Sport-Specific Injury Pattern Recorded During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

The Norwegian Cruciate Ligament Register, Bergen, Norway.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.36). 09/2013; 41(12). DOI: 10.1177/0363546513501791
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are more commonly seen with certain cutting and pivoting sports. However, injury patterns associated with these sports have not been well described. PURPOSE:(1) To describe the patient demographics and injury pattern at the time of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) by activities that lead to ACL injuries and (2) to estimate the association of activities at the time of injury with the odds of isolated ACL injuries as well as with meniscus, cartilage, and multiligament injuries diagnosed at the time of ACLR. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:This study combined 2 ACLR registry cohorts, from Norway and the United States, from 2004 to 2011. A cohort of 10,958 primary ACLRs was included. The most prevalent sports activities at the time of injury were the following: soccer, skiing, American football, basketball, and team handball. The end points were the concurrent injury patterns at the time of ACLR: isolated ACL, meniscus, cartilage, and multiligament injuries. RESULTS:All sports were compared with the most prevalent injury mechanism: soccer. Skiing injuries were 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27) times more likely to result in isolated ACL tears, 2.05 (95% CI, 1.01-4.16) times more likely to result in posterior cruciate ligament tears, 1.94 (95% CI, 1.51-2.49) times more likely to result in medial collateral ligament (MCL) tears, and 1.73 (95% CI, 1.38-2.17) times more likely to result in multiligament injuries. Athletes playing American football were 2.72 (95% CI, 1.32-5.62) times more likely to have MCL tears. Those injured playing basketball were 1.28 (95% CI, 1.06-1.54) times more likely to have lateral meniscus tears, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.01-1.51) times more likely to have cartilage damage, and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.11-1.72) times more likely to have meniscus and cartilage injuries. Athletes injured playing team handball were less likely to have MCL tears (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99) and more likely to have lateral meniscus injuries (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.48). CONCLUSION:Injury patterns were associated with certain sports. Compared with soccer, American football has a higher likelihood of resulting in multiligament injuries, whereas basketball has a higher likelihood of resulting in cartilage and lateral meniscus injuries. Injury patterns seen at the time of surgery may reflect the forces applied to the knee by the specific sports performed.

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    ABSTRACT: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). Uninjured (n=13 males; n=8 females) and ACL-R (n=3 males; n=5 females; 25.0±11.3 months post-op) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150 and 0-200 ms. MVC and RTD (per kg body mass) were calculated for the uninjured group to compare between sexes, and to compare the control group with the ACL-R limb and unaffected limb of the ACL-R skiers. H/Q MVC and RTD strength ratios were also compared RESULTS: The ACL-R limb demonstrated significant HAM and QUAD deficits compared to the contralateral limb for MVC and late-phase RTD (P<0.05). Uninjured male skiers also displayed a limb difference for HAM MVC and RTD at 150 ms (P<0.05). QUAD MVC and RTD deficits were observed in the affected limb of ACL-R skiers, which led to an inflated H/Q Ratio (50 ms) compared to uninjured controls (P<0.05).Compared to male skiers, females displayed greater relative HAM RTD (50 ms) and elevated H/Q RTD Ratios (50 ms) suggesting enhanced ACL protection (P<0.05). Due to the strength demands of ski racing, our results suggest the importance of including HAM and QUAD strength assessments in the physical evaluation of uninjured skiers. Further, HAM and QUAD strength should be assessed over a long-term period following surgery to identify chronic strength deficits in ACL-R ski racers.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Medicine and science in sports and exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Due to a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury in alpine ski racers, this study aims to assess functional asymmetry in the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), and leg muscle mass in elite ski racers with and without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). Elite alpine skiers with ACL-R (n = 9; 26.2 ± 11.8 months post-op) and uninjured skiers (n = 9) participated in neuromuscular screening. Vertical ground reaction force during the CMJ and SJ was assessed using dual force plate methodology to obtain phase-specific bilateral asymmetry indices (AIs) for kinetic impulse (CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI). Dual x-ray absorptiometry scanning was used to assess asymmetry in lower body muscle mass. Compared with controls, ACL-R skiers had increased AI in muscle mass (P < 0.001), kinetic impulse AI in the CMJ concentric phase (P < 0.05), and the final phase of the SJ (P < 0.05). Positive associations were observed between muscle mass and AI in the CMJ concentric phase (r = 0.57, P < 0.01) as well as in the late SJ phase (r = 0.66, P < 0.01). Future research is required to assess the role of the CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI as a part of a multifaceted approach for improving outcome following ACL-R in elite ski racers.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
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    ABSTRACT: Revision surgery is one of the most important endpoints during follow-up after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The American Journal of Sports Medicine
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