Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae

Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea.
International journal of biological macromolecules (Impact Factor: 2.86). 08/2013; 62. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.08.036
Source: PubMed


Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers towards natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae.

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Available from: Dai-Hung Ngo, May 03, 2014
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    • "Numerous genera of marine algae, including Colpomenia, Gracilaria, Halymenia, Hydroclathrus, Laurencia, Padina, Polysiphonia, and Turbinaria, have been reported to have antioxidant property (Kelman et al., 2012). SPS from brown, green and red algae were found to have antioxidant property and can form candidates for cancer therapy (Ngo and Kim, 2013; Costa et al., 2011; Qi et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidants play a central role in the prevention of carcinogenesis. The most natural compounds exhibit their protective effects by eliciting antioxidant potential. Sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from the brown algae Padina tetrastromatica, then purified and evaluated for its composition and in vitro antioxidant and antimitotic activities. Both ethanolic sulfated polysaccharide (ESPS) and ethanolic sulfated polysaccharide-column purified (ESPS-CP) exhibited considerable amount of carbohydrates (11.2% and 17.6%), sulfate (11.4% and 7.4%), fucose (5.5% and 15.7%), uronic acid (4.7% and 11.8%), xylose (0.5% and 0.03%) and sulfated polysaccharide (2.4% and 12.7%) content. The FTIR analysis and phytochemical screening also confirmed the presence of sulfated polysaccharides. In the in vitro antioxidant activity determination using DPPH (1-1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity and reducing power, ESPS showed more activity than ESPS-CP. In the case of nitric oxide radical scavenging, ESPS-CP was found to be more effective. At a concentration of 2mg/ml, both samples were potent antioxidants with significant IC50 values. The antimitotic studies such as mitotic index in onion root tips and sprouting assay in green gram seeds also proved that both the extracts are able to prevent mitosis. The extrapolation of these results can find opportunities in therapeutic regiments of cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "Marine algae are rich in polysaccharides, which account for more than 50% of their dry weight. Studies have demonstrated that marine algal polysaccharides are predominantly sulfated polysaccharides [8]; the antioxidant activity of sulfated glucans is greater than that of regular glucans [9]. Previous studies have shown that many marine algal polysaccharides, including laminarin 13, exopolysaccharide of Porphyridium cruentum 18, Spirulina polysaccharides 22, and alginic sodium diester 25, play a role in lowering blood sugar and treating DM complications, such as hyperlipidemia [10] [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP) on glucose metabolism in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM). PEP (0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically to rats for four weeks. After treatment, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (INS) levels were measured, and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated. The morphopathological changes in the pancreas were observed. Serum samples were collected to measure the oxidant-antioxidant status. The mRNA expression levels of glucokinase (GCK) and insulin receptor (InsR) in liver tissue and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4) and adiponectin (APN) in adipose tissue were determined. Compared with the model group, the FBG and INS levels were lower, the ISI was higher, and the number of islet β -cells was significantly increased in all the PEP groups. In the medium- and high-dose PEP groups, MDA levels decreased, and the enzymatic activities of SOD and GSH-Px increased. The mRNA expression of InsR and GCK increased in all the PEP groups; APN mRNA expression increased in the high-dose PEP group, and GLUT-4 mRNA expression increased in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that PEP is a potential therapeutic agent that can be utilized to treat DM.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Diabetes Research
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    ABSTRACT: Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (SHP30, SHP60, and SHP80) extracted from the Sargassum horneri were obtained by water extraction and radial flow chromatography. The high-performance gel-permeation chromatography analysis showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of three polysaccharides were approximately 1.58×10(3), 1.92×10(3) and 11.2KDa, respectively. Their in vitro antioxidant activities, antitumor activities were investigated and compared. Among these three polysaccharides, SHP30 with the highest sulfate content and intermediate molecular weight exhibited excellent antioxidant and antitumor activities in the superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, reducing power assay, and MTT assay. Then, flow cytometry assay and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis suggested that the accumulation of cells in G0/G1 and S phase effecting apoptosis-associated gene expressions such as Bcl-2 and Bax might account for the growth inhibition of DLD cells by SHP30. Based on these results, we have inferred that sulfate content and molecular weight were the factors influencing antioxidant and antitumor activities.
    No preview · Article · May 2014
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