Article

New management tools for the successful tourism manager

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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to outline some new managerial tools for the tourism industry. The thesis pursued here is that the managers of service operations face a number of challenges distinctly different from those encountered by managers of goods-producing activities; and therefore that tourism managers require management technologies designed for their special needs. Services and service delivery, i.e. service production, differ in their essential nature from goods and manufacturing processes. These differences are outlined and then the management implications and new insights for tourism are drawn out. These insights relate mainly to tourism operations management and the marketing of tourism.RésuméLe but de cet article est de présenter quelques nouveaux instruments pour gérer une entreprise touristique réussie. Le point de départ est que les directeurs des entreprises dans le secteur des services doivent faire face à des réalités bien différentes de celles qui dominent dans le secteur de la production des biens. Les directeurs dans l'industrie touristique ont besoin de méthodologies de gestion qui seraient inventées pour eux seuls. La production et la fourniture des services diffèrent par leur nature même de la manufacture et distribution des biens de consommation. On fait le bilan de ces différences et puis on dresse une liste des implications pour la gestion et pour la comprehension du phénomène touristique. Ces idées font la lumière principalement sur la gestion des opérations touristiques et sur le marketing du tourisme.

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... 2. The social marketing mix 2.1 Exploring an alternative social marketing mix The 4Ps framework, although widely applied by generations of marketing scholars, has been under the most severe criticism from various marketing reformists (Booms and Bitner, 1980;Ronald, 1999), who deemed the 4Ps insufficient to address consumers' demands and as failing to integrate customers' real needs. These criticisms have, therefore, allowed the emergence of additional Ps such as participants, physical evidence, process (Booms and Bitner, 1980) or personalisation (Ronald, 1999) to strengthen the existing 4Ps. ...
... 2. The social marketing mix 2.1 Exploring an alternative social marketing mix The 4Ps framework, although widely applied by generations of marketing scholars, has been under the most severe criticism from various marketing reformists (Booms and Bitner, 1980;Ronald, 1999), who deemed the 4Ps insufficient to address consumers' demands and as failing to integrate customers' real needs. These criticisms have, therefore, allowed the emergence of additional Ps such as participants, physical evidence, process (Booms and Bitner, 1980) or personalisation (Ronald, 1999) to strengthen the existing 4Ps. ...
Article
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Article
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... Although cost-based pricing is a practical method in pricing decisions (Kotler et al. 2012), the consumer's perception of the product should also be taken into account (Booms and Bitner 1980). Since, in some cases, the value of the product can be much higher than its cost (e.g., health-related goods and services). ...
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See on Google Books: https://bit.ly/3Kp2nI0 Nowadays, people spend their lives in two different worlds, namely the real world and the cyber world. This reality affects both commerce and consumption-related issues. In the cyber world, consumers are exposed to commercial messages more than in the real world and sometimes they are unable to avoid this. The main reason behind this reality is the introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI). By applying AI technologies, businesses become able to customize their commercial messages for every Internet user. Digitalization also allows businesses to reduce their costs by reaching the target audience more effectively. Moreover, they can present their products in a far and wider geographical range even if they don't have a physical presence. These developments have helped businesses to widen their target audiences. Besides, these opportunities boost the total consumption level of the world. Since this affects the depletion of the world's resources, it also increases the amount of environmental waste produced. This situation causes serious concerns for consumers and they begin pushing businesses to produce more sustainable products. This study aims to explain the concepts, methods, and opportunities for using digital marketing for businesses.
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... Internacionalização de destinos turísticos: Uma abordagem sistémica c) a perspetiva sociológica e cultural do turismo (Cohen, 1984;Murphy, 1985); d) a análise de questões ou abordagens metodológicas (Smith, 1983); e) a análise de jogos e rituais em turismo (Graburn, 1983); f) a importância das análises de custo-benefício do desenvolvimento turístico (Gray, 1982); g) as questões económicas da "boa produção" e das atividades industriais (Booms & Bitner, 1980). ...
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A investigação sobre internacionalização em turismo tem vindo a receber uma atenção crescente. A este interesse estão associadas preocupações de natureza económica, social, territorial e outras. A importância atribuída ao contributo que o turismo pode ter para o desenvolvimento de países e regiões e o seu impacte económico, ambiental e social explicam a atenção referida. A atualidade e a relevância do tema justificam que, também, a comunidade científica se debruce sobre a internacionalização dos destinos, visando acrescentar valor através do conhecimento que gera e da investigação que realiza. Explicar a internacionalização dos destinos implica enquadrar o turismo como o resultado da relação, articulação e coordenação de atores, estruturas, contexto e territórios. É a perspetiva sistémica do turismo que sustenta esta reflexão e que justifica uma abordagem multidimensional e multinível da internacionalização dos destinos turísticos. Este trabalho procura explicar o que despoleta, o que facilita e quais as condições a ter em conta no processo de internacionalização dos destinos turísticos, na perspetiva da oferta.
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... Tourism is a growing, dynamic and interactive industry, McGrath, 1994). Tourism products, by natural extension, embody these characteristics, but they also have several distinctive features of their own, further differentiating them from goods (Booms and Bitner, 1980;Gilbert, 1991). A tourism product can be defined in specific or general terms. ...
Chapter
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... Judd (1987) proposed a fifth P (people). Booms and Bitner (1980) added three Ps (participants, physical evidence and process) to the original four Ps to apply the marketing mix concept to service. Kotler (1986) added political power and public opinion formation to the Ps concept. ...
Article
Purpose – “Masstige marketing” is considered as a market penetration strategy for medium and large enterprises, particularly in foreign markets. The author redefine “masstige marketing” strategy in this paper and map the concept as a new model for brand building. Second, the author examine the effectiveness of “masstige marketing” strategy with reference to marketing mix theory (Four Ps ¼ product, price, place and promotion). The purpose of this paper is to introduce a theoretical model to help the companies to implement “masstige marketing” strategy. Design/methodology/approach – The author introduce a scale, called “Masstige Mean Score Scale” to measure the mass prestige value of brands. Both secondary and primary data used in this study. The author collected data from 590 young women consumers living in Japan and France to measure the “masstige” value using the new scale developed. The marketing strategy of European luxury sector multinational brand LV, has also been discussed as a method. Findings – Masstige value is the best indicator of long-term brand value. In other words, higher the masstige value (MMS) of a brand, the higher the likelihood to succeed. The author also found that a brand can create mass prestige with “masstige marketing” strategy by appropriately mixing the four Ps in marketing – Product, Price, Promotion and Place in a distinct and culturally different market. Originality/value – The author develop a pyramid model and measurement scale for “masstige marketing” as a theoretical framework to stimulate further research and as a tool for practitioners for better decision making. Besides, the author posit that higher the Masstige Mean Score (MMS) of a brand, higher the likelihood that potential customers recall that as a “top of mind” brand. Lower MMS implies that the firm has to go long way in their efforts to build the brand. Keywords Brand management, Marketing mix, Brand valuation, Masstige marketing, Mass prestige, Pyramid model, Masstige Mean Score
... Judd (1987) proposed a fifth P (people). Booms and Bitner (1980) added three Ps (participants, physical evidence and process) to the original four Ps to apply the marketing mix concept to service. Kotler (1986) added political power and public opinion formation to the Ps concept. ...
Article
Purpose – “Masstige marketing” is considered as a market penetration strategy for medium and large enterprises, particularly in foreign markets. The author redefine “masstige marketing” strategy in this paper and map the concept as a new model for brand building. Second, the author examine the effectiveness of “masstige marketing” strategy with reference to marketing mix theory (Four Ps=product, price, place and promotion). The purpose of this paper is to introduce a theoretical model to help the companies to implement “masstige marketing” strategy. Design/methodology/approach – The author introduce a scale, called “Masstige Mean Score Scale” to measure the mass prestige value of brands. Both secondary and primary data used in this study. The author collected data from 590 young women consumers living in Japan and France to measure the “masstige” value using the new scale developed. The marketing strategy of European luxury sector multinational brand LV, has also been discussed as a method. Findings – Masstige value is the best indicator of long-term brand value. In other words, higher the masstige value (MMS) of a brand, the higher the likelihood to succeed. The author also found that a brand can create mass prestige with “masstige marketing” strategy by appropriately mixing the four Ps in marketing – Product, Price, Promotion and Place in a distinct and culturally different market. Originality/value – The author develop a pyramid model and measurement scale for “masstige marketing” as a theoretical framework to stimulate further research and as a tool for practitioners for better decision making. Besides, the author posit that higher the Masstige Mean Score (MMS) of a brand, higher the likelihood that potential customers recall that as a “top of mind” brand. Lower MMS implies that the firm has to go long way in their efforts to build the brand.
... Esto es de especial trascendencia en los hoteles, ya que los empleados de contacto juegan un papel fundamental, los clientes están alojados durante cierto tiempo y reciben el servicio de forma directa. De este modo, la interactuación con los empleados afecta a la calidad percibida y supone una fuente de ventaja competitiva para la organización (Wright, McMahana y McWilliams, 1994) siempre que sean bien dirigidos, puesto que si bien los clientes ya de por sí introducen cierto nivel de incertidumbre en los sistemas de servicio de cualquier organización, esto se acentúa en el sector hotelero (Booms y Bitner, 1990). Por lo tanto, el papel de los empleados es clave en la percepción de la calidad por el cliente, por lo que la gestión de este conocimiento es un recurso estratégico (Bueno, 2000). ...
... Esto es de especial trascendencia en los hoteles, ya que los empleados de contacto juegan un papel fundamental, los clientes están alojados durante cierto tiempo y reciben el servicio de forma directa. De este modo, la interactuación con los empleados afecta a la calidad percibida y supone una fuente de ventaja competitiva para la organización (Wright, McMahana y McWilliams, 1994) siempre que sean bien dirigidos, puesto que si bien los clientes ya de por sí introducen cierto nivel de incertidumbre en los sistemas de servicio de cualquier organización, esto se acentúa en el sector hotelero (Booms y Bitner, 1990). Por lo tanto, el papel de los empleados es clave en la percepción de la calidad por el cliente, por lo que la gestión de este conocimiento es un recurso estratégico (Bueno, 2000). ...
... Esto es de especial trascendencia en los hoteles, ya que los empleados de contacto juegan un papel fundamental, los clientes están alojados durante cierto tiempo y reciben el servicio de forma directa. De este modo, la interactuación con los empleados afecta a la calidad percibida y supone una fuente de ventaja competitiva para la organización ( McMahana y McWilliams, 1994) siempre que sean bien dirigidos, puesto que si bien los clientes ya de por sí introducen cierto nivel de incertidumbre en los sistemas de servicio de cualquier organización, esto se acentúa en el sector hotelero (Booms y Bitner, 1990). Por lo tanto, el papel de los empleados es clave en la percepción de la calidad por el cliente, por lo que la gestión de este conocimiento es un recurso estratégico (Bueno, 2000). ...
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Internal marketing orientation (IMO) can be used as a tool for managing employees’ knowledge that allows companies to develop a competitive advantage to the extent that generates information, communicates it internally and facilitates to articulate a response to their needs. IMO through proper management of human capital facilitates more effective competition and a more agile response to market demands. This study analyzes the three dimensions that make up IMO and involve knowledge management with regard to gathering intelligence concerning employees’ needs, the transmission of these needs and the subsequent response. Then, an empirical research has been carried out to analyze the IMO in Spanish hotels and it had led to the classification of three clearly defined groups. Moreover, the results indicate IMO as a source of competitive advantage as higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment are found in the groups with higher IMO.
... A focus of marketers is how to help tourism providers increase visitation and consumption (Buhalis 2000). Thus, the whole tourism industry works like a huge assembly line, which can be divided into three operational components: " the channelers of tourists (i.e., travel agencies , travel clubs), the transporters of tourists (i.e., airlines, buslines), and the receivers of tourists (i.e., hotels, resorts, restaurants, and attractions) " (Booms and Bitner 1980, p. 377). Tourists on roads are thus like goods moving on an assembly line, who passively consume the offerings. ...
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The present article synthesizes the latest discussion on the future paradigm of marketing. Three alternative marketing perspectives are discussed: relationship marketing, the network approach, and the service-dominant logic. Additionally, their relevance to the field of tourism marketing is highlighted. It is revealed that tourism marketing researchers have started to echo the new marketing thoughts, although in-depth conceptual exploration is still lacking. Finally, the implications of these new marketing conceptualizations on tourism research, practices, and teaching are discussed, and it is concluded that the present tourism marketing research could be improved by putting more emphasis on strategy research and conceptual thinking.
... These need to be designed accordingly. If incompatible market segments are targeted at the same time, a clear and focused image of the travel product or destination cannot be conveyed (Booms and Bitner 1980). Consequently, conflict may arise if travelers arrive with different expectations. ...
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Recently, the behavior of senior travelers has become an important area of interest because of its market size and potential for growth. This study describes a study profiling senior travelers according to their demographic and psychographic characteristics. Six market segments were used to highlight the differences that exist in terms of holiday attractions, travel motivations, and information sources used among senior travelers when planning and choosing a holiday. Seniors are shown not to be a uniform conservative market, which has implications for marketing and product development.
... The difference between tour wholesalers and tour operators is that tour wholesalers do not sell directly to public but receives reservations through other travel intermediaries, such as retail travel agents or airline sales offices. A tour manager, by contrast, is someone who plans for and accompanies a group of tourist on a tour (or a part of tour), checking arrangements and handling any problems for tourists (Booms and Bitner, 1980). However, both tour operator and tour manager are providers of tourism services. ...
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As information and information systems become increasingly valuable and information technology advances at a fast pace, only creative and innovative companies will be able to survive the competition in the new millennium, by utilising the emerging information technologies and innovative management methods. We propose an Integrative Information Architecture (IIA), which provides a dynamic, flexible and innovative strategic and tactical management to the integration of business management systems by using the conceptual model of virtual enterprise (VE). In general, VE provides a comprehensive guide to the key elements of successful cross-organisational integration and collaborative e-commerce by highlighting business needs, information technologies, and management strategies. In our study, the application of VE is for integrating employees, business process and resources within the tourism industry. We also explored the potentials of applying IIA to contemporary tour companies for developing the cross-organisational tourism system.
... Owing to the distinctly different challenges that marketers of service products face compared with goods products, Booms and Bitner (1980) introduced three additional elements to the marketing mix: participants, physical evidence and process. ...
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This paper outlines how marketing, though traditionally considered an enemy of sustainability, can play a role in implementing sustainable tourism. It notes the redefinition in 2007 by the American Marketing Association of marketing's aims to consider wider societal issues beyond those of clients and customers. It illustrates how the recognition of the importance of sustainable tourism at all scales of tourism activity provides marketing with an opportunity to pursue sustainability outcomes. We review the strategic tourism marketing planning process and conceptually develop a sustainability tourism marketing model that embeds sustainability considerations at each stage of the planning process. Our proposed model contributes to sustainable tourism theory development and offers a conceptual tool for managing a tourism organisation's ecological and societal footprint on the supply side and a critical opportunity for transforming consumer decision-making on the demand side, irrespective of tourism scale. A 30-cell matrix is proposed that cross-references a strong set of 10 marketing elements (product, price, promotion, place, participants, process, physical evidence, partnership, packaging and programming) against the questions posed by the triple bottom line of economic factors, the environmental and sociocultural concern, creating a check list of indicators for management purposes. 2007301010
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In this era of the tremendous growth of the internet social media sites have become very important to the youth. The aim of this research was to study the influence of social media marketing on consumer buying behaviour amongst the youth at the University of Nairobi. A descriptive survey method was used in the study. Researchers administered an online structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions to the four academic classes in ranking to get specific data that would enable them to determine the influence. The findings indicate that social media marketing is positively related to consumer behaviour. Since the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is statistically significant, this implies that any reduction of social media marketing has a negative effect on consumer behaviour hence affecting the purchasing decisions of the youth in Kenya. The study further recommends to businesses targeting the youth to consider the most effective social media platforms, the best timing and content to take up based on popularity to ensure effective social media marketing strategies.
Conference Paper
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The authors draw parallels between the 'yin/yang' cosmology and the twin disciplines of selling and marketing, in the UK and in China, enabling them to be put into context within the Chinese culture. A 'balance sheet' approach (including 'wants' and 'not-wants') is in line with yin/yang philosophy rather than the West's positive bias. Ethical implications are considered, recognising cultural relativity. China is forecast as the rising star of tourism, the world's biggest industry. One of the authors has considerable selling and marketing experience in tourism, so tourism examples are used. Tourism itself sometimes finds difficulty in applying textbook marketing.
Thesis
Tourism has become the leading economic sector in Bali Province of Indonesia. However, the economic impacts of tourism have not been convinced to be full y beneficial for Balinese community. One of the reasons is tourism leakage that occurs when the industry imports both products and services to support tourism industry in Bali. So far, the amount of tourism leakage in Bali has not been calculated yet. Therefore, there is a need to ascertain the current amount of leakage in Bali tourism. The objectives of the study are: (i) to calculate the amount of tourism leakage from accommodation sector in Bali at micro (industrial) level; (ii) to calculate the amount of tourism leakage from accommodation sector in Bali at macro (regional) level; (iii) to evaluate the impacts of government subsidies and import reduction by accommodation sector on tourism leakage, job opportunity and income distribution; (iv) to evaluate the perception and preference of foreign tourists on imported and local products as well as the willingness of foreign tourists to spend their money to benefit of Balinese people; (v) to evaluate the points of view of hotel managers related to imported and local products as well as their willingness in reducing the use of imported product and (vi) to develop strategies in minimizing tourism leakage in accommodation in Bali. Research was designed through quantitative and qualitative approaches. Data was collected by using survey method at four main tourist destinations in Bali, namely: Kuta, Nusa Dua, Sanur and Ubud. There were 79 hotels selected based upon probability proportional to size sampling method which consists of three clusters namely 1,2,3 Star-rated, 4&5 Star-rated either chain and non-chain and Non Star-rated hotels. The number of respondents was 600 foreign tourists were selected as respondents. Calculation of tourism leakage on micro analysis was undertaken by using a method developed by Unluonen, et. al. (2011), meanwhile, on macro analysis was carried out by using a method proposed by Thorbecke ( 1988) which was based on the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Bali 2010. Perception and preference of foreign tourists on imported and local products were analyzed by using JMP program, meanwhile, Interpretative Structural Modelling (ISM) was undertaken to develop strategies. The results show that based on the micro analysis, the highest tourism leakage of accommodation sector in Bali is at 4&5 Star-rated chain hotels (51.0 %), followed by 4&5 Star-rated non-chain hotels (22.7 %), 1,2&3 Star-rated hotels (12.0 %), Non-star rated hotels (8.8 %), and with the average leakage of 18.8 %. Based on macro analysis, tourism leakage of accommodation sector in Bali are as follow: (i) Leakage of Non Star-rated hotels is 2.0 %; (ii) Leakage of 1,2&3 Star-rated hotels is 15.7 %; (iii) Leakage of 4&5 Star-rated non-chain hotels is 7.1 %, (iv) Leakage of 4&5 Star-rated chain hotels is 55.3%; and (v) Average leakage of all types of accommodation is 19.5%. Foreign tourists significantly look for local products and are willing to spend their money for Balinese people. Hotel managers are willing to use local product as long as local products are available to substitute the imported products. Strategies for minimization tourism leakage are optimizing the potential of local products, develop agriculture and livestock; reduce the use of imported products for tourists, improve quality of local products and human resources, empower community, urge government to develop and implement supporting policies in minimizing tourism leakage, establish policy on restriction of foreign investment on accommodation in Bali, improve the role of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Trade and Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. 7 Ps of marketing mix on service: product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence need to be implemented in order to support sustainable tourism in Bali
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive analysis of contributions to scholarly research on decision tools. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review was used to collect data from 47 articles published in peer-reviewed academic journals between 1980 and 2017. Co-citation analysis was adopted to analyse recent trends in research on decision tools and recommend a framework that places such research into three categories: mature, intermediate and nascent. Findings The research revealed that a majority of the studies on decision tools describe decision tool implementation in a single company or setting. It also provided a clear presentation of recent trends in the decision tools literature by categorising and comparing papers according to various salient features. The study of decision tools is classified into four macro clusters: conceptualising and defining decision tools; exploring the implementation of decision tools; understanding the relationship between decision tools and other disciplines/approaches/initiatives; and discovering the outcomes of decision tools. Furthermore, the framework proposed in this paper will help scholars identify issues that merit additional theory-building and/or theory-testing research. Originality/value To the authors’ awareness, this is the first paper to have adopted both a systematic literature review and co-citation analysis to identify the dominant trends and significant gaps in the field of decision tools research.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore current marketing communication mixes (MCMs) in two industries, electronics home appliance stores (face-to-face interaction) and remote care (interface-mediated interaction), to propose marketing strategies from the perspective of service design and determine the relationships between service interaction patterns and MCMs in the pre-service phase. Design/methodology/approach Six industry experts in marketing were interviewed through semi-structured interviews, the topic of which focused on the details of five MCMs and their correlations were analyzed using a customer journey maps. Finally, the MCMs were further explored to verify differences in attractiveness to customers, respectively. Findings The result showed that the most attractive activity for the electronics home appliance stores customer is the promotion. And the four face-to-face service interaction patterns and MCMs exhibited a low correlation. In addition, the customers of remote care service argued that the personnel selling was the most attractive MCMs to them. For customers who utilize smart devices to communicate with advertisement exhibited the highest correlation coefficient. Research limitations/implications The limitation of this study is that the research only conducts interview research on two service industries. Practical implications This study was expected to develop improved marketing communication strategies to remedy the sales predicament induced by virtual channels and to increase people’s acceptance of remote care service. Originality/value The value of this paper is to analyze the correlation and difference of MCMs and service interaction patterns between electronics home appliance stores and remote care, and propose a structural model of MCMs for two different industries.
Conference Paper
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MARKETING STRATEGIJE U ODRŽIVOM TURIZMU Apstrakt: Turizam je jedna od najvećih i najbrže rastućih industrija na globalnom nivou. On je sve značajniji izvor prihoda, zaposlenja, bogatstva zemalja i bitan integrator naroda i kultura. Međutim, nivo razvoja ostvaren u turističkoj industriji u prethodnim decenijama doveo je do toga da on ujedno postane i značajna determinanta u procesu degradacije prirodnog okruženja, beležeći brojne štetne uticaje na ekološki i sociokulturni sistem. Zato se danas sve više govori o održivom turizmu, kao logičnom pravcu razvijanja ove oblasti u budućnosti. Da bi turizam postao održiv, mora biti zasnovan na odgovarajućim strategijama koje podrazumevaju transformaciju postojeće prakse na tržištu. U tom smislu, u radu je prikazana uloga i značaj marketing discipline, a pre svega održivog marketinga, u preorijentaciji masovnog turizma ka održivom turizmu i kreiranju novih pravila i politika svih turističkih destinacija. Poseban akcent stavljen je na kreiranje marketing miksa u održivom turizmu, koji se sastoji od deset usko povezanih i međuzavisnih elemenata, koji su osnova za kreiranje takve turističke ponude i iskustva koji omogućavaju najefikasnije ostvarivanje kako interesa potrošača, tako i šire zajednice, kompanije i prirodnog okruženja. Ključne reči: održivi marketing, zeleni marketing, održivi turizam, održivi razvoj. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Abstract: Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries globally. It is an increasingly important source of revenue, employment, wealth and an important integrator of people and cultures. However, the level of development achieved in the tourist industry in recent decades has led to the fact that it also becomes a significant determinant in the process of degradation of the natural environment. Therefore, sustainable tourism, as a logical way of development in this area in the future, has become hot topic. In order to become sustainable, tourism must be based on appropriate strategies that involve the transformation of existing practices in the market. In this sense, the paper shows the role and importance of marketing discipline, and above all, sustainable marketing, in reorientation of mass tourism to sustainable tourism and creating new rules and policies of all tourist destinations. Special emphasis is placed on creating a marketing mix in sustainable tourism, which consists of ten closely related and interdependent elements, which are the basis for the creation of the tourism offerings and experiences that enable the most efficient realization of the interests of consumers, wider community, the company and the natural environment. Uvod Održivi razvoj smatra se vodećim konceptom uspešnog poslovanja budućnosti. U poslednjim godinama pridobio je značajnu pažnju menadžment struktura iz najrazličitijih industrijskih oblasti, proširujući praksu korporativne društvene odgovornosti i ekološkog poslovanja na veliki broj učesnika na tržištu. Jedna od krucijalnih oblasti u implementaciji održivih poslovnih praksi je turizam, što pred kreatore ekonomske politike i turističke menadžere stavlja brojne izazove i neizbežne promene. Turizam je jedan on najbrže rastućih industrijskih sektora na svetu i jedan od ključnih pokretača socio-ekonomskog razvoja (UNWTO, 2016). Takođe, uzimajući u obzir broj ljudi koje doseže širom sveta, smatra se vitalnim u ostvarivanju globalnih integracija (UN, 1997). Broj internacionalnih turističkih poseta na globalnom nivou je od 2000. do 2015. godine porastao sa 674 miliona na 1186 miliona, čime je turizam postao glavna kategorija internacionalne trgovine uslugama, učestvujući sa 7% u ukupnom svetskom izvozu proizvoda i usluga (UNWTO, 2016). Nezaustavljiv napredak turističke industrije i njen izražen ekološki, sociološki i kulturni uticaj, ukazuju na hitnost i značaj kreiranja adekvatnih strategija i aktivnosti, koje bi dale najbolja rešenja za što efikasniji i blagovremeni preokret ka održivosti u ovoj oblasti, uzimajući u obzir da turizam već učestvuje sa oko 5% u ukupnoj emisiji gasova koje pogoršavaju klimatske promene (Gossling, 2009). Održivi turizam je značajna stavka u rešavanju gorućeg problema globalnog društva i znači potpuni zaokret i transformaciju postojećih strategija masovnog turizma ka kreiranju takvih pristupa kojima se postiže balans na relaciji društvo-priroda-organizacije, i to na nivou svih turističkih destinacija kao 4 Ekonomski fakultet u Subotici
Chapter
This chapter is about the management of the service encounter and the issue of consistent high-quality service delivery of tourism products. In an ever-growing market place, the provision of consistent high-quality service is a strategic marketing tool as competition increasingly hinges on the quality of the services provided, not only their provision. The focus of this chapter is deliberately general in order to offer a broad overview of the main issues involved in the service delivery of tourism products, although specific reference is made to examples and cases for illustration. The chapter is structured in four main sections: the aim of each section is to offer a distillation of the main operational problems the service encounter creates for management and their possible solutions.
Chapter
Recognizing the potentials of tourism as an industry capable of providing jobs and generating revenues governments around the world are developing and implementing tourism development strategies. Projected growth in the industry offers tremendous opportunities to the travel agencies in terms of organizing and conducting package tours. This study was, therefore, designed to determine the demographic and socioeconomic profile of those taking package tours; reasons for joining package tours; factors perceived as important in selecting a travel agency; and the degree of satisfaction derived from the selected travel agency. A survey of 204 individuals conducted at the Kai Tak International Airport in Hon Kong during November–December 1985 revealed that the majority were female, single, and belonged to the middle class. Of the 12 attributes, only six were perceived as important in selecting a travel agency. Only five services were important, and of this two were found satisfactory. Travel agencies offering package tours should take a look at the target market and satisfy the customers to grow with the growing tourist industry.
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Over the last decade many archaeological sites in Peru have become important tourist attractions. However, despite the growth in tourism, visitor management and interpretation at the sites are limited and, at times, non-existent. The mainstay of interpretative supply in Peru is the tour guide, and three types of guide were identified in this research: those with university degrees, others with vocational training, and untrained 'local guides' from the local indigenous population living near the archaeological sites. All three types of guide were present at the Cusco region case study sites of Raqchi and Ollantaytambo. Recommendations focus on ways that local guides could be brought into the tourist system to enable their participation, both economic and social, in the tourism developing on their doorstep.
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While management skills can improve service systems, a manager is better off if he or she first has a clear understanding of the operating characteristics that set one service system apart from another. This author offers one view of services, which, if followed, results in a "rational approach to the rationalization" of services. His view, quite simply, is that the less direct contact the customer has with the service system, the greater the potential of the system to operate at peak efficiency. And, conversely, where the direct customer contact is high, the less the potential that exists to achieve high levels of efficiency. This distinction between high- and low-contact systems provides a basis for classifying service production systems that can enable the manager to develop a more effective service operation.
The Environment is a Marketing Message
  • Lynne G N Shostack