high level services, which is somehow caused
because of the lower level of maturity of the paradigm. As a result, this kind of problems can be
handled at the application level [4].
3.1.6. Architecture, Dependencies and Platform Awareness
Virtualization gives power to cloud applications architecture. But grids accept only grid
applications, thus imposing hard requirements to the developers [4].
3.1.7. Software Workflow
Service and job oriented are intrinsic nature of grids; they strongly suggest the truth of the need
to execute in the proper the integration of the services workflow and location which is not
necessary in case of on demand deployment as the one in the clouds. [4].
3.1.8. Scalability and Self-Management
Programmers are not controlled of being able to handle any scalability issues in grids and
cloud. But in grid, scalability is mostly getting the power by growing larger the amount of
working nodes. Nevertheless, clouds give the ability of changing the size of virtualized
hardware resources automatically. Plus, a dynamic reconfiguration is necessary in scalability,
as the system scales any new requirements to be restructured by the system itself. So self-
management as well as scalability is easily done in case of domain with a single administrative,
but many problems could be happened outside organization domain. Yet, the whole systems of
grids do not have a single owner, that reason will put grids in difficult condition. In the other
side, clouds are operated by single companies [4], [15].
3.1.9. Usability
Clouds are convenient to use with an easy manner, the deployment details act in state of being
concealed from the user [4].
3.1.10. Standardization
Grids have done a lot of hard work to succeed in having standardization in the user and the
inner interface which dealing with accessing resources. But the user who has permission to
approach interface to the cloud which has very often same standard technologies foundation
such as in grids, however inner interfaces standardization is having a main serious issue. These
internal interfaces are being in concealed condition by the enterprises, thus impede the progress
of the ability of communication among different clouds and the fact of being possible of a
worldwide organizations union of clouds. Some of the issues of testing the cloud’s abilities, like
monitoring, storage, Quality of Service, union between different organizations, etc. have been
managed at earlier time by grids. Moreover, clouds introduce particular components that call
for standardization [4], [16].
3.1.11. Payment Model
First attempting of grid was mainly supported by public funding while in the opposite side,
cloud has been motivated by commercial offers. Moreover, grid services are charged using a
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
4
stabled rate per service or idle resources shared by various organizations. However, cloud users
are usually charged using a pay per-use model [4].
3.1.12. Quality of Service
Grids are not giving the best Quality of Service level, due to its way of working by
collaborating and based on resource sharing principles. Any grid application, based on top of
the grid has to support any service, shall be fulfilled by itself. Mechanisms between
infrastructure providers for Service-Level Agreements in the grid have been set. However,
Quality of Service existing as an essential feature of many clouds, e.g. By this time, Amazon
has tried her best to have a good Quality of service, e.g., 99.9% infrastructure uptime, by means
of basic Service-Level Agreements. Note that Amazon is free of any responsibility in case of
power outages, system failures or other interruptions [4].
3.2. Similarities between grids and clouds
Grids need to increase the combination of virtualization technologies to get some of the
advantages that clouds present by nature, such as, the quality of hardware level of being easily
expanded or upgraded. In addition, grids need to make entry points available in easy way to
make a wider adoption possible by end users, i.e., grids are a user friendly, virtualized and
utility expanded automatically, which shows without doubt a similar characteristics with
current clouds. Moreover, many of the existing approaches that merge grids and clouds
together, which can also be seen as a union of higher level networking with virtualization
developed to a high degree of complexity. Plus, clouds offer a set of features exposed restricted
within certain limits [4].
4. C
LASSIFICATION OF
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OMPUTING
Many classifications of the cloud computing designed plan can be found, but most were
produced and represented according to the companies which offer cloud services for sale and
not represented according to enterprise IT, who buys services of cloud and software [8].
4.1 Cloud Architecture
Cloud Architecture is the scheme of applications programs used to direct the operation of
accessing on- demand service using Internet. They are basic on infrastructure which is used
only when it is required that draw the needful resources on-demand and accomplish a specific
job, then leave the unnecessary resources and often destroy them after the job has been
completed. Figure 1 illustrates cloud architecture.
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)
Developers implementing cloud application
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)
[(Virtualization, Storage Network) as-a-Service]
Hardware-as-a-Service
Figure 1. Cloud Layered Architecture
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
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The services are able to be reached all over the world, with the cloud look as a single point of
access by consumers for all his computing needs. Cloud Architectures deal with the key
difficulties of large scale data processing. Some examples of cloud architecture are processing
Pipelines, Batch Processing Systems etc [8].
Basically clouds mode could be defined by four types [8], [12]:
4.1.1. Private cloud
Data and processes are controlled within the organization without that much of worrying
regarding network bandwidth, security issues and common legal requirements of using cloud
services through open and public networks might be required.
4.1.2. Public cloud
It explains the traditional way of cloud computing attitudes, through which resources are
available on demand, over the Internet, using web applications or web services, from another
provider act as third party who help on shares resources.
4.1.3. Hybrid cloud
The environment is made up of several internal and/or external providers.
4.1.4. Community cloud
Same cloud infrastructure shared by many organizations.
4.2
Virtualization Management
It is the technique that removes linking together the hardware and operating system. It directs to
the source of the logical resources abstraction away from their physical resources to be more
flexible, reduce costs and make a good improvement in business value.
Essentially virtualizations in cloud have so many different types, such as, network
virtualization, server virtualization and storage virtualization. Server virtualization can be
described as an associating of single physical resources to several logical partitions or
representations.
In a virtualized environment, computing environments can be produced in a forceful dynamic
manner, enlarged, become smaller or go in a specified direction or manner as demand varies.
Virtualization is therefore highly suitable to a dynamic cloud infrastructure, because it provides
important advantages in isolation, manageability and sharing [8].
4.3
Fault Tolerance
In case of not achieving the desired end, there will be a duplicate copy of instance of the
application which is fully prepared to take over without delaying or interrupting the continuity
is called failover. A period when Cloud computing service is not available extends into the
more very subtle version of cloud service platforms. The main problem for cloud computing is
how to reduce any kind of outage failover to provide the trustworthy services [8].
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
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4.4
Security
Usually security is the most important issue in terms of data, infrastructure and virtualization
etc. Collective of information is not only a competitive asset, but it often consist of information
of customers, consumers and employees that, in the wrong hands, could create a civil
obligation and perhaps criminal charges. Cloud computing can be made secure but securing
cloud computing data is a contractual issue as well as a technical one [8].
4.5
Load Balancing
Load balancing is often used to perform failover- the state of a service of remaining in a
particular condition even after the failure of one or more of its components. The qualities of
components are checked always and when one becomes non-responsive, the load balancer is
aware and no longer transmits traffic to it. This is inherited feature from grid-based computing
for cloud-based platforms. Energy keeping and resource utilized are not always the main issue
when talk about cloud computing; however with proper load balancing in place resource
utilized can continue to be to a minimum. This is not only serves to maintain costs low and
enterprises, it also reduce stress on the circuits of each individual box, making them possible
but not yet actual last longer. Load balancing also empowers other important features such as
scalability [8].
4.6
Scalable Data Storage
Cloud storage empowers client to store data into the cloud without worrying about how it is
stored or backing it up. The main issues related to cloud storage are reliability and security.
Clients are not likely to entrust their data to another company without a guarantee that they will
be able to access their information whenever they want and no one else will be able to get at it
[8].
5. C
LOUD
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HALLENGES
5.1 Security and Privacy
Putting data, running software at someone else’s hard disk, and using someone else’s CPU
appears to be very hard when you think about [12], [13]. In addition, using multi tenancy model
created more security issues to be solved, such as, shared resources on the same physical
machine, and the other issue is that in cloud good and bad users could share resources and may
share the same network address then any bad behaviour will affect them all which is going to
damage the reputation of many good users on cloud [12].
5.2 Costing Model
Moving towards cloud reduces the infrastructure cost, but at the same time it raises the cost of
data communication. In this case, any transactional applications may not be suitable for cloud
computing. However, on-demand computing makes sense only for CPU intensive jobs [12].
5.3 Charging Model
Cost calculations based on consumptions of static computing, and the unit of cost analysis is an
instantiated virtual machine. However, in SaaS cloud providers, the cost they offer for
developing multi-tenancy could be very expensive [12].
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
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5.4 Service level agreement
It is a negotiation between the cloud providers and consumers, to obtain guarantees from
providers on service delivery [12].
5.5 Power
Cloud computing provides different type of services to satisfy the needs of consumers, huge
power is consumed. A smart energy system for resource management is highly recommended
[13].
6. C
URRENT
P
LAYERS
6.1
Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2)
Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that makes the availability of
compute capacity to be resizable in the cloud. It is purpose to make web-scale computing much
easy for developers. Amazon EC2’s simple web service interface gives customers permissions
to get and configure capacity with least conflict. It gives customers the ability of the complete
control of their computing resources and allows them run on Amazon’s computing
environment. Amazon EC2 minimize the time needed to get and boot new server instances to
minutes, giving customers the ability to scale capacity without delay, both up and down, as
their computing requirements change. Amazon EC2 alters the economics of computing by let
customers to pay only for capacity that they really use. Amazon EC2 supplies developers the
tools to build failure recovery applications and separate themselves from usual failure scenarios
[2]. Figure 2 has given an EC2 system use pattern [11].
Figure 2. Usage of Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud
6.1.1 Amazon EC2 Functionality
Amazon EC2 introduces a reliable virtual computing environment, giving customers
permissions to use web service interfaces to start instances with a different type of operating
systems, load them with their custom application environment, control the use of their
network’s access permissions, and operate their image using as many or few systems as they
request [2].
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
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6.1.2 Services in Amazon EC2 [2]
1. Elastic: increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days.
2. Completely Controlled:
Complete control of instances.
Having root access to each one.
3. Flexible: having the choice of multiple instance types, operating systems, and software
packages.
4. Designed for use with other Amazon Web Services.
5. Reliable: The Amazon EC2 Service Level Agreement commitment is 99.95% availability
for each Amazon EC2 Region.
6. Secure: provides numerous mechanisms for securing customer computer resources.
7. Inexpensive: paying a very low rate for the compute capacity consumed.
6.1.3 Features of Amazon EC2 [2]
1. Amazon Elastic Block Store: offers persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances.
2. Multiple Locations: place instances in multiple locations.
3. Elastic IP Addresses: static IP addresses designed for dynamic cloud computing associated
with the account not a particular instance.
4. Amazon Virtual Private Cloud: secure and seamless bridge between a company’s existing
IT infrastructure and the Amazon Web Service cloud.
5. Amazon CloudWatch: a web service that provides monitoring for AWS cloud resources.
6. Auto Scaling: scale capacity up or down.
7. Elastic Load Balancing: distributes incoming application traffic across multiple instances.
8. High Performance Computing (HPC) Clusters: Cluster Compute and Cluster GPU
Instances have been designed to support high performance network capability.
9. VM Import: virtual machine images will be imported from an existing environment to
Amazon EC2 instances.
6.2 Microsoft Windows Azure
6.2.1 OVERVIEW
Microsoft Windows Azure is based on cloud computing. Running applications and storing data
on machines in data center accessed via the internet can provide a lot of advantages. Yet
wherever customers run, applications are incorporate as part of platform. For on-premises
applications, such as customers running in the inner side of an organization’s data center, this
platform normally contains an operating system used to store data and possibly more.
Applications running in the cloud require a very much alike foundation.
Providing this is the goal of Windows Azure. Part of the larger Windows Azure platform,
Windows Azure is the basis on which a running storing data and applications in the cloud
stands. Figure 3 illustrates this idea [9].
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
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Figure 3. Windows Azure applications run in Microsoft data centers and are accessed via the
Internet.
Rather than making software available that Microsoft customers can install and run themselves
on their own computers, Windows Azure today is a service: Customers utilise it to operate
applications and store data on Internet-accessible machines belonging to Microsoft. Those
applications might make services available to businesses, to consumers, or both. Here are some
examples of different kinds of applications that can be incorporating as part of Windows Azure
[9]:
1. An independent software vendor (ISV) could generate an application to reach business
users, an approach that’s in many cases mentioned as Software as a Service (SaaS).
Windows Azure was planned to support Microsoft’s own SaaS applications, so ISVs can
also use it as a basis for a different kind of business-oriented cloud software.
2. An ISV might produce a SaaS application that makes a target of consumers rather than
businesses. Because Windows Azure is planned to maintain very scalable software, a
business that decides to focus on a big market such as consumer market, might well select it
as a platform for a new application.
3. Enterprises will be able to use Windows Azure to create and run applications which is
going to be used by their own employees. While this case possibly won’t need the huge
scale of a consumer-facing application, the ability of Windows Azure to perform its
required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time and capability of
being manage or controlled, could still make it an attractive choice.
To support cloud applications and data, Windows Azure has five components, as Figure 4
shows [9].
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
10
Figure 4. Windows Azure has five main parts: Compute, Storage, the Fabric Controller, the
CDN, and Connect
Those components are:
1. Compute: runs applications in the cloud. Those applications largely see a Windows Server
environment, although the Windows Azure programming model isn’t exactly the same as
the on-premises Windows Server model.
2. Storage: stores binary and structured data in the cloud.
3. Fabric Controller: deploys, manages, and monitors applications. The fabric controller also
handles updates to system software throughout the platform.
4. Content Delivery Network (CDN): speeds up global access to binary data in Windows
Azure storage by maintaining cached copies of that data around the world.
5. Connect: allows creating IP-level connections between on-premises computers and
Windows Azure applications.
7. T
HE
F
UTURE OF
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LOUD
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OMPUTING
There was a study made by the Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project and
Elon University's Imagining the Internet Center. That study shows that around 71% agreed with
the statement: "By 2020, most people won't do their work with software running on a general-
purpose PC. Instead, they will work in Internet-based applications such as Google Docs, and in
applications run from smart phones. Aspiring application developers will develop for
Smartphone vendors and companies that provide Internet-based applications, because most
innovative work will be done in that domain, instead of designing applications that run on a PC
operating system."
On the opposite side, around 27% agreed with the statement: "By 2020, most people will still
do their work with software running on a general-purpose PC. Internet-based applications like
Google Docs and applications run from smart phones will have some functionality, but the
most innovative and important applications will run on (and spring from) a PC operating
system. Aspiring application designers will write mostly for PCs."
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.4, July 2012
11
Most of those opinions, investigated by asking group of people questions, noted that cloud
computing is going on to enlarge and coming to control information proceedings because it
presents a lot of advantages, giving users the ability to access tools and information which they
need anywhere and anytime very easy, instant, and individualized from any networked device.
In addition, many experts believed that people in technology rich environments will be able to
access to very complex and complicated but affordable local networks that give them
permissions to have the cloud in their homes.
Most of the experts believed that people like to have many and more options of using different
devices to be able to access data and applications, and - in addition to the many refers that
smart phones motivating the move to the cloud and some referred to a future featuring so many
types of networked appliances. A few referred the internet involved in everything in which
almost every objects have a unique IP addresses and can help to be tied together as people now
a day’s tied together by the internet [10].
8. C
ONCLUSION
Cloud Computing is giving favorable promise that serves as a pattern or model help IT services
to be delivered as computing utilities. The way how clouds designed helps in making services
available to external users; providers need to be recompense for sharing their capabilities and
resources.
Virtualization is the one of most important thing in clouds technology, because many of
features such as, sharing resources on demand, security by isolation, etc based on
virtualization. In addition, usability is considered as an important property of clouds.
Moreover, enhancing of security is much recommended so that any enterprises could rely
sensitive data on the cloud infrastructure.
Regarding clouds definitions, there is no clear and complete definition in the literature yet,
which is an important task that is going to help in finding new application domains and
determining the areas for the usage of the clouds.
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Authors
Dr. Elleithy is the Associate Dean for Graduate Studies in the School of
Engineering at the University of Bridgeport. He has research interests are in the
areas of network security, mobile communications, and formal approaches for
design and verification. He has published more than one hundred fifty research
papers in international journals and conferences in his areas of expertise.
Dr. Elleithy is the co-chair of the International Joint Conferences on Computer,
Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE). CISSE is the first
Engineering/Computing and Systems Research E-Conference in the world to be
completely conducted online in real-time via the internet and was successfully running for four years. Dr.
Elleithy is the editor or co-editor of 10 books published by Springer for advances on Innovations and
Advanced Techniques in Systems, Computing Sciences and Software.
Munther Abualkibash is a PhD student in Computer Science and Engineering at the
University of Bridgeport. He received his master degree from the University of
Bridgeport in 2008. His current research interests image processing, programming
and parallel programming.
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