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Research Learning Theories that Entail M-Learning Education Related to Computer Science and Engineering Courses

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Research Learning Theories that Entail M-Learning Education Related to Computer Science and Engineering Courses

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This research is outline and discusses learning theories and explains the importance of learning theories concepts. Our paper presents the study of learning theories design and their requirements for the computer science and engineering courses. Computer science and engineering courses are different from other courses; these differences have to be considered during construction of the content. Many learning theories suggested in literature need to be considered before construction of the content is readily adapted to teaching. During the creation of Mobile courses we need to use one or more of the learning theories to work as a group does deliver high quality of knowledge to the learners. This is necessary so that the material will fulfill the specific goals of the course. In the same way for creating the material of a course in M-learning, several learning theories will need to be included. This paper describes the new roles of learning theories in M-learning education.
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International Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2(3) March 2013, Pages: 88-95
TI Journals
International Journal of Engineering Sciences
www.waprogramming.com
ISSN
2306-6474
* Corresponding author.
Email address: ialkorea@bridgeport.edu
Research Learning Theories that Entail M-Learning Education
Related to Computer Science and Engineering Courses
Ibrahim Alkore Alshalabi *
1
, Samir Hamada
2
, Khaled Elleithy
3
1,2,3
Department of Computer Science Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport- CT, USA.
AR T I C L E I N F O AB S T R AC T
Keywords:
M-learning
Learning Theories
Computer Science and Engineering Courses
Course Content
This research is outline and discusses learning theories and explains the importance of learning
theories concepts. Our paper presents the study of learning theories design and their requirements
for the computer science and engineering courses. Computer science and engineering courses are
different from other courses; these differences have to be considered during construction of the
content. Many learning theories suggested in literature need to be considered before construction of
the content is readily adapted to teaching. During the creation of Mobile courses we need to use
one or more of the learning theories to work as a group does deliver high quality of knowledge to
the learners. This is necessary so that the material will fulfill the specific goals of the course. In the
same way for creating the material of a course in M-learning, several learning theories will need to
be included. This paper describes the new roles of learning theories in M-learning education.
© 2013 Int. j. eng. sci. All rights reserved for TI Journals.
1. Introduction
The use of the internet higher education is rapidly growing and is an ubiquitous phenomenon. The 2011 research of online Learning shows
that the number of learners having at least one online course has now exceeded 6.1 million [1]. Currently nearly one-third of all learners in
higher education are having at least one online course [1]. The last three decades have experienced the formalization of E-learning and M-
learning as self-discipline. Several theoretical frameworks have been developed in an attempt to cover and describe the actions in learning
online. Therefore, the progression of theories in E-learning and M-learning are envisioned as essential for their robustness. In E-learning and
M-learning environments there seems to have been a lot of noise’ among students around what is the most appropriate or most complete
concept to explicate the actions within both of E-learning and M-learning [2]. This misunderstanding helps the e-learning community
comprehend the fundamentally complicated procedure of learning and how to best framework instructions, educating, training and other
knowledge procedures. These fundamental questions are strategic to the area of understanding, a way of considering and discussing and
doing research on knowledge.
2. Needs for Learning Theories
Learning theories represents how individuals or people understand new things. Learning theories provides primary techniques that should be
used to improve the quest of learning through an appropriate learning exercise according to the learner’s need. Moreover, a theory provides
people a description to add up of complicated methods and phenomena [3]. Studying the learning theories offer a firm groundwork for lots of
techniques and contemplating techniques needed for educational developers to make significant learning systems.
There are two main concerns discussed by advocates and scientists from where and how do people come to know? These concerns offer
understanding into the variations between learning theories but also illustrate how each theory performs an enormous portion in E-learning
and M-learning. Theories according to powerful research are much more efficient than (theories) according to educational phenomena. So,
Learning and gaining knowledge is a procedure which draws together psychological, intellectual, and ecological aspects and encounters in
order to obtain, improve, and make changes to an peoples abilities, understanding, principles, and opinions. Learning theories are therefore a
try to describe how people learn as shown in Figure 1.
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Figure 1. Learning Acquistion
3. Learning Theories
The development of theories in M-learning is seen as important for its durability. An overview of E-learning theories shows that during its
earlier development, most E-learning advocates have implemented a natural approach to the development of theories. Their conceptualization
details overarching issues such as how to determine its features and how to differentiate E-learning from other types of learning. As various
advocates have provided their own theoretical ideas, there has been an important controversy over the suitable theory.
2.1. Behaviorism
Behaviorists believe that exterior aspects only that shape learning rather than distinctiveness of individual student. Behaviorism specializes in
a new personality styles being recurring until they become automated. The concept surfaced from work done by Ivan Pavlov in associative
studying and traditional training. The concept of behaviorism specializes in the research of obvious habits that can be noticed and calculated
[4].
Behaviorism was major theory around the 1950’s when educational design first came to exist and was used as a platform for developing
many audio-visual components as well as Skinner’s teaching devices. For example, some newest designs used in E-learning are computer-
assisted instruction (CAI). The key principles used when developing instructions materials, involve the production of visible and measurable
outcomes in students to be used for determining the students performance. This is regarded in the analysis of students to identify where
instructions should start, the mastering of beginning steps before creating to more complicated stages, strengthening to increase performance,
and using hints to make sure a strong stimulus-response organization as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Learning Process under Behaviorism
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2.2. Cognitivism
A switch took place in the overdue 1950’s toward learning theories and designs from the intellectual sciences. Teachers placed less focus on
obvious, visible conduct. They targeted more on complicated intellectual procedures and inner psychological procedures such as data and
information acquisition, handling, storage, and memory, which are vital for both learning and learners.
Cognitivists concentrate on how information is obtained, structured, saved, and restored by the mind. Therefore, the issue is not on what
students do, but rather on what they know and how they come to obtain what they know. The attention of the intellectual strategy is on
modifying the student by inspiring him/her to use appropriate learning techniques [5].
Cognitivism concept represents the process of thinking that happens while someone is in action of learning. While studying, learners usually
make an intellectual framework in their memory. Every time learners understand, they will use their entire encounter in studying and shop
this new chance to understand in their memory until they want to use it again, to be able to help them in their studying procedure. One of the
agencies engaged in cognitivism theory is details handling in E-learning. This concept offers active studying where students definitely get,
rebuild and determine understanding in order to make learning more fun. This is because students need a modification in studying and
understanding. The theory focused on new understanding and previous understanding. To help students in studying, application designing
should take into account processes involved in information processing, so that studying can be more accurate and précised as well as clear
and understandable. According to previous analysis, it has been discovered that, in designing learning actions, the intellectual structure of
students were given serious consideration as shown in Figure 3 [6].
2.3. Constructivism
Constructivism represents the philosophical perception that people build their own knowing of reality [7]. Rather than incorporate a body of
understanding about your community and atmosphere, constructivists believe we 'construct' significance in relation to our relationships with
our atmosphere [8]. Constructivists believe that “knowledge is a operate of how the individual makes significance from his or her
experiences; it is not a operate of what someone else says is true[9]. When creating an online program according to constructivism concept,
developers must make exciting conditions that catch students and allow them to come up with knowledge and obtain Knowledge (meaning)
for them.
We can say the constructivist concept indicates that studying or learning is a dynamic process in which learners develop new thoughts in
relation to their present knowing. Instructions can be made more effective by offering materials with special order that allow learners to
develop upon what they already know and arrive at higher levels of knowing through E-learning or M-learning systems as shown in figure-4.
Figure 3. Course using Cognitivism Theroy
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2.4. Connectivism
Connectivism is a one of the learning theories that relates to E-learning and E-education. [10] in 2005 developed a new learning theory called
Connectivism theory. A concept explaining how learning depending on the epistemological groundwork of connective knowledge happens in
a digital age [11][12]. Connectivism is a theoretical structure that helps to comprehend and get the knowledge. It is mainly worried with
cognitive progression. Learning starts when students are together in a studying group, and information is then put into action by talking
about, discussing, and thinking. E-learning and M-learning lead to simplify the formation of E&M-learning communities and globalizes this
process, students; trainers from all over the world can become engaged.
Connectivism is motivated by the understanding that choices are according to rapidly modifying fundamentals. New information is constantly
being obtained. The capability to draw differences between important and insignificant information is essential. The capability to recognize
when new information varies the surroundings according to choices made last night is also critical [10][12].
Key points of connectivism as shown in Figure 5 [12].
Learning and understanding set in variety of views. As an example teacher/teacher, teacher/student, student / student can earning
the knowledge by have discussion using mobile devices all over the world.
Learning is a procedure of linking specialized nodes or details resources. By using mobile devices we can reach any specialist
anytime any where to get the help, so, we can get help from a group of specialist or teachers to get the right knowledge.
Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
Capacity to know more is more crucial than what is currently known
Taking care of and keeping relationships is needed to assist in constant learning.
Ability to see relationships between areas, thoughts, and principles is a primary expertise.
Accuracy and reliability (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) ar the purpose of all connectivist learning actions.
Decision-making itself is a studying procedure. Selecting what to learn and the significance knowledge that we need to deliver.
While it's right information now, it may be updated the next day due to modifications in the information, so, environment
impacting the choice [11].
Figure 4. Constructivism Learning Process
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4. Learning theories in M-learning analysis
[13] represents the procedure of excellent pedagogical style as one guaranteeing that there are definitely no variances between the program
we show, the learning theories we use, the studying atmosphere (environment) we select, and the evaluation techniques we embrace. To
obtain good reliability, we need to analyze very carefully what presumptions we are making at each level and to arrange those. Thus, we
need to start with properly identified designed studying results, we then need to select teaching and learning actions that take a position a
pretty excellent possibility of enabling the learners to obtain that understanding, then we need to design evaluation tasks which will truly
evaluate whether the results have been achieved. This process is simple to condition, but very challenging to acquire in an informed
way[14] .
Each of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism played a historical role in E-learning. A good developer does not stringently utilize
only one concept when designing; rather, it is important to consider the particular studying process.
Behaviourism is currently commonly ignored as a serious theoretical base for education and learning, and incorrectly often associated with
a teacher-centered model, this perspective is seriously large of the level. Regards to Jonassen conclusion, the introductory knowledge
acquisition has better support by Behaviourism [15].
Behaviourism was centrally concerned to highlight active learning-by-doing with immediate feedback on success, good analysis of learning
outcomes, positioning of studying goals, educational methods and tactics used to determine and assess learning outcomes.
[16] outlined key aspects when creating guidelines techniques. These include about the college pupil in the learning process, planning and
sequencing information to assist in highest possible managing, and creating learning circumstances that allow and encourage learners to
make connections with formerly found content. Both cognitivists and behaviorists expose the same goal, which is “communicate or return
knowing to learners in the very best, efficient style possible. In both views, knowing can be analyzed, decomposed, and simple into basic
fundamentals so that irrelevant information is eliminated; however, behaviorists focus is on a well-designed environment while behaviorists
emphasize efficient managing techniques [17].
Cognitivism is a concept that designed in reaction to Behaviorism which concentrates on how the mind procedures and uses information).
Cognitivists are considering modeling the mental components and procedures that seem necessary to more completely describe individual
behavior [17].
Allen, M.W [17] mentioned in his book, Learning Theories: An Academic Viewpoint, that Cognitive concepts highlight the part of learners'
ideas, principles, behaviors, and values (P.17) [17].
Figure 5. Connectivism : Process of creating network
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The implementation of cognitivisems concept in E-Learning often includes the use of schema, or psychological charts to help arrange the
learning content (P.41) [17]. Cognitivisem also offers with assisting the student tie the articles into current details to help remember the
content (P. 6) [17]. This then means that cognitive concepts pay higher attention to learners' particular variations and try to provide them by
getting the materials in different ways (P. 5)[18].
Constructivism is now one of the major pedagogies used in education and learning. It promotes learners to build their own understanding
according to personal knowledge and apply this right away to their environment. The concentrate in this approach is on learning rather than
teaching. Constructivist pedagogy recognizes the college pupil at the hub of the chance to learn rather than the teacher. In the E-
environment it is difficult to sustain the conventional part of the teacher, but more than that, that Internet makes the college pupil to
definitely practice their studying and gives them such a level of choice, of what to research, where to research, how to research and with
whom. By setting the student at the centre of the learning experience we are speeding up the process of learning. During this process
knowledge has being built and used according to the student personal experience. Students or learners need to take responsibility for the
studying. They have to be active participant and dynamic in their chance to learn rather than an inactive boat to be loaded with details. As a
result, Constructivism makes learners to be outdoorsmen looking out for information, making relationships and building knowledge [19].
Connectivism learning theory focuses on the value of training learners to search for, narrow, evaluate and synthesize information in order to
acquire knowledge. Connectivism provides an ideological structure that can affect how experts design and create educational resources for
higher education programs.
This structure places focus on building the learner’s ability to get around and hook up current information beyond knowledge of the current
course. Students within a connectivism model of studying in educational technology sessions should display certain conducts to experience
educational success.
In connectivism, the beginning for learning happens when (understanding or knowledge) is motivated through the procedure of learning,
the process of a learner connecting to and providing details into a studying group. A group is a collection of related areas of interest that
allows for interaction between the group member, so they can share, dialoguing and thinking together. To explore connectivist model, a
studying group is described as a node, which is always part of a bigger network-system. Nodes happen out of the relationship points that
are found on a system. A system is consists of two or more nodes attached in order to share the network resources. Nodes may be of
different size and durability, with regards to the attention of details, data, information and the amount of people who are moving through a
particular node [20]. By applying the idea of connectivism, information is allocated across the network system and can be saved in a wide
range of different type of digital formats.
[21] describes the value of networked, online social learning in regards to contemporary areas of research such as Educational
Technological innovation, in opening Courses learning system, learners had to be able to get into the group themselves and affect the shape
of its program as well as their own learning. The part of the trainer in all of this is to provide presenting a current expert group in which
learners may participate to offer not just a screen, but an access way into a current studying group.
The researchers claim, the biggest durability of connectivism learning theory; the key to success can be found in enabling learners to
become dynamic individuals in developing and building the cannon in their particular areas of research.
5. methodology of m-learning for computer science and engineering courses design
It is commonly recognized that more must be done to link the education/computer science partition and make a truly interdisciplinary way
to offer learning design and style, if instructors are to be convinced to perform with this strategy, since the specialized complications
engaged are often not recognized by instructors as being appropriate to their needs. The key to accomplishing effective results is
Interaction, discovering the right mix of individual and technical components, which is essential to training learners how to learn online.
Unique interest should also be instructed to non-traditional learners who have the extra stress of solving time disputes between E-learning,
M-learning, perform, and members of the family life [22][23].
6. learning theories correlated to computer science and engineering courses
[24] has mentioned Behaviorism theory in instructional technological innovation that includes Behaviorism theory. He declares that there
are many factors of Behaviorism that are positive and that have led to the growth of important instructional technologies innovation.
Illustrations of Behaviorism in current developments are instructional software and computer-assisted instructions.
[25] also mentioned the use of tools and exercise tutorials, with individual instructions and feedback tool and practice. This type of
learning, where a student is compensated through motivating short message/comment before going on to the next aim level of learning .
Behavior is especially obvious in the use of the video games. Learning actions/behavior is being gradually compensated as each level of the
game is achieved. In case of computer science and engineering course the student's learning of basic technological terms, explanations of
elements, and understanding technical processes can be carried out through structured programs provided through Mobile application or
Mobile website.
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We can, therefore instantly see a place for mobile information communication technology in education and learning, both as a source of
information and also, if arranged successfully, a perspective or framework for learning simple abilities and ideas [25].
Cognitive theory deals with the intellectual procedures behind learning, storage, and problem solving. It determines, among several
methods, an information processing approach to describe how the mind works. In other word of this design, the mind is considered to be
portioned into three sections, sensory, working, and long term memory [26].
[27] postulate that the idea of highly effective learning environment has to be along with more particular cognitive theories of instructional
design. In particular it has to be assured that highly effective learning environments are developed in positioning with the human cognitive
structure and its handling abilities and restrictions. Moreover, it has to be known that all learning techniques such as those that are
constructive, genuine, supportive, and self-controlled have a base of the Cognitivism. Therefore, cognitive structures are included in the
creation and manipulation of effective learning systems.
The information processing in computer science cognitive information processing theory involves the use of various types of memory. For
instance, in Pc Technology, these memories are RAM (Random Access Memory), ROM (Read Only Memory), and permanent/long lasting
memory such as hard disks, CDs, and flash drives. In cognitive information processing theory, these memories are known as sensory, short-
term, and long-term. Particularly, the cognitive information processing theory can be linked to the computer science approach/mobile
device of processing information by using space for storage manipulation as well as the retrieval of information [28]. Sensory, short term
memory and long term memory are considered the role of cognitive information processing theory. Sensory memory can be related to the
mobile device memory with the transduction of energy (Battery or charger mobile device) and the communication with the network
(Mobile, Wi-Fi, GPS, etc...), also short-term memory or working memory related to mobile device memory as ROM memory in computer
science. While, the long-term space for storage contains details that may be retrieved upon request. This matched the permanent storage in
the server side of the Mobile learning system.
In the constructivist theory, learning is an effective procedure in which students build new concepts or ideas based on both their present and
previous knowledge. Students are motivated to be effective constructors of knowledge, with mobile devices now embedding them in a
genuine perspective at the same time as providing entry to assisting resources. The most powerful illustrations of the enactment of
constructivist principles with mobile technology come from a type of learning terminology ‘participatory simulations’, where the students
themselves act out key areas in an immersive adventure of a active system. For instance, the Virus Game and the Environmental
Detectives. Constructivist methods in information technology knowledge place the objectives on learners to discover knowledge by
themselves when placed in the suitable situation [28][29]. Constructivism is the main approach used in E-learning. This strategy is used by
means of interactions, constructivist action and meeting to allow the student to develop an knowing and the significance of the problems
and to create new understanding on the basis for information [30]. Same meaning can be applied to M-learning of computer science and
engineering courses. For effective education in m-learning environment, instructors and learners both need to understand the
characteristics of the social interaction, the quality of the relations, and the connections will make sure communicative proficiency, such as
the exchange of knowledge, information, experience, and the improvement of skills [30].
Connectivism learning theory focuses on the value of training learners to search for, narrow, evaluate and synthesize information in order to
acquire knowledge. Connectivism provides an ideological structure that can affect how experts design and create educational resources for
higher education programs, for instance, computer science and engineering courses.
[31] based on Siemens Connectivism theory, identified some restrictions about course environment which are showed as one perspective of
a topic and provided in solitude. Courses are designed under the supposition that learning only happens in a certain period of time.
Therefore, learning is not dynamic, social or complicated. In this perspective, conventional learning environment are not designed beyond
the educational class room. [31] points out that connectivism is established in relationships which require that students communicate with
components that increase the learning process beyond the educational class room and allow real activities of learning. Under the
connectivism concepts education and learning is complete, where harmony between student needs and institutional needs is critical.
7. Conclusion
Behaviorist, Cognitivist, Constructivist and Connectivist theories have provided in different ways to the design of on the internet learning
materials, and they will continue to be used to create and design learning materials for E-learning and M-learning. Connectivism provides
an ideological structure that can affect how experts design and create educational resources and tools for higher education programs. In
addition to the current learning concepts and theories, connectivism with the help of other learning theories should be used to design and
development of online learning systems. The use of M-learning objects to advertise versatility, and use of on the internet components in
order to fulfill the needs of individual students, will become more common later on. Online learning components will be designed in small
consistent sections, so that they can be remodeled for different students and different situations. We now need a strategy to guide the
development of M-learning materials for computer science and engineering courses. Teachers should be able to evolve current existing
learning theories for computer science and engineering courses, while at the same time using the concepts of connectivism to guide the
development of effective learning materials. What is required is not a new theory of learning, but a model that combines the different
concepts to of learning theories to guide the design of M-learning materials.
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... The appropriate application of learning theories in digital education is essential to ensure curriculum integrity and critical to successful learning outcomes [46,47]. Therefore, we outlined a Theory-Technology Alignment Framework (TTAF) to inform the development of digital education for health professionals (Figure 2). ...
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Background: Learning theory is an essential component for designing an effective educational curriculum. Reviews of existing literature consistently lack sufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of digital interventions for health professions' education, which may reflect disconnections among learning theories, curriculum design, use of technology, and outcome evaluation. Objective: The aim of this review was to identify, map, and evaluate the use of learning theories in designing and implementing intervention trials of health professions’ digital education, as well as highlight areas for future research on technology-enhanced education via the establishment of a development framework for practice and research. Methods: We performed a systematic search of Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Excerpta Medica database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library), PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Education Resources Information Center, and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2007 and 2016. Results: A total of 874 RCTs on digital health education were identified and categorized into online-offline, mobile digital education, and simulation-based modalities for pre and postregistration health professions’ education. Of these, 242 studies were randomly selected for methodological review and thematic analysis. Data were extracted by one author using a standardized form, with a (48/242, 20%) random sample extracted by a second author, in duplicate. One-third (81/242, 33.4%) of the studies reported single or multiple learning theories in design, assessment, conceptualization, or interpretation of outcomes of the digital education interventions. Commonly reported learning theories were problem-based learning (16/81, 20%), social learning theory (11/81, 14%), and cognitive theory of multimedia learning (10/81, 12%). Most of these studies assessed knowledge (118/242, 48.8%), skills (62/242, 25.6%), and performance (59/242, 24.3%) as primary outcomes with nonvalidated assessment tools (151/242, 62.4%). Studies with reported learning theories (χ21=8.2; P=.002) and validated instruments (χ21=12.6; P=.006) have shown effective acquisition of learning outcomes. Conclusions: We proposed a Theory-Technology Alignment Framework to safeguard the robustness and integrity of the design and implementation of future digital education programs for the training of health professionals.
... III. Background: Providing reliable computational / storage services for learning and research have stand facing immense [6] challenges. Cloud Computing provide a cost effective and elastic IT solutions for learning environment [7]. Cloud computing is a paradigm shifting that provides applications, data storage and processing power over the Internet. ...
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Education is an important component of life because it equips us with all that is needed to make our dreams come true. One of the most promising paradigms for education is e-learning. It is commonly referred to the intentional use of networked information and communications technology (ICT) in teaching and learning. Some other terms are also used to describe this mode of teaching and learning including online learning, virtual learning, distributed learning, network and web-based learning. Since the last decade there is a growing interest in e-learning from several directions. Distance education programs see it as a logical extension of their distance education activities. The emerging concept of cloud computing, and advancement in mobile devices enabled with Sensor technologies transforms many areas of modern day living. The main advantage of the cloud centric environment is that this technology reduces the infrastructure and software cost and License for all. Mobile learning (M-learning) is considering more effective system of providing study materials to learners anywhere anytime. It is necessary to develop the robust contents delivery mechanism for learning which can be accessed from internet enabled mobile devices. In this paper, we discuss the impact of cloud computing and supporting technologies to acquire education in broader dimension for the students over the country. We believe cloud based mobile learning will surely enhance the current educational system and improve the education quality at low cost.
... computational / storage services for learning and research have stand facing immense [6] challenges. Cloud Computing provide a cost effective and elastic IT solutions for learning environment [7]. Cloud computing is a paradigm shifting that provides applications, data storage and processing power over the Internet. ...
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The emerging concept of cloud computing, and advancement in mobile devices enabled with Sensor technologies transforms many areas of modern day living. The main advantage of the cloud centric environment is that this technology reduces the infrastructure and software cost and License for all. Mobile learning (M-learning) is considering more effective system of providing study materials to learners anywhere anytime. It is necessary to develop the robust contents delivery mechanism for learning which can be accessed from internet enabled mobile devices. In this paper, we discuss the impact of cloud computing and supporting technologies to acquire education in broader dimension for the students over the country. We believe cloud based mobile learning will surely enhance the current educational system and improve the education quality at low cost.
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Background Learning theory is an essential component for designing an effective educational curriculum. Reviews of existing literature consistently lack sufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of digital interventions for health professions’ education, which may reflect disconnections among learning theories, curriculum design, use of technology, and outcome evaluation. Objective The aim of this review was to identify, map, and evaluate the use of learning theories in designing and implementing intervention trials of health professions’ digital education, as well as highlight areas for future research on technology-enhanced education via the establishment of a development framework for practice and research. Methods We performed a systematic search of Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Excerpta Medica database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library), PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Education Resources Information Center, and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2007 and 2016. Results A total of 874 RCTs on digital health education were identified and categorized into online-offline, mobile digital education, and simulation-based modalities for pre and postregistration health professions’ education. Of these, 242 studies were randomly selected for methodological review and thematic analysis. Data were extracted by one author using a standardized form, with a (48/242, 20%) random sample extracted by a second author, in duplicate. One-third (81/242, 33.4%) of the studies reported single or multiple learning theories in design, assessment, conceptualization, or interpretation of outcomes of the digital education interventions. Commonly reported learning theories were problem-based learning (16/81, 20%), social learning theory (11/81, 14%), and cognitive theory of multimedia learning (10/81, 12%). Most of these studies assessed knowledge (118/242, 48.8%), skills (62/242, 25.6%), and performance (59/242, 24.3%) as primary outcomes with nonvalidated assessment tools (151/242, 62.4%). Studies with reported learning theories (χ²1=8.2; P=.002) and validated instruments (χ²1=12.6; P=.006) have shown effective acquisition of learning outcomes. Conclusions We proposed a Theory-Technology Alignment Framework to safeguard the robustness and integrity of the design and implementation of future digital education programs for the training of health professionals.
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