Evaluation of the Hypersensitivity Potential of Alternative Butter Flavorings.
Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV. Electronic address: .Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (Impact Factor: 2.9). 09/2013; 62. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.053
Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione 2,3-hexanedione 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers.
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- "NIOSH concluded based on their studies that occupational exposure to diacetyl may be associated with development of severe respiratory disease, including the rare condition bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), in highly exposed workers (NIOSH 2011). In response to these activities, diacetyl has largely been phased out from use in food flavorings; instead, 2,3-pentanedione and other diketones have been introduced as alternatives as they possess similar " butter-like " qualities (Anderson et al. 2013; Potera 2012; Boylstein 2012). Due to these concerns over worker health and safety, various occupational exposure limits (OELs) for diacetyl have been proposed or recommended. "
ABSTRACT: Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate airborne release of diacetyl from selected mixtures simulating butter flavorings added to foods. The test materials included diacetyl (97% purity); 0.015%, 0.15%, 1.5%, and 3.0% diacetyl in a water/propylene glycol mixture; 1.5% diacetyl in deionized water or soybean oil; and 3% or 6% diacetyl in a commercial steam distillate from milk fermentation known as “butter starter distillate.” Diacetyl was quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Expected concentration-dependent emission patterns based on liquid diacetyl content were demonstrated, but were significantly altered by mixture composition. Soybean oil and deionized water more readily released diacetyl when compared with starter distillate, propylene glycol solutions, and pure diacetyl. Measured diacetyl concentrations under static headspace and dynamic flow-chamber conditions were compared to estimated concentrations utilizing Raoult's law with published and fitted activity coefficient corrections for each mixture, indicating that published coefficients often understated the measured concentrations. It is concluded that headspace (static) and small-chamber (dynamic) measurements of airborne diacetyl provide data to assist in validating model-estimated airborne diacetyl concentrations by using mixture-specific activity coefficients. Implications of these empirical data for validating exposure estimates for diacetyl based on near-field/far-field modeling in workplace settings are discussed.
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- "toxicity studies at the systemic level with synthetic savory food flavorings have proven that, when used for long periods, they can cause hyperactivity in children, with and without attention deficit (Stevens et al., 2014), a significant decrease in blood hemoglobin concentration, drastic changes in liver function, and significant weight loss in rodents, allergies, cutaneous hypersensitivity and poor digestion in humans (Anderson et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of food flavorings (Strawberry, Condensed Milk and Chocolate) on Allium cepa meristematic root cells, with exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. Cytotoxic and mutagenic potential were evaluated separately at doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml and in combination, in which for each dose, the same dose of one other flavoring was combined. The results were analyzed by the Chi-square test (p <0.05). The Strawberry flavor in both exposure times and the three studied doses, the Condensed Milk at 0.6 ml in the 48 hour exposure time, the Chocolate flavor at 0.4 ml, exposure time of 48 hours, and at 0.6 ml, in both exposure times and all treatments with combined doses, significantly reduced the cell division rate, proving to be cytotoxic. No treatment resulted in a significant number of cellular aberrations in A. cepa cells, therefore, the flavorings, under the conditions studied, were non- mutagenic.
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ABSTRACT: Flavor, as one of the most important properties determining the acceptability and preference of fermented milks, is influenced by compositional and processing factors. In this study, we focused on the volatile organic compounds related to flavor during milk fermentation by Lactobacillus pentosus according to electronic nose analysis. Xylose (1% addition) metabolized by Lb. pentosus strongly affects the flavor of yogurt, with the potent volatile organic compounds of ethanol (3.08%), 2,3-butanedione (7.77%), and acetic acid (22.70%) detected using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Sensory analysis also showed skimmed yogurt fermented by Lb. pentosus with 1% xylose had the unique scores of sourness (acetic acid) and butter flavor (2,3-butanedione). Furthermore, α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase in carbohydrate metabolism play important roles in milk fermentation. Under preferable conditions (pH 5.5, 42°C) for α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase, the relative content of potent flavor compound 2,3-butanedione was 10.13%, which was 2.55% higher than common culture condition (pH 4.5, 37°C), revealing that xylose metabolized by Lb. pentosus has potential values for the milk product industry, such as the acceptability and preference of fermented milk product.
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