Article

The biotechnology of malting and brewing

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Apart from drying (which is the reduction in the moisture content) of the green malt from about 42% to about 3-5% to meet brewing specifications and enhance its storage qualities, other complex reactions and transformations which give malt its unique characteristics of colour and flavour take place as a result of the effects of heat generated at different kilning temperature regimes, examples are coagulation of proteins; caramelization of sugars; melanoidine interaction of sugars and amines; and splitting of a sulphur containing protein, S-methyl methionine, SMM, to dimethyl sulphide, DMS ( Palmer, 1983;Hough, 1985;Palmer, 1989;Kunze, 2004). ...
... Since barley is the traditional cereal for malting and brewing, every property specification and tests revolve around it. A large number of parameters have been proposed to define malting quality of a cereal grain ( Ralph et al, 1995, Kunze, 2004), including the following: GI gives maximum weights to grains that germinate rapidly. Normal ...
... Malting ultimately results in the development and activation of an array of endogenous enzyme systems which catalyse the hydrolysis and depolymerization of food reserves such as starch and protein up to the 15 mashing stage of brewing. This process of hydrolysis which transforms the hitherto raw grain is known as modification ( Kunze, 2004). Thus, modification during malting has a decisive influence on the extract yield and saccharification time of the malted grain. ...
Book
Full-text available
The malting characteristics and the resultant effects of heat generated at different kilning (drying) temperature regimes on these characteristics, in relation to diastatic power (DP); total nitrogen (TN); extract yield (EY); total soluble nitrogen (TSN); permanently soluble nitrogen (PSN); free amino nitrogen (FAN), malting loss (ML) and colour for sorghum, variety ML4, were investigated using standard procedures. Parameters such as the diastatic power and extract yield of the sorghum malt samples decreased linearly with increase in drying temperature while the total soluble nitrogen, permanently soluble nitrogen, Kolbach index and free amino nitrogen varied parabolically (to an optimum at the temperature range of 50 - 60ºC) with increase in drying temperature. In contrast, the colour of the wort samples produced from the malts dried at different temperatures increased linearly with increasing kilning temperatures. However, the pH values of the wort samples did not show any significant change with increase in drying temperature. Based on the results, it is possible to produce fairly good quality malt from sorghum, variety ML4. In addition, a temperature range of 50 - 60 ºC may be ideal for the kilning of its malt in order to optimize its malting potentials.
... These properties can be exploited to control the carbohydrate composition and the fermentability of the fi nal wort ( Montanari et al. , 2005 ). In the brewing environment, it is necessary to produce a wort fermentability of about 25–30% to produce a low-alcohol beer ( Muller, 2000 ), whereas a wort fermentability of 80% is needed to obtain pale beers ( Kunze, 2004 ). The different fermentable sugar composition of two worts with 1.040 gravity produced at a mashing temperature of 65°C and 85°C is reported in Table 6 .3 . ...
... Fermentation takes a very short time, but the yeast can be used for a long time. A decisive factor is the immobilization of the yeast on a macroporous carrier material ( Kunze, 2004 ). In general, four immobilization technique categories can be distinguished, based on the physical mechanism of cell localization and on the nature of the support mechanisms ( Karel et al. , 1985 ; Verbelen et al. , 2006 ): ...
... But in comparison with the original beer, there can be a great loss of fl avor, body and freshness; this can be mitigated by adding krausen, green beer or fully mature beer up to the permissible alcohol content. While, according to Zufall and Wackerbauer (2000a) , beers produced with a manipulated fermentation often have a worty and sweet fl avor ( Kunze, 2004 ). Generally, two types of physical processes can be distinguished: thermal and membrane processes . ...
Article
Full-text available
With greater interest in health and concern about weight and considering the warnings about alcohol abuse, especially when driving, consumer preference for low-alcohol and alcohol-free beer is increasing, but the definitions of " low-alcohol " and " alcohol-free " beers vary in different countries as well as their composition. Low-alcohol or any other word or description which implies that the drink being described is low in alcohol may not be applied to any alcoholic drink unless: (a) the drink has an alcoholic strength by volume of not more than 1.2% and (b) the drink is marked or labeled with an indication of its maximum alcoholic strength immediately preceded by the word " not more than. " The most common way to produce non-alcoholic beers is to modify the normal brewing process so that fermentation is limited and almost no ethanol is produced. There are several techniques for determining alcohol concentration by controlling the extent of fermentation. Moreover, beers produced in a traditional way and in different brands can be made alcoholfree by using physical methods to remove the alcohol at the end of the production process. The biological methods used to produce alcohol-free beers do not usually require special extra plant, but rather a more accurately controlled process to prevent an overproduction of alcohol.
... These substances are produced by the action of enzymes that degrade the starch to sugar and soluble dextrins, and proteins and lipids in their respective low molecular weight derived products. Insoluble substances, such as nonsolubilized/nondegraded starch, cellulose, part of the high molecular weight protein, and other compounds remain as spent grains at the end of the lautering process (Kunze, 2004). The extracted aqueous solution is called wort, whereas the insoluble part is referred to as spent grains or BSG. ...
... The bottom thin layer is made of large and heavy particles and may contain residual undigested starch, whereas the intermediate layer is thicker than the bottom layer and is formed by the spent grains. Finally, the top layer is thin and made of suspended wort protein and small husk particles (Kunze, 2004). ...
... After the last sparging the spent grains are removed from the lauter tun. According to Kunze (2004), from 100 kg of malt upon discharge, 100e130 kg of spent grains (BSG) that contain 70%e80% water are produced, thus for each hundred liters of beer produced 21e22 kg of spent grains are obtained. ...
Chapter
Abstract Barley is the basic raw material for brewing. Its chemical composition, brewing, and technological indices are highly determinative for beer quality and the economic efficiency of the brewing process. During the process of malting and brewing, the by-products left after separation of the wort are rich in protein, fibers, arabinoxylans, β-glucan, and polyphenols. This chapter explores in depth the several by-products obtained after brewing and their potential for various food applications. Barley brewing by-products offer an opportunity for cereal-based baked and extruded products with acceptable sensory and nutritional characteristics. Applications of polyphenolic extracts in healthcare and food processing are also denoted. Finally, recovery strategies and different applications of breweries' spent yeast are highlighted too.
... Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. While beer brewing probably started in the ancient Egyptian culture, the current traditional recipe dates back to the 14 th century (Kunze, 2010). The main ingredients and processing principles have not changed much since then. ...
... It has several layers with diff erent composition and functions. The outer layers are the husks, which consist mainly of cellulose in which components like polyphenols and bitter substances are localised (Kunze, 2010). Most arabinoxylans that are present in the barley are located in the bran. ...
... The endosperm is the main energy storage of the kernel. It consists for 77% of starch (), which is surrounded by a matrix of storage proteins (Kunze, 2010). This matrix with starch network is surrounded by cell walls, which consist for 75% of β-glucans and 20 % of arabinoxylans (Jadhav, Lutz, Ghorpade, & Salunkhe, 1998). ...
... where SG−1 is the excess SG of the wort compared to water (known as brewer's points), 0.004 is the brewer's points factor equivalent to 1.0 DP or approximate value of the difference in SG of two sugar solutions with mass % difference of 1.0 on the Plato Sugar Table (Kunze, 2004). ...
... Most importantly, varietal characteristics such as grain shape and size have been identified to affect rate of water absorption and germination energy during steeping (Ilori, 1991). Small kernels take up water much more quickly than large ones (Kunze, 2004). Additionally, endosperm texture and intrinsic enzymes' activities play dominant roles in the rate of endosperm hydration and modification during steeping and germination (Chiremba et al., 2013) and by implication malt quality. ...
... The steely endosperm has low hydration value (Dale et al., 1990; Chandra et al., 1999) and Psota et al. (2007) showed that grain hardness (which reflects increasing level of steeliness) adversely affected accessibility of hydrolytic enzymes to the starchy endosperm of malting barley. Steeping should not only give optimal germination; it should equally cause optimal hydration of the starchy endosperm thereby encouraging enzyme formation and metabolic transformations of its food reserves (Kunze, 2004). Differences in steely/mealy distribution influence the different degrees to which the endosperms of the different sorghum varieties malt (Chiremba et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of varietal differences and germination period was studied to determine some malting and brewing potentials of three new improved sorghum varieties (SAMSORG17, SAMSORG 14 and SAMSORG40) in the brewing industry in Nigeria. Results showed that both variety and germination period had significant (p < 0.05) effect on sorghum malt quality parameters. The germination energy (GE) and germination index (GI) ranged from 97.21 ± 0.01 - 98.67 ± 0.05% and 0.95 ± 0.02 - 0.97 ± 0.03, respectively. The crude protein (CP), degree of steeping (DS) and malting loss (ML) were: 9.81 ± 0.02 - 10.94 ± 0.03%, 39.52 ± 0.09 - 42.58 ± 0.05% and 10.06 ± 0.37 - 12.91 ± 0.42%. The sorghum malt wort filtration rate (FR), specific viscosity (SV) and fermentable sugars as glucose (FSAG) ranged from 0.30 ± 0.02 - 2.21 ± 0.02 mL/s, 2.45 ± 0.02 - 2.71 ± 0.01 cP and 355.77 ± 0.02 - 414.44.± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively while the specific gravity (SG) and original extract (OE) were: 1.03 ± 0.11 - 1.05 ± 0.03 and 6.25 ± 0.06 - 11.75 ± 0.14%, respectively. Brewing potentials (which indicate malt quality) of sorghum varieties increased with increase in germination period reaching their peaks on the 5th day of germination except SV which decreased marginally with increase in germination period. On the basis of the results, a germination period of 5 days is recommended for malting the sorghum varieties studied in order to produce acceptable quality of malts for the brewing industry in Nigeria. In addition, variety SAMSORG40 showed more prospects for use as brewing malt than the other varieties.
... Average annual global production is estimated to be~39 million tonnes, with~3.4 million tonnes produced in the European Union, 2 million tonnes of which are produced in Germany alone (1,3). Around 20 kg of wet BSG are produced per 100 L of brewed beer (4,5). Currently the majority of produced spent grain is used as a low-value animal feed with a market value of~€35 per tonne (6). ...
... In traditional brewing, which employs a lauter tun, the BSG plays an important role as it forms the bed through which the mash is filtered to separate the wort. Therefore, the initial milling of the malt must be such that the grain coverings remain intact so as to form an adequate filter (5). Today, while many small or craft breweries still use this method of mash filtration, many larger breweries employ a mash filter, which relies less on the filtration function of the BSG and thus malt can be milled more extensively. ...
... About 100-130 kg of BSG containing 70-80% water are obtained from 100 kg of malt, equating to 21-22 kg BSG per hectolitre brewed beer (5). This high moisture level presents two issues. ...
Article
Full-text available
Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product generated in the beer-brewing process. This material consists of the barley grain husks obtained as solid residue after the production of wort. BSG is rich in fibre and protein and, to date, the main use for the elimination of this by-product has been as an animal feed. However, because of its nutritional content, BSG is of interest for application and fortification of human food products, particularly in view of its low cost and availability in large amounts. In addition, the importance of BSG as an ingredient and potential source of health-promoting bioactive components is beginning to be recognised. The investigation of alternative uses of BSG is pertinent, not only from the perspective of the brewer who can benefit from valorisation of this by-product, but also from an environmental perspective as the recycling and re-use of industrial wastes and by-products has become increasingly important. This review presents the current knowledge on BSG, covering its production, composition and methods for the release of valuable components, and focuses on the potential health benefits attributed to its constituents and the use of this brewer by-product in food applications. Copyright © 2016 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling
... Concerning its chemical properties, the hot trub consists mostly of proteins and tannin (Bamforth, 2004), as well as other compounds originating from the cereal used in beer production. It is assumed that the hot trub composition is 40e70% protein material, 10e20% hop bitter acid, 7e8% polyphenols, 7e10% carbohydrates, and 1e2% fatty acids and other chemical compounds (Kunze, 2014). ...
... Not only is the hot trub of any value, but it also disturbs beer wort processing. It is therefore necessary to reduce its concentration in beer wort to less than 100 mg/l, from an initial value, which varies between 40 and 80 g/hL (Kunze, 2014). The remains of the hot trub in the form of small particles, which do not sediment in the whirlpool, may later on have a positive impact on beer wort fermentation (Kühbeck et al., 2007a). ...
... However, higher concentrations of sediment may also lead to a decrease in wort extract, and negatively impact on the quality of the beer in terms of poor flavor and head stability (Kühbeck et al., 2006). Greater amounts of hot trub remaining in the wort may impede clarification process, clump up yeasts into conglomerates and increase the total turbidity (Kunze, 2014). An increased amount of non-malted material may lead to numerous technological problems (Schnitzenbaumer and Arendt, 2014), inter alia, problems with achieving desired chemical composition of wort intended for fermentation . ...
... From sweet wort to cooled wort, an additional gluten decrease occurred (Fig. 1). It depends on protein-polyphenol precipitation which occurs during boiling and subsequent hot trub separation in the whirlpool (Kunze, 2004). After the primary fermentation, a further gluten reduction was observed in the untreated young beer (Fig. 1) probably owing to the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of proteins (4.6), which accelerates the precipitation of colloidal unstable protein-polyphenol complexes (Steiner et al., 2011). ...
... The presence of a stable and attractive foam is one of the most important quality attributes evaluated in beer, and it is affected by several factors like the content of proteins, the interaction between protein and iso-a-acids from hops, carbonation level and method used to dispense the beer (Bamforth, 1985). Concerning the foam stability, all the untreated beer samples showed values > 260 s (Table 2) which, according to Kunze (2004), can be defined good; about the untreated Weizen beer, the value was slightly lower than expected, which maybe due to the traditional single decoction mashing used, with a protease rest (30 min at 40°C and 20 min at 52°C) probably too long for the well-modified malt used. Regarding the effect on foam stability of the PE addition, values measured on treated beers were significantly lower (ANOVA, P < 0.05) than on the control beers in all trials performed. ...
... However, subsequent studies have shown that the enzymatic treatment with PE does not negatively affect the foam stability of beer (Lopez & Edens, 2005;Guerdrum & Bamforth, 2012). In this study, the foam stability values in PE-treated beers, even if lower than the control beers, can be considered acceptable, being higher than 220 s (Kunze, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Beer is considered unsafe for those affected by coeliac disease because it is traditionally made by gluten-containing raw materials. During the stabilisation phase, the addition of processing aids leads to a gluten reduction, because the haze-forming activity of a protein in beer depends greatly on proline-rich barley hordeins. Prolyl endopeptidase (PE) is commonly used as a stabiliser in the brewing industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of treatment with PE on gluten level, quality attributes and sensory profile of three different styles of barley/wheat malt beer. The addition of PE lowered the content of gluten below the ELISA kit LOQ (<10 mg kg−1). The foam stability was decreased by addition of PE, reaching values greater than 220 s. Some volatile compounds changed significantly, but panellists found no significant differences between treated and untreated beer in both description analysis and triangle test performed. Furthermore, treatment with PE reduces turbidity by hydrolysing the haze precursors, thereby improving beer stability.
... The chitted grain undergoes an incomplete natural germination process to develop hydrolytic enzymes, which modify the food reserves to useful extract ( Palmer, 1983). During germination, three processes of controlled seedling growth, enzyme formation and metabolic changes occur through some complex biochemical and physiological processes which modify the food reserves and cell wall materials in a definite order ( Kunze, 2004). Firstly, the protein matrix is adequately hydrolysed before the skeleton of cell wall materials of mainly β-glucans and finally starch granules are degraded ( Fincher, 1975;Bamforth, Martin and Wainwright, 1979). ...
... These structural changes and biochemical degradations of the endosperm components are referred to as endosperm modification or cytolysis (Gunkel, Votez and Rath, 2002;Kunze, 2004). To reduce the combined respiration loss due to root and shoot growth, which eventually results to dry matter loss of the malt sample (Waniska, Betta and Rooney, 1995), germination is performed at the lowest possible temperature for the shortest possible time ( Kunze, 2004). ...
... These structural changes and biochemical degradations of the endosperm components are referred to as endosperm modification or cytolysis (Gunkel, Votez and Rath, 2002;Kunze, 2004). To reduce the combined respiration loss due to root and shoot growth, which eventually results to dry matter loss of the malt sample (Waniska, Betta and Rooney, 1995), germination is performed at the lowest possible temperature for the shortest possible time ( Kunze, 2004). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Levels of β-glucan components (TBG: total β-glucan, WIBG: water insoluble β-glucan and WSBG: water soluble β-glucan) and β-glucanase in three improved sorghum varieties (SK5912, KSV8 and ICSV400) during malting and their effects in brewing were investigated using standard methods. Variety ICSV400 had the lowest TBG, WIBG and WSBG levels of 0.298 ± 0.054%, 0.196 ± 0.021% and 0.102 ± 0.015% in its raw samples and 0.187 ± 0.007%, 0.144 ± 0.004% and 0.043 ± 0.006% in malt samples, respectively. Variety SK5912 had the highest TBG, WIBG and WSBG levels of 0.376 ± 0.037%, 0.246 ± 0.03 and 0.130 ± 0.015% in its raw samples and the highest total mean WIBG of 0.167 ± 0.020% in its malt samples, respectively. Similarly, variety KSV8 had TBG and WIBG levels of 0.362 ± 0.035% and 0.233 ± 0.023% in its raw samples and the highest TBG and WSBG levels of 0.236 ± 0.030% and 0.076 ± 0.008% in its malt samples. The trend indicated that levels of β-glucan components in the sorghum varieties depended on their original levels in the raw grains and not on enzymic degradation during malting. However, more WSBG components (~30 – 65%) were degraded than its WIBG counterparts (~20 – 43%) across the sorghum varieties. Endo-β-(1→3:1→4)-glucanase levels in all the sorghum malt varieties consistently increased during the malting period. ICSV400 malts developed the highest total mean enzyme level of 13.122%, SK5912 had 11.207% level while KSV8 malts developed the least level of 8.568%. The effects of variety, germination time and variety plus germination time interaction on the TBG, WIBG and β-(1→3:1→4)-glucanase levels were significant (P ˂ 0.05). However, their effects on the WSBG levels of malt varieties were not significant. β-Glucan and β-glucanase levels in the sorghum grain and malt varieties significantly (P ˂ 0.05 and P ˂ 0.01) correlated with other malt quality parameters. On the basisof the results, variety ICSV400 is preferred as malting brewing raw material to SK5912 and KSV8 varieties
... TGW is the most important yield component as stated by Petr et al. (1979). The malting barley varieties divided into groups on the bases of TGW: >45 g big grain, 41 to 44 g medium grain, 37 to 40 g small grain (Kunze, 1996). The analysis combined over years revealed that TGW had no significant difference between years. ...
... The lack of moisture does not allow for the genetic traits of a variety to reveal and, 2005). Grading indicates proportionally, this part of the grain yield which remains to the 2.5 and 2.8 mm sieve (Kunze, 1996). This part is mainly used for malting. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was carried out in 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 seasons at the experimental area of Elazi{dotless}ǧǧ Agriculture Provincial Directorate in Turkey to investigate the genetic and environmental variation of grain yield and some quality traits of 21 barley cultivars. Grain yield, hectoliter weight (HLW), thousand grain weight (TGW), coarse grain and protein content were investigated in the trial. The analysis of the results showed that the highest grain yield was obtained from Balkan-96 variety (4790 kg ha-1), followed by Şahin-91 (4677.8 kg ha-1) and Aydanhani{dotless}m (4520.6 kg ha-1), the lowest one from Angora variety (3255.8 kg ha-1) under the agro ecological conditions of Elazi{dotless}ǧ region. There was a significant year x variety interaction for grain yield and protein content while HLW, TGW and coarse grain traits were not affected by year x variety interaction. Aydanhani{dotless}m and Orza-96 cultivars can be used as parents for improving new malting cultivars with higher TGW, HLW and coarse grain and low protein value, while Sahin-91 and Tokak-157/37 for new feeding cultivars.
... The soluble protein concentration in wort of three rice cultivars were clearly increased after adding Termamyl SC  ;whereas, FAN concentration in all rice wort were decreased by mean of more starch solubilization gained wort volume to dilute FAN. Thus, it's not only protease enzyme but also amylase enzyme influenced solubilization of protein from rice grist, since rice proteins are mainly located in endosperm [12]. The appropriate mashing program was formulated and evaluated for increasing rice/barley malt ratios. ...
... Moreover, Yano and colleague (2008) [11] reported barley adjunct could inhibit malt protease activity, particularly 1,10-(O-Phen)-inhibitable metallo preteinase and cystein proteinase that contributed to FAN level in adjunct wort. In case of rice, cystein proteinase inhibitor called oryzacystatin has been reported in rice seed to against nematode and stress condition [12] but never report its function in brewing process. Lei and colleague [13] studied changed of FAN composition by different commercial protease found that type of protease influenced FAN profile and assimilation by lager yeast strain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rice used as adjunct is limited because the relative lower soluble nitrogen compare with that of barely will dilute total nitrogenous substances in wort and beer. Therefore, modification of mashing method and Neutrase  addition were proposed to increase rice/barley malt ratio. Total protein contents of four rice cultivars determined by Kjeldahl method were in a range of 6.53-7.49% (w/w). Amount of Neutrase  and mashing time for increasing protein were determined by mashing at 52 ° C and found that increasing of mashing time increased soluble nitrogen and Free Alpha Amino Nitrogen (FAN) in wort more than 30% and 70%, respectively. The proper mashing time was 60 min and the appropriate amount of Neutrase  was 400 µl per 50 g rice. In addition, activation of Termamyl SC  at 95C for 20 min also influenced more solubilized protein in rice cooking step. Afterward, the appropriate mashing program was evaluated in various rice/barley malt ratios. The qualified wort contained at least 150 mg/L FAN were obtained from wort used rice up to 80% and had satisfied fermentation performance. Therefore, Neutrase  addition plus modification mashing method could be one solution for increasing rice/barley malt ratio.
... Finally, there are thermal operations like evaporation (wort boiling) and cooling. Up to 8 % of the wort is being evaporated (Kunze, 2010). Second major process within a brewery is the production of beer. ...
... This stage is called maturation. (Kunze, 2010). ...
Chapter
Holistic plant-wide modelling and simulation can be used as an advanced tool for decision making. Control and operational strategies and even different sets of equipment might be evaluated virtually. But plant-wide modelling is very demanding, as many models are based on a variety of state variables and different model types need to be included, which requires hybrid simulation modelling techniques. This work shows a new approach for hybrid plant-wide modelling, which is based on Reference nets (a special type of Petri nets), Java programming language, embedded SQL databases, object-oriented modelling and a model coupling concept called Balance flows. It was developed and tested within a research project evaluating water and energy management in breweries.
... V případě kvašení piva typu " ale " mohou být kvasnice nasazeny do mladiny o teplotě až 25 °C. Pokud kvasí piva ležáckého typu, tato teplota se pohybuje na nižší hranici, a to od 8 do 13 °C [8]. Je také známo, že teplota kvasnic sedimentovaných v kónusu CKT není zcela uniformní a dosahuje poměrně vysokých hodnot ve větší vzdálenosti od chladicího povrchu kónusu, přičemž rozdíl mezi teplotou v těsné blízkosti [10] roč. ...
... Živným médiem při rozmnožování pivovarských kvasinek je sterilní vychlazená mladina, která může být přiživena rozpustnými solemi některých kovů. Během propagace dochází k jistým fluorescenčními metodami popsatelným změnám ve fyziologickém stavu a struktuře kvasničné populace [8, 15]. V posledním desetiletí se mnoho autorů zabývalo sledováním buněčného cyklu [16, 17], apoptosou [18], změnami ve viabilitě [19], změnami povrchových bílkovinných struktur [20] a sacharidů [21] . ...
Article
Full-text available
The article summarises the information on the effect of stress factors on brewing yeast during propagation, fermentation and storage.Close attention is paid to the overview of the most frequently used fluorescent optical methods for monitoring of these changes. The article summarises the information on the effect of stress factors on brewing yeast during propagation, fermentation and storage.Close attention is paid to the overview of the most frequently used fluorescent optical methods for monitoring of these changes.
... CO 2 dissolves in the beer according to Henry's law. The dissolution is accompanied by reactions of CO 2 with molecules contained in the beer, which has an effect on CO 2 solubility (Kunze, 2014). During the dissolution of CO 2 in water a following equilibrium is formed (Deckers, 2013;Deckers et al., 2010;Deckers et al., 2013): ...
... Theoretically, in open fermenters, CO 2 bubbles coated with hydrophobins are entrained into the foam formed during the first days of the main fermentation. As the fermentation enters its most intensive stage the foam has brown caps, which is collected at the end of the fermentation (Kunze, 2014). If hydrophobins are present at this stage of beer production, they could be collected together with foam before it collapses. ...
... Prerequisite for successful storage of malt is to keep highly hygroscopic malt cool and dry to avoid excessive intake of water. If the moisture content remains below 4%, malt can be stored under appropriate conditions for several months (Kreisz, 2009;Kunze, 2014;MacLeod, 2004). Generally, malts have moisture content below 5% and such content is not very favorable for fibrous micromycetes or insect pests. ...
... The variability of malt components during its storage depends mainly on temperature and water activity. Both of these factors should be as low as to preserve high quality of malt (Basařová, 2015;Kunze, 2014). The aim of this experiment was to evaluate, how the malting barley grain and malt quality may be altered by long-term storage. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the grain samples of five malting barley varieties harvested in 2011, the amount of basic components as well as physiological characteristics of barley were determined. These samples were micromalted and resulting malt was analyzed mainly according to the European Brewery Convention (EBC) and the Mitteleuropäische Brautechnische Analysenkommission (MEBAK) methodologies. The same samples of malting barley grain and also samples of malt were placed in polyethylene bags, from which the air was exhausted and they were further stored at 4 °C until 2016. In 2016, grain and malt samples were subjected to the same analyses as in 2011. Results were statistically evaluated by t-test of dependent samples. Most of the monitored parameters has remained at the same level as in 2011 or has slightly improved. The exception was statistically very highly significant decrease (P ≤ 0.001) of friability and increase of amount of whole and partly unmodified grains. Under conditions described, long-term storage of malting barley grain has not significantly negatively affected its germination. Long-term storage of malt has had not a significant negative impact on its quality too.
... Saflager W-34/70 yeast, beer hopped wort with the concentration of 14, 16 and 18 % CP and distillates of young beer were the research objects. Procedures of yeast cultivation, high gravity wort fermentation and determination of by-products content in young beer distillates were described in[12].Alcoholic, winy, solventlikeNotes: a – M. Meilgaard[5], b – Y. Tan[13], c – H. Miedaner[14], d – T. Barnes[15], e –L. Narziß[16], g – B. Hivrych[17]. ...
... where C is the concentration of the substance causing a flavor and T is a sensitivity threshold of human receptors before the appearance of this substance in beer. Threshold values for flavor substances recommended by the authors[5,[13][14][15][16][17]and taken for the calculations in this study are shown inTable 2. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of main fermentation temperature on a young beer taste has been studied within the range of 282-292 K for high-gravity wort with the concentration of 14-18 % dry matter. The taste is formed by aromatics - the by-products of fermentation: acetaldehyde, vicinal diketones, n-propanol, n-butanol, i-butanol, 2-methylbutanol, 3-methyl butanol, ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. © Kosiv R., Kharandiuk T., Polyuzhyn L., Palianytsia L., Berezovska N., 2017.
... Some parameters such as temperature, solvent type, extraction time and enzymatic treatment can influence the yield and structural characteristics of soluble β-glucans (Ahmad et al., 2012;Bhatty, 1993;Izydorczyk, Storsley, Labossiere, MacGregor, & Rossnagel, 2000). Ideally barley malt used for beer production should have low levels of β-glucans, low viscosity, high extractability, friability, and diastatic power, as well as a low level of total nitrogen and an average level of soluble nitrogen (Kunze, 2004). During malting β-glucans are degraded by the action of endo-β-glucanase into soluble compounds (Wang, Zhang, Chen, & Wu, 2004) but little is known about the structural and molecular weight changes during this process. ...
... Some parameters such as temperature, solvent type, extraction time and enzymatic treatment can influence the yield and structural characteristics of soluble β-glucans (Ahmad et al., 2012;Bhatty, 1993;Izydorczyk, Storsley, Labossiere, MacGregor, & Rossnagel, 2000). Ideally barley malt used for beer production should have low levels of β-glucans, low viscosity, high extractability, friability, and diastatic power, as well as a low level of total nitrogen and an average level of soluble nitrogen (Kunze, 2004). During malting β-glucans are degraded by the action of endo-β-glucanase into soluble compounds (Wang, Zhang, Chen, & Wu, 2004) but little is known about the structural and molecular weight changes during this process. ...
Article
In the beer industry β-glucans are extensively studied non-starch polysaccharides due to their ability to increase the viscosity of solutions and to form gels. The current study was designed to determine the total and watersoluble β-glucan contents of barley during malting. Total and water-soluble β-glucans were analyzed from two different malts that originated from the same barley but varied in germination time from 36 h (malt A) to 72 h (malt B). Water-soluble β-glucanswere also characterized using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with triple-detector analysis (HPSEC-TDA) to evaluate the variation in molecular weight distributions, intrinsic viscosity, radius of gyration, Mark–Houwink parameters and polydispersity and thus the overall structural changes during malting. Total β-glucan content decreased from barley to malt due to the action of β- glucanase and was greatest in malt B (where 92% of β-glucans were degraded) which highlights the influence of germination time. β-Glucan solubility increased during malting, again particularly in malt B, where most of β-glucans became soluble. The β-glucanase activity also affected the molecular weight of the polymers which ranged from 298 · 103 g/mol in barley to 293 · 103 and 218 · 103 g/mol in malts A and B respectively. The molar mass of the most abundant fraction decreased from barley (256 · 103 g/mol) to malt A (112 · 103 g/mol) and malt B (89 · 103 g/mol), again highlighting the effect of the longer germination time. Proceeding from barley to malt, the cumulative molar mass distribution function confirmed that the weight fraction of polymers below 200 · 103 g/mol increased, while the high molecular weight fraction (between 200 · 103 g/mol and 400 · 103 g/mol) decreased. Moreover, the presence of a higher molecular weight fraction (14–16%) beyond 400 · 103 g/mol which does not change during malting was observed. The Mark–Houwink constants α and log k confirmed the random coil conformation of soluble β-glucans and showed an increase in the compactness of the macromolecules from barley to malts.
... The target values of residual DMS in wort were fixed at 30, 50, and 100 ppb because the supported values in the literature were from 30 to 100 ppb (7,8,19,21). Using Scientific Workplace 5.5 and Sigmaplot 13.0 software, the Mitani equations were solved and the different times to reach the targets were assessed. ...
Article
Full-text available
The response surface methodology, using the central composite design as a tool for modeling, was used to study the impact of two parameters (power supply and boiling time) and their effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) removal during wort boiling, when applying delayed onset of boiling. It was observed that the two parameters were significantly impacting the DMS removal with a 21% contribution for power supply and a 58% contribution for the boiling time (P = 0.000 for both). The interaction of the two factors was also significant (P = 0.008) with a contribution of 7%. With the S-methyl methionine conversion to DMS following the pseudo first-order kinetics reaction, k1 was computed as 0.0054 min-1, and the values of k2 were between 0.0151 and 0.407 min-1. After several statistical analyses, we learned that the results coming from the theoretical equations for DMS removal at each studied power supply were not significantly different from the experimental value obtained in the laboratory, validated by the use of these equations. The time spent to reach the residual DMS target of 30, 50, and 100 ppb was 141-377, 94-295, and 60-197 min, respectively, and the energy used to reach the same target was 11.31-12.69, 8.46-8.85, and 5.40-5.91 MJ, respectively.
... Barley is a temperate cereal and does not thrive on African soil because of the unfavorable climatic condition. It is therefore imported by African brewers for brewing; however, skyrocketing prices due to strong global demand and high shipping costs have forced a re-think by most African countries to invest in other cereals as a malting substitute (Wolfgang, 2004). Nigerian government as a means of conserving its foreign exchange banned the importation of barley which forced local breweries to look at alternative indigenous cereals as a replacement for malted barley (Goode et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Barley which is the main cereal for brewing beer is imported into most African countries by brewing companies; this comes at cost and also affects the cost of production. To address these problems and also to improve the income of African farmers, a lot of interest has been generated in the use of sorghum as substitute for barley. Brewing solely with sorghum comes with a lot of challenges due to the low level of í µí»¼ − and í µí»½ −amylases in the malt. To improve the saccharification, sorghum malt was augmented with 30% rice malt, sweet potato, soya bean and barley malt as enzyme sources. Dorado, the sorghum variety that was used was malted, dried and mailed into grits. The mailed sorghum malt was mixed with the various enzyme sources and the hot water extracted (mashed) using 100% barley as the control. The saccharification rate, extracts (%), extract yield (%), limit attenuation (%) at 24 and 48 hours and pH of the worts was determined. The diastatic power (°WK) of sorghum malt, rice malt, barley malt, sweet potato and soya beans were also determined. Sorghum mash converted when augmented with 30% rice and barley malt and sweet potato while that of soya beans and 100% sorghum showed partial conversion. One way ANOVA of the diastatic power, extract and the limit attenuation showed a significant difference between the samples and the control at 95% confidence level. It was thus concluded that, sorghum mash will saccharify when augmented with 30% supplementary enzymes from barley malt, rice malt and sweet potato.
... Nowadays, to meet the present-day consumer's preference for freshness, the brewing industry has increased its production of unpasteurized beer using membrane filtration techniques. In this draft beer category, sterile filtration is used to physically remove microorganisms to ensure microbiological stability but without conferral of thermal tainting by heat treatment (Kunze 2004). However, there is the potential risk of possible penetration by comparatively small microorganisms even though the pore size of the membrane filter has been reduced to the recommended level (Back 1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
To meet consumer demands for fresher and healthier foods, the pasteurization of beer has largely been replaced by membrane filtration methods. Research on beer spoilage caused by hop-resistant bacteria is thus of great interest. In this context, we have isolated a beer-spoilage strain of bacteria from turbid bottled beer treated by membrane filter sterilization, which we identified as Bacillus cereus strain 3012. Strain 3012 was able to produce acids and bioamines, resulting in a change in the flavor profile of the beer. Unlike other known strains of B. cereus, this isolate was resistant to hop compounds present in the beer and was in an evolutionarily stable state in terms of hop resistance. Our results suggest that this hop-resistant B. cereus strain 3012 is a foodborne pathogen with the potential to cause beer-spoilage incidents in the brewing industry.
... Fermentation may be done in stainless steel tanks, which is common with many white wines like Riesling, in an open wooden vat, inside a wine barrel and inside the wine bottle itself as in the production of many sparkling wines. [3] [4] Fermentation is a cheap and energy efficient means of preserving perishable raw materials such as pineapple juice [5]. Harvested fruits may undergo rapid deterioration if proper processing and storage facilities are not provided, especially in the humid tropics where the prevailing environmental conditions accelerate the process of decomposition [6].Although there are several options for preserving fresh fruits, which may include drying, freezing, canning and pickling, many of these are inappropriate for the produce and for use on smallscale in developing countries. ...
Article
Full-text available
This Study Was Aimed At Investigating The Suitability Of Two Fruits (Pineapple And Soursop) As Substrates For Wine Production And The Efficiency Of Yeast Isolated From Palm Wine For Alcoholic Fermentation Of Fruits. During Fermentation Aliquot Samples Were Removed Daily From The Fermentation Tank For Analysis Of Ph, Temperature, Alcohol Content And Reducing Sugars, Using Standard Procedures. Ph Of The Fruit “Must” During The Period Of Fermentation Ranged From 4.91 To 4.25. During The Fermentation Period, Consistent Increase In Alcohol Content Was Observed With Time. At The End Of 7days Fermentation, The Concentration Of Alcohol In The Fruit Wine Was Observed To Be 4.6%.The Reducing Sugar Content Of The Wine Was Observed To Be 0.2632. During The Course Of The Fermentation, The Titrable Acidity Of The Wine Was Observed To Show A Steady Trend With Time. Based On The Level Of The Nutritional Composition Of Pineapple And Soursop Juice, Their Relative Affordability, Their Ability To Support Yeast Growth, The High Alcoholic Content And Palatability Of The Wine Produced, This Study Showed That Acceptable Wine Can Be Produced From Mixed Fruits Of Pineapple (Ananas Comosus) And Soursop (Annona Muricata). Keywords:Wine, Yeast, Fruits, Fermentation, Alcoholic Beverages
... Cereal origin wastes represent a potential source of bioactive molecules, including proteins, polysaccharides, antioxidants, minerals, lipids and vitamins. Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the brewing industry, representing around 85% of the total generated waste (Kunze, 1996;Niemi et al., 2012). This insoluble residue generated from the production of wort is composed of the barley malt residual constituents and includes the barley grain husk, but also minor fractions of pericarp and fragments of endosperm (Mussatto, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade by-products of food and beverage processing have attracted much attention due to their functionality and potential as food ingredients. Brewers’ spent grain is the major by-product of the brewing industry representing a valuable source of bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extraction time and temperature on the efficiency of water as solvent for the extraction of bioactive compounds from brewers’ spent grain (BSG). In terms of extraction efficiency, the results from polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, showed that the best extraction parameters for aqueous extracts are 90⁰C and 60 minutes. In comparison with the control, the best extraction method generated 87% of the phenolics and 43.46% of the flavonoids obtained by a methanol extraction. The preliminary results for the aqueous extracts showed that water can be used as extraction solvent, but a higher extraction time and temperature are needed in order to have a content in bioactive compounds similar to that of methanolic extracts. The obtained values for polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, emphasize the importance and the opportunities of the reuse of this agro-industrial waste.
... We focus here on spent grain, and to a lesser extent spent yeast, which are the major organic wastes or residues in the brewing industry. Spent grain represents approximately 85% of the total by-products from brewing and a large volume of spent grain is generated in the brewing process, around 20 kg per hectolitre of beer produced (Musasatto et al, 2006;Kunze, 2010). It is produced in large amounts, estimated at 38.6 million tons a year globally (Mussatto, 2014;Lynch et al, 2016), and it is available all year (Vieira et al, 2016) and at low costs (ibid;Buffington, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A key factor for the advancement of the circular bioeconomy and hence more sustainable patterns of consumption and production is the capture and valorization of organic residues from industry. In the brewing industry, the large quantities of brewer's spent grain have spurred interest in developing various valorization pathways as an alternative to the traditional use of spent grain as animal feed. Spent grain has high contents of protein and other nutritional assets and has potential as a feedstock in various industries, including food and nutrition, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biofuels. Yet company decisions on how to manage organic residues concern not only technical possibilities but are also influenced by economic, supply chain, and regulatory aspects as well as company-specific and industry-wide corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and initiatives. On this background, this paper investigates the use of organic residues in brewing value chains and the connections to a broader set of sustainability issues important for the transition to a more sustainable industry. The overall research question is: How do value chain attributes including company attributes, cost structures, CSR strategies, supply chain linkages, and product and market characteristics affect the management of spent grain? We address this question through a comparative case study of 32 breweries in Denmark and Norway using a value chain approach and drawing on the literature on sustainable competitive advantage.
... Values of "Prob>F" less than 0.0500 indicate model terms are significant. In this case size and combination of temperature and size are significant model terms [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. The conductivity of the juice helding temperature and time constant at 70°C and 3 minute with a least significant difference of 93.161 at 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm was 372.5 µS/cm and 594.25 5 µS/ cm respectivelly as shown in Figure 6, on this graph at 3.6c and 3.6d helding temperature and time constant at 80°C and 3 minute with a least significant difference of 93.161 at 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm was 424.255 µS/cm and 445.75 respectivelly. ...
Article
The study was conducted to produce and characterize juice from kebezo finger millet. Finger millet is one of the important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa being best grows in low rain fall about 500-1000 mm. The production of finger millet in developing countries is about 97% of the total world production. It is also rich in vitamins, protein, minerals and carbohydrates. Thus, this research needs to produce and characterize flavored and tasty kebezo finger millet juice. The finger millet was collected from Gulomukada wereda with complete randomization sampling technique. The proximate composition of kebezo finger millet was investigated using the methods cited on international standard organizations and association of American chemists. The germination effect on the functional properties such as water absorption capacity, bulk density and swelling power was conducted and the final quality of the products was confirmed by sensory evaluation using nine point hedonic scales with ten panelists. The experimental design was designed using randomized block design to investigate the effects of temperature, time and flour size on quality attributes of the product such as viscosity, PH, density and conductivity. The result showed that, the average proximate compositions such as moisture, ash, protein, crude fat, dietary fiber and total carbohydrate of kebezo finger millet of 7.16, 2.49, 7.18, 1.43, 14.44 and 67.3% respectively. The water absorption capacity, bulk density and swelling power of kebezo finger millet with germination hours of 0, 24, 48, 72 showed that 38.89, 74.575, 78.84 and 84.85%; 0.83 g/ml, 0.76 g/ml, 0.73 g/ml and 0.72 g/ml and 6.15 ml, 4.45 ml, 4.15 ml and 3.75 ml respectively. Products produce with 0.7 mm flour size at 80°C cooked for 6 minutes operating conditions colored with sunset yellow food colorant and flavored with The study was conducted to produce and characterize juice from kebezo finger millet. Finger millet is one of the important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa being best grows in low rain fall about 500-1000 mm. The production of finger millet in developing countries is about 97% of the total world production. It is also rich in vitamins, protein, minerals and carbohydrates.Thus, this research needs to produce and characterize flavored and tasty kebezo finger millet juice. The finger millet was collected from Gulomukada wereda with complete randomization sampling technique. The proximate composition of kebezo finger millet was investigated using the methods cited on international standard organizations and association of American chemists. The germination effect on the functional properties such as water absorption capacity, bulk density and swelling power was conducted and the final quality of the products was confirmed by sensory evaluation using nine point hedonic scales with ten panelists. The experimental design was designed using randomized block design to investigate the effects of temperature, time and flour size on quality attributes of the product such as viscosity, PH, density and conductivity. The result showed that, the average proximate compositions such as moisture, ash, protein, crude fat, dietary fiber and total carbohydrate of kebezo finger millet of 7.16, 2.49, 7.18, 1.43, 14.44 and 67.3% respectively. The water absorption capacity, bulk density and swelling power of kebezo finger millet with germination hours of 0, 24, 48, 72 showed that 38.89, 74.575, 78.84 and 84.85%; 0.83 g/ml, 0.76 g/ml, 0.73 g/ml and 0.72 g/ml and 6.15 ml, 4.45 ml, 4.15 ml and 3.75 ml respectively. Products produce with 0.7 mm flour size at 80°C cooked for 6 minutes operating conditions colored with sunset yellow food colorant and flavored with orange food flavor was become very viscous and get best overall acceptability by panelists with an overall acceptability of 8. Finally it can be concluded that cooking at (70-80)°C for (3-6) minute for the mixture of 100 g of 0.7 mm size flour and 500 ml boiled water and at the end of cooking blending with 15 gram of mango powder flavor, 180 ml of burned sugar solution and 6 gram of korarima flavored and tasty juice can drink and get all the nutritional values of finger millet.
Article
Full-text available
A large amount of agro-industrial waste is produced annually around the world from the beneficiated agricultural products or in food industrialization. The disposal of these residues in the environment results in a lot of inconvenience to the ecosystem, due to its significant nutritional value and high concentration of organic compounds that confers a high biochemical oxygen demand to the waste’s degradation. In this context, brewing industry is among these activities, which includes in its production stages the processing and fermentation of vegetable feedstock, such as barley malt and other grains, and hops, generating several by-products. Many factors, such as environmental policies, possible scarcity of non-renewable sources, and problems related to the improper use of renewable raw materials, leads to the development of new processes that could generate less waste or reused those produced in order to add greater value to the residue. This article presents a review of the solid wastes in brewing industry, which are the brewer spent grain, the hot trub, the residual yeast and the diatomaceous earth, describing how they are obtained in the brewery process, their characterization and chemical composition, and the potential applications in bioprocesses technologies. The main fraction common to all revised waste is the protein fraction, in addition to various constituents of interest, such as minerals, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. The main current applications are in the area of animal feed and human nutrition.
Chapter
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the cereal crop with the widest range of production areas in the world. Compared to other cereals, barley is fourth in world production behind maize (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and rice (Oryza sativa L.). Barley has many uses, including livestock feed and forage, human food, and malt beverages. Barley to be used for malting must meet specifications for germination, kernel size and weight, grain protein, activity of several enzymes, and many other traits. Barley for livestock and human food uses has much fewer restrictions, but they are also critical in cultivar utilization. Likewise, quality traits for barley used as forage are less well-defined, but they are important in cultivar acceptance. This chapter outlines the different types of barley (e.g. six- vs. two-rowed and malting vs. feed), items to consider when choosing parents for crossing, current goals barley breeders, major breeding achievements, an example of a breeding scheme for developing malting barley cultivars, examples of integration of biotechnology methods into breeding programs, and issues related to cultivar release and intellectual property protection.
Article
Full-text available
The whirlpool separator, used for hot trub separation, is prevalent in the brewing industry. It is a kind of a hydrocyclone inside of which a tea leaf effect occurs, which is sediment accumulation into a cone shape at the central part of the tank’s bottom. This manner of sediment accumulation is caused by the secondary flow occurring in the so-called Ekman boundary layer. This article is a summary of the research, which has been conducted for many years and involved observation, simulation and experimental research on the recognition and formation of the secondary flow accumulating the sediment cone. Secondary flows occurring in a whirlpool were identified through CFD simulation and PIV experiments, and are presented in this paper. Based on their location and direction, an attempt to determine their impact on the separation process taking place in the whirlpool has been made. The secondary flow identification methods proposed in this paper can be successfully applied in other solutions, e. g. structural ones, which involve rotational-flow-based separation.
Article
Pito is a traditional fermented beverage produced from malted sorghum or millet grains. Steeping is usually performed at 30°C. Limited information exists on the effect of temperature on the characteristics of the malted grains and the Pito. The aim of this work was to study the effect of varying the steeping temperature (30, 35 or 40°C) on the quality of malt and of the Pito brewed from Kadaga sorghum and to specifically determine the diastatic power, extract yield and attenuation limit of the malt. Total soluble solids, pH and alcohol content, as well as the sensory evaluation of the Pito brewed at both 40 and 30°C were assessed. Results from analysis showed that the 40°C malts had the highest diastatic power (88.1 SDU/g), extract yield (96.75% d.m.) and attenuation limit (78.95%). Pito produced from malt steeped at 40°C yielded a significantly higher alcohol content of 3.54 g/100 g, a total soluble solids of 4.34 and a pH of 3.57 and this Pito was preferred over the traditionally prepared Pito at the steeping temperature of 30°C. Therefore steeping sorghum at 40°C yields a quality malt and a quality Pito. This study should aid in the adoption of sorghum for brewing purposes. Copyright © 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling
Article
Full-text available
Brewing high quality beer efficiently requires good quality malt for conventional malt brewing or good quality barley for barley brewing with the Ondea Pro enzyme system. The potential brewing performance of both malt and barley were compared by using two similar small-scale mashing protocols, both variations on the EBC-Congress mashing protocol, which produced wort of a similar gravity and fermentability. This was achieved by mashing 93 different malt samples with the "Final 65°C" protocol and 137 different barley samples with the barley brewing protocol. The two different mash grist sources provided an opportunity to compare and contrast these two alternative brewing systems. Overall, barley brewing with Ondea Pro produces slightly lower levels of extract, while fermentability levels were somewhat lower than malt mashed with the Final 65°C protocol but comparable with the fermentability previously observed for malt mashed with the EBC-Congress protocol. For barley brewing, high levels of fermentability, comparable with the level achieved with malt (Congress protocol), result from the selection of the appropriate quality barley for brewing. Typically, barley from malting or food grade varieties that contain the highly thermostable Sd2H β-amylase type produced the highest levels of extract and fermentability. In addition, barley brewing assessment of samples from two subsequent growing seasons produced higher extracts that were equivalent to that achieved with malt, indicating a potential seasonal impact. The worts produced by both brewing systems were of similar pH and contained similar levels of Bradford protein. The barley brewed wort did have substantially higher levels of wort lipid (measured as total fatty acids) and lower levels of FAN, although previous investigations and our results suggest that this does not adversely impact yeast fermentation performance. With respect to wort filtering and lautering efficiency, barley brewed mashes/worts were substantially superior due to reduced wort viscosity and lower β-glucan content. This was despite the higher levels of wort lipid, presumably fatty acids, observed in barley brewed wort. With both malt and barley brewing, wort lipid levels were positively correlated with wort haze but were negatively correlated with lautering and wort filtration efficiency. These observations suggest that variation in the level of lipase activity in malt could potentially impact wort filtration and lautering efficiency. Malt and barley characteristics that potentially predict extract, fermentability, FAN, wort filterability, and lautering efficiency were assessed by step-wise multi-linear regression analysis and discussed. Overall, barley brewing was shown to be reproducible, efficient, and generally comparable to conventional malt brewing. The contrast between these two brewing strategies potentially identifies barley and malt quality parameters worthy of further study to improve brewing efficiency, and product quality, from both production systems.
Article
This paper describes the development of a new technique that utilizes α-glucosidase to apply parallel fermentation to high gravity brewing. The addition of α-glucosidase at pitching to high gravity wort, whose original extract was 20% Plato or 25% Plato, prevented large increases in glucose concentration during fermentation owing to the glycosyltransfer reaction caused by this enzyme. The effect increased the attenuation degree of the beer and lowered the concentration of acetic acid in the beer.
Article
Full-text available
Malting and brewing processes should be performed under process conditions in a way that minimizes beer bitterness, maximizes polyphenol content and reduces the amount of raw materials ending up in solution in the form of hazes, particles and precipitates. This work examined the influence of different mashing temperature conditions and boiling procedures on the total polyphenol content, bitterness and haze of pale and dark lager beers produced on an industrial scale. Two hop types (hop pellets and/or hop extract) and different hop varieties (Hallertau Magnum, Styrian Goldings, Saaz, Aurora and Sladek) were utilized with varying times of hop addition into the wort. Measurements of total polyphenols, colour, bitterness, alcohol content, CO2 and pH were carried out on the beer samples. Results showed that pale lager beers had a lower total polyphenol concentration (110–179 mg/L) than dark beers (230–260 mg/L). Using hop extracts instead of hop pellets led to a lower total polyphenol concentration and to less beer foam creation. The change in the proteolytic temperature during mashing only had an influence on the total polyphenol content in the pale lager beer hopped with the pellets. Conducting proteolysis over a 20 min period led to a haze increase in all of the beers produced. In the dark beer, the haze was substantial after just 10 min at 52°C. Copyright © 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling
Article
Two Australian (Buloke and Commander) and two Canadian (CDC Meredith and Bentley) barley varieties were grown under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 20, 40 and 80 kg ha−1). Barley samples were assessed by barley brewing with the Ondea Pro enzyme cocktail for mashing analysis and were compared with typical malt brewing quality specifications. The study observed that increased nitrogen fertilization resulted in increased barley kernel nitrogen content which significantly impacted a range of wort quality parameters including increased soluble nitrogen, free amino nitrogen and barley beta‐amylase level, but also reduced extract, barley Kolbach index, β‐glucan and colour. Increased grain nitrogen had relatively little effect on apparent attenuation limit, lautering and barley limit dextrinase level. Knowledge of the effects of interactions between barley of different qualities (e.g. nitrogen content) and the Ondea Pro enzymes on wort quality will result in enhanced barley to directly and efficiently brew good quality beer, to better satisfy the quality expectations of brewers. Copyright © 2018 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This study was aimed at deepening knowledge on the social superiority based on the functionality and healthiness of burukutu opaque beverage, brewed with four cereals (sorghum, millet; maize and composite materials of the three cereals in equal ratio). Whereas sorghum-based burukutu beverage samples gave the highest levels of carbohydrate (24.04 ± 0.02%), ascorbic acid (0.15 ± 0.00 μg/100 g), magnesium (25.14 ± 0.03 mg/100 g), iron (4.17 ± 0.01 μg/100 g), and sodium (1.58 ± 0.02 mg/100 g); total fat (5.06 ± 0.02%), Ca2+ (3.96 ± 0.02 mg/100 g) and Mn2+ (4.71 ± 0.03 mg/100 g) varied the highest in millet-based burukutu beverage samples. Similarly, crude protein (15.14 ± 0.01%), total fibre (2.88 ± 0.31%) and ash (4.30 ± 0.02%) levels were highest in the maize-based burukutu samples while vitamin A precursors: β-carotene (1.89 ± 0.02 μg/100 g) and retinol (1.21 ± 0.01 μg/100 g) levels were highest in the composite material-based burukutu samples. However, variations in nutrient composition and caloric value amongst all samples were not significantly (p < 0.05) different. The study revealed that the indigenous African traditional burukutu opaque beverage is a healthy beverage which contains some functional phytochemical ingredients that can prevent the onset of certain chronic degenerative diseases including hypertension. On the basis of its nutrient composition, burukutu, therefore, is a superior traditional beverage that should be conferred some form of high social status. Keywords: Beverage; Burukutu; Cereals; Functionality; Healthiness; Nutrients; Phytochemical
Article
Full-text available
The effects of variety and germination time on β-glucan components - total β-glucan (TBG), water insoluble β-glucan (WIBG) and water soluble β-glucan (WSBG) and β-glucanase (BG) levels - before and after malting in improved sorghum varieties SK5912, KSV8 and ICSV400 and their relationships to wort specific viscosity (SV) were studied. This study was part of efforts to aid local malting and brewing industries in the application of sorghum varieties that are abundantly available to reduce costs. At the fifth day of germination, variety ICSV400 had the lowest TBG, WIBG and WSBG levels in its raw and malt samples. Variety SK5912 had the highest TBG, WIBG and WSBG levels in its raw samples, while variety KSV8 had the highest levels of TBG, WIBG and WSBG in its malt samples. Similarly, variety ICSV400 malts developed the highest BG levels, while the KSV8 malts gave the lowest level. The effect of variety, germination time and variety×germination time interaction was significant (p < 0.05) on the TBG, WIBG and BG levels and was not significant on the WSBG levels. Weak and significant correlation of TBG levels with SV (0.25, p<0.05 for SK5912; 0.24, p<0.05 for KSV8; and 0.31, p<0.05 for ICSV400) was observed in all the samples, suggesting that the low β-glucan levels may not be primarily and solely responsible for any viscosity impediments associated with sorghum worts during run-off. With improvement in the effective utilization of sorghum, ICSV400 appeared the most suitable variety for malting and brewing in Nigeria.
Chapter
Barley is one of the oldest domesticated food sources and currently a widely adopted cereal crop. Compared to other crops it is less demanding with regard to environmental conditions and is economically viable with lower input and easier agronomic management. Currently barley is grown on 48 million hectares in moderate, continental, and subtropical climates. It is used for animal feeding, for the production of beer and spirits, and directly in human diet. In different geographic regions, different types of barley are preferred. There are spring and winter barleys in both six- and two-rowed ear types. Breeding is targeted for the different usages and environments. The use of modern technologies has accelerated the recent breeding schemes, giving potential for faster releases of new varieties meeting the demands of today’s agricultural market. Worldwide use of barley for feed and food is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future.
Article
The impact of using different combinations of unmalted barley, Ondea Pro® and barley malt in conjunction with a 35% rice adjunct on mashing performance was examined in a series of small scale mashing trials. The objective was to identify the potential optimal levels and boundaries for the mashing combinations of barley, Ondea Pro®, malt and 35% rice (BOMR) that might apply in commercial brewing. Barley and malt samples used for the trials were selected from a range of Australian commercial barley and malt samples following evaluation by small-scale mashing. This investigation builds on previous studies in order to adapt the technology to brewing styles common in Asia, where the use of high levels of rice adjunct is common. Mashing with the rice adjunct, combined with differing proportions of barley, Ondea Pro® and malt, resulted in higher extract levels than were observed for reference mashing, using either 100% malt reference or 100% barley reference and Ondea Pro® enzymes. Synergistic mashing effects between barley, Ondea Pro® and malt were observed for mash quality and efficiency parameters, particularly wort fermentability. The optimum levels of barley in the grist (with the relative level of Ondea Pro®) were assessed to be in the range 45-55% when paired with 10-20% malt and 35% rice. When the proportion of malt was reduced below 10% of the grist, substantial reductions in wort quality were observed for wort quality parameters including extract, lautering, fermentability, free amino nitrogen and haze. Extension of this new approach to brewing with rice adjuncts will benefit from further research into barley varietal selection in order to better meet brewer's quality requirements for the finished beer.
Article
Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre-treatment for barley to remove some of its undesired components, while maintaining its β-amylase activity. The potential of combining pearling with using barley/malt mixtures for brewing was studied. Filtration was performed either in a mash filter or in a lauter tun. The effects of the different barley/malt ratios, degree of pearling and two different filter types on compositional and quality parameters were assessed. It was concluded that a mash filter is optimal for this type of process, and a window of operation could be identified in which optimal use is made of the raw materials while maintaining the end product quality, judged on basis of four quality parameters.
Article
BACKGROUND This study provides the first detailed investigation into the effect of partially substituting barley malt with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) on the characteristics of wort and beer. Quinoa seeds and flakes were compared in terms of their suitability for brewing. The benefits of applying a commercial enzyme mixture during beer production with quinoa were also investigated. RESULTS These findings show that quinoa is a good starchy raw‐material for brewing. Even without exogenous enzymes, it is possible to substitute barley malt with up to 30% quinoa. The form in which quinoa is used has a negligible influence on the quality of the wort and beer. The foam stability of beer made with quinoa was better than that of all‐malt beer, despite there being a lower level of soluble nitrogen in quinoa beer in comparison with all‐malt beer and more than twice the amount of fat in quinoa in comparison to barley malt. CONCLUSION The addition of unmalted quinoa does not give unpleasant characteristics to the beer and was even found to have a positive effect on its overall sensory quality. This offers brewers an opportunity to develop good beers with new sensory characteristics.
Article
Full-text available
de Der Läuterprozess ist die Fest/flüssig‐Trennung einer Suspension. Die internationale Brauindustrie setzt für diese Aufgabe überwiegend Maischefilter oder Läuterbottiche ein. Verfahrenstechnisch handelt es sich dabei um eine Kombination aus Siebfiltration und Tiefenfiltration, wobei insbesondere beim Läuterbottich die Tiefenfiltration überwiegt. Beide Verfahren sind technisch hochentwickelt und brautechnologisch spezialisiert. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über den Status quo der Läutertechnik hinsichtlich Konstruktion und Leistungsfähigkeit sowie ihrer jeweiligen Einflussnahme auf die Bierbereitung. Abschließend werden zukünftige Forschungs‐ und Entwicklungsziele in der Läuterarbeit aufgezeigt und zur Diskussion gestellt. Abstract en The lautering process is the solid‐liquid separation of a suspension. For this purpose, the international brewing industry mainly uses mash filters or lauter tuns. From a process‐technological point of view, this process involves a combination of screen filtration and deep‐bed filtration, whereas the deep‐bed filtration mainly prevails in the lauter tun. Both are technically sophisticated and technologically specialized processes. The article provides an overview of the status quo of lautering technology in terms of design and performance as well as their respective influence on the beer production. Finally, future research and development objectives regarding the lautering process are presented and put up for discussion.
Article
Full-text available
A study on the kinetics of alcohol fermentation for the production of beer with free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae Safbrew S-33 cells was conducted using three kinetic models. The process was best described by Monod model with product and substrate inhibition. The kinetic parameters showed a less pronounced impact on ester and higher alcohol accumulation, and enhanced influence of immobilization on carbonyl compound dynamics in beer. The profile of substrate and product concentration changes in the capsules were determined as well.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of variety and germination time on ß-glucan components – total ß-glucan (TBG), water insoluble ß-glucan (WIBG) and water soluble ß-glucan (WSBG) and ß-glucanase (BG) levels – before and after malting in improved sorghum varieties SK5912, KSV8 and ICSV400 and their relationships to wort specific viscosity (SV) were studied. This study was part of efforts to aid local malting and brewing industries in the application of sorghumvarieties that are abundantly available to reduce costs. At the fifth day of germination, variety ICSV400 had the lowest TBG, WIBG and WSBG levels in its raw and malt samples. Variety SK5912 had the highest TBG, WIBG and WSBG levels in its raw samples, while variety KSV8 had the highest levels of TBG, WIBG and WSBG in its malt samples. Similarly, variety ICSV400 malts developed the highest BG levels, while the KSV8 malts gave the lowest level. The effect of variety, germination time and variety × germination time interaction was significant (p < 0.05) on the TBG, WIBG and BG levels and was not significant on the WSBG levels. Weak and significant correlation of TBG levels with SV (0.25, p <0.05 for SK5912; 0.24, p <0.05 for KSV8; and 0.31, p <0.05 for ICSV400) was observed in all the samples, suggesting that the low ß-glucan levels may not be primarily and solely responsible for any viscosity impediments associated with sorghumworts during run-off. With improvement in the effective utilization of sorghum, ICSV400 appeared the most suitable variety for malting and brewing in Nigeria.
Article
BACKGROUND The presence of sulfur in oils causes losses in the refining process and occasions the emission of toxic gases during fuel combustion. Biodesulfurization (BDS) is a bioprocess where some bacteria selectively remove sulfur from heterocyclic compounds. However, there are some limitations to BDS industrial application such as the high costs of the nutritional medium compounds. Previous studies with Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277 strain showed that the carbon and nitrogen concentration in culture medium significantly affected heavy gas oil (HGO) desulfurization. The aim of this present work was to optimize the nutritional medium in order to reduce the costs associated with medium formulation. The replacement of a synthetic medium by waste (cassava waste) and byproducts (trub) was also evaluated. RESULTS Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277 desulfurization capacity was improved by diminishing carbon source concentration from the synthetic nutritional medium. Both trub and cassava waste led to a high desulfurization rate. About 70% of sulfur compounds were removed to the three media tested, achieving a maximum desulfurization rate of 5.0×10³ mg sulphur kg⁻¹ HGO h⁻¹. CONCLUSION The use of an optimized nutritional medium, cassava wastewater and trub can provide an improved methodology for BDS making potential applications in industry feasible. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The cylindrical whirlpool is used to separate hot trub from beer wort. When the tank is being filled and the contained mixture is swirled, a phenomenon takes place the main principle of which is formation of a cone of residue in the center of the tank. This paper is aimed at further development of the research on symmetrization of the cone-accumulating flow during tank filling. Herein are presented average values of particles’ velocity while in rotational motion in a whirlpool tank of modified structure. The modification is a vertically reduced baffle attached to the tank’s bottom. The experiments were conducted for two different filling rates and three different baffle positions. Measurements of particles’ velocity were performed with the PIV method. Results have been presented in the form of surface of average particles’ velocity distribution for given radius values throughout the entire process. The most advantageous baffle positions were determined.
Article
Full-text available
Extremophilic xylanases have attracted great scientific and industrial interest. In this study, a GH10 xylanase-encoding gene, Xyl10E, was cloned from Bispora sp. MEY-1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Deduced Xyl10E shares the highest identities of 62% and 57% with characterized family GH10 xylanases from Talaromyces leycettanus and Penicillium canescens (structure 4F8X), respectively. Xyl10E was most active at 93 to 95°C and pH 4.0, retained more than 75% or 48% of the initial activity when heated at 80°C or 90°C for 30 min, respectively, and hardly lost activity at pH 1.0 to 7.0, but was completely inhibited by SDS. Two residues, A160 and A161, located on loop 4, were identified to play roles in catalysis. Mutants A160D/E demonstrated higher affinity to substrate with lower Km values, while mutants A161D/E mainly displayed elevated Vmax values. All of these mutants had significantly improved catalytic efficiency. According to the molecular dynamics simulation, the mutation of A160E was able to affect the important substrate binding site Y204 and then improve the substrate affinity, and the mutation of A161D was capable of forming a hydrogen bond with the substrate to promote the substrate binding or accelerate the product release. This study introduces a highly thermophilic fungal xylanase and reveals the importance of loop 4 for catalytic efficiency.
Chapter
The overall process between brewing fermentations is collectively described as yeast management (this process does not apply to distilling because the yeast culture is normally only used once). Brewing yeast management includes strain storage (in a culture collection), propagation, cropping (also discussed in Chap. 13), culture storage and acid washing, and this leads to wort fermentation itself. This critical latter procedure is usually not regarded as yeast management and is discussed in Chaps. 6, 7, 13, 14 and 15. Distiller’s yeast can be purchased from manufacturers of baking and distilling yeasts. Today there are a number of specialized strains available depending on the particular fermentation and organoleptic profile desired in the fermented wort. Manufacturers of yeast for bakeries and distilleries aim for minimal alcohol production during the production process.
Article
Full-text available
Agro‐industrial wastes are produced in large quantities around the world from the processing and manufacturing of food and beverages. The disposal of these wastes into the environment leads to damage to ecosystems owing to their composition rich in organic matter. In this context it may be noted that the brewing industry, whose production process includes processing steps and fermentation of vegetable raw materials such as barley and/or other grains used as adjuncts and hops, generates various byproducts. The worldwide consumption of these beverages and the current model of breweries, which includes production on a large scale, lead to the generation of large amounts of brewery waste, namely spent grain, hot trub and residual yeast. Owing to its composition, these residues exhibit significant potential for application in bioprocess technologies. In this study the three residues mentioned had their composition determined as a function of moisture, ash, total organic carbon (TOC), total and soluble nitrogen, reducing sugar and soluble free amino nitrogen. Moreover, the residues were characterized for total acidity, pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of total and soluble fractions. The three residues evaluated had high moisture content (>80%) and high organic matter content (TOC and COD, ~50% and >1000 mg/g, respectively), which can highlights the significant protein fraction (almost 50% for hot trub and residual yeast), suggesting the possibility of using these wastes for recovery. Copyright © 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.