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Bioactive compounds present in the Mediterranean sofrito

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... Among these dietary-based strategies, the Mediterranean diet has shown promising effects as part of the treatment of obesity, nonalcoholic fat liver disease, and cardiovascular complications in pre-clinical and clinical trials [9][10][11]. The tomato sauce called sofrito is a key component of the Mediterranean diet and its consumption is one of the items to be considered when evaluating a Mediterranean diet score [12,13]. This sauce has a high content of carotenoids and phenolic compounds, and its unique method of preparation can modulate the profile of bioactive compounds and their beneficial effects [13][14][15][16]. ...
... The tomato sauce called sofrito is a key component of the Mediterranean diet and its consumption is one of the items to be considered when evaluating a Mediterranean diet score [12,13]. This sauce has a high content of carotenoids and phenolic compounds, and its unique method of preparation can modulate the profile of bioactive compounds and their beneficial effects [13][14][15][16]. These effects were also confirmed in in vitro studies with different cells lines for reactive oxygen species scavenging, eicosanoid production, and LDL oxidation [17,18] and also in humans, showing that a single dose of sofrito significantly reduces the plasmatic levels of proinflammatory biomarkers [19]. ...
... Carotenoid analyses were performed by an LC-DAD method [13] and identified by retention time chromatography with standards, UV/VIS absorption spectrum, spectral fine structure, and peak cis intensity compared to standards and the literature [14]. To confirm the identification, an HPLC-APCI-QqQ-MS/MS method was used [24]. ...
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The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has promoted research on human metabolism and foods such as sofrito, a tomato and olive oil-based sauce from the Mediterranean diet, has shown beneficial effects on obesity and related complications. Sofrito has been associated with better cardiovascular health, metabolic syndrome, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to understand how sofrito intake could contribute to the control of energy metabolism in obese rats. For this purpose, integrative untargeted lipidomics, metabolomics, and targeted gene expression approaches were used in the liver and adipose tissue to identify metabolic changes and the mechanism of action promoted by sofrito intake. A new biomarker was identified in the liver, butanediol glucuronide, an indicator of ketogenic activation and lipid oxidation after the sofrito intervention. Gene expression analysis revealed an increase in the uptake and liver oxidation of lipids for energy production and ketogenesis activation as fuel for other tissues in sofrito-fed animals. Sofrito altered the lipidomic profile in the fat depots of obese rats. This multiomics study identifies a new biomarker linked to the beneficial actions of sofrito against obesity and provides further insight into the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet components.
... Fruits became unaffordable upon the reduction of agriculture due to the Syrian war (44). The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has also affected the transportation and production of fruits and vegetables in Lebanon, changing the food patterns of consumers involuntarily (45). ...
... On the other hand, 75.20% consumed legumes, mainly among Lebanese participants. As a result of the COVID-19 lockdowns in Lebanon, dietary diversity was declined, and cooking practices increasingly relied on grains, pasta, and legumes due to their low prices and high stocking (45). Also, Syrian adults traditionally consume pulses as their main source of energy, mostly among low-income populations (26). ...
... About 58.85% consumed commercial sweets, and Syrian participants showed more inclination toward processed desserts consumption This increased consumption was another consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly among food insecure consumers who suffer from mental problems and anxiety (45). ...
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The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been associated with many health benefits. Poor adherence to MedDiet has been found among Lebanese adults, while in Syria, little is known about the adherence to MedDiet. A quantitative research approach was used, and data were collected through convenience sampling. The structure of the survey included the socio-economic and demographic data and the validated 14-point MedDiet assessment tool. The target population included 367 Lebanese and Syrian adults respectively residing in Lebanon and Syria. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the characteristics of the sample population. Adequate adherence MedDiet was determined if the Med-Diet score ≥ 9. Significant differences among the variables and the adherence to the MedDiet were examined using the chi-square test. Approximately 47.42% of participants reported adherence to MedDiet higher than 9, with a mean of 7.98. Lebanese participants, men, and those who are aged between 64 and 67, had higher adherence than Syrian participants, women, and other age groups, respectively. Lebanese participants (7.82 ± 2.32) had slightly higher adherence than Syrian participants (7.31 ± 2.04). Wine, sofrito , vegetables, and olive oil were mostly consumed by participants, with differences in consumption between the Lebanese and Syrian adults. The statistical analysis performed using the chi-square test showed no statistical difference ( P >.05) between Lebanese and Syrian participants regarding their consumption of 160 red meat, butter/margarine, and sugary drinks. Future studies in the aged population are required to explore furthermore the adherence to MedDiet in Lebanon and Syria and its impact on health.
... Sofrito is not a unique recipe but usually contents a mix of ingredients such as tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil, which contains many bioactive phenolic compounds and carotenoids [7]. Naringenin and chalcone naringenin, a naringenin precursor, are accepted as the main flavonoids in tomatoes and tomato-based sauces [8,9], whereas lycopene and β-carotene are the more representative carotenoids [7] and hydroxytyrosol appears in sofrito and tomato sauces prepared with olive oil [7]. ...
... Sofrito is not a unique recipe but usually contents a mix of ingredients such as tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil, which contains many bioactive phenolic compounds and carotenoids [7]. Naringenin and chalcone naringenin, a naringenin precursor, are accepted as the main flavonoids in tomatoes and tomato-based sauces [8,9], whereas lycopene and β-carotene are the more representative carotenoids [7] and hydroxytyrosol appears in sofrito and tomato sauces prepared with olive oil [7]. Interestingly, sofrito has higher levels of bioactive compounds than tomato. ...
... Sofrito is not a unique recipe but usually contents a mix of ingredients such as tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil, which contains many bioactive phenolic compounds and carotenoids [7]. Naringenin and chalcone naringenin, a naringenin precursor, are accepted as the main flavonoids in tomatoes and tomato-based sauces [8,9], whereas lycopene and β-carotene are the more representative carotenoids [7] and hydroxytyrosol appears in sofrito and tomato sauces prepared with olive oil [7]. Interestingly, sofrito has higher levels of bioactive compounds than tomato. ...
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Sofrito is a mix of tomato, onion, garlic, and olive oil, which contains phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Consumption of tomato-based sofrito has been related to a lower risk of cardiovascular events, but the mechanisms behind such beneficial effects remain unclear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of representative sofrito compounds such as naringenin, hydroxytyrosol, lycopene, and β-carotene on mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We demonstrated that both phenolic compounds and both carotenoids studied were able to inhibit low density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation, as well as oxidative stress and eicosanoid production induced by oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in macrophage cultures. These effects were not the consequences of disturbing oxLDL uptake by macrophages. Finally, we observed an additive effect of these sofrito compounds, as well as the activity of a main naringenin metabolite, naringenin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide on LDL oxidation and oxidative stress.
... The sofrito is a typical technique of lightly frying onion and garlic in EVOO. This sauce is an ingredient used to prepare many Mediterranean dishes and recipes [6,7]. The tomato sofrito sauce has been reported to contain 40 different phenolic compounds and a high content of carotenoids [7] and its consumption is associated with improved cardiovascular risk parameters and insulin sensitivity, and activates thermogenesis by browning fat tissue [8,9]. ...
... This sauce is an ingredient used to prepare many Mediterranean dishes and recipes [6,7]. The tomato sofrito sauce has been reported to contain 40 different phenolic compounds and a high content of carotenoids [7] and its consumption is associated with improved cardiovascular risk parameters and insulin sensitivity, and activates thermogenesis by browning fat tissue [8,9]. Moreover, tomato sofrito consumption is one of a 14-item validated questionnaire used to evaluate the adherence of traditional Mediterranean diet, in which was correlated with low incidence of abdominal fat and obesity and manifestation of less aggressive prostate cancer [10][11][12]. ...
... After that, the supernatants were combined and evaporated using a vacuum evaporator (miVac DNA concentrator, Genevac LTD, Warminster, England). The residue was suspended in up to 2 mL of ultra-pure water with 0.1% of formic acid [7]. ...
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Olive oil is the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet and the most frequently used ingredient in Mediterranean cuisine. Cooking with olive oil has been attracting attention because it can act as a food excipient, thereby increasing the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of ingested bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of cooking with olive oil on the bioactive components in other ingredients (tomato, onion, and garlic) of sofrito sauce, a representative model of Mediterranean cuisine. After the cooking process, polyphenols from tomato, onion, and garlic were detected in the olive oil, especially naringenin, ferulic acid, and quercetin, as well as a high content of carotenoid Z-isomers, which are more bioavailable than the E-isomers. Therefore, traditional Mediterranean cuisine could play an important role in the health-improving effects of the Mediterranean diet.
... Tomato-based sofrito, a key component of the Mediterranean diet, is particularly interesting for its high content in bioactive compounds, not only from tomato but also from onion and virgin olive oil, and especially for the lipid matrix in which these compounds are found [12,13]. Regarding the latter, recent investigations have demonstrated that mechanical and thermal treatments, as well as oil matrix addition during tomato and sofrito sauce processing, may increase the bioaccessibility, extractability, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds from tomato [14,15]. ...
... The apolar phase was separated and the extraction was repeated until colorless. The supernatants were combined and evaporated under nitrogen flow and the residue was reconstituted with MTBE and filtered using a 0.22 m PTFE filter and stored at -80ЊC until analysis [12]. The same weight of sofrito was extracted with ethanol: water (80:20; v/v) for polyphenols extraction. ...
... The homogenate was sonicated, centrifuged, and extracted in the same conditions. The residue was suspended up to 2 mL of ultrapure water with 0.1% of formic acid and filtered through a 0.22 m PTFE filter storage at −80ЊC [12]. ...
... In both studies, less than 50% of participants showed an adequate intake of wine conforming to MedDiet standards, but fish and fish products' intake differed greatly between both studies; moreover, 28.8% of university students answered "Yes," compared to 59% in a coronary artery disease study [24]. The low consumption of fish confirms the outcome of previous studies showing a low consumption of fish among the adult population living in Beirut, Lebanon [5,25]. To cook with olive oil, onion, garlic, and tomato is very usual among Mediterranean people since they are the ingredients of a typical Mediterranean sauce, which is a key component of the MedDiet and strongly associated with reduced risk of CVD mainly due to its phenolic, polyphenols, and carotenoids contents [25]. ...
... The low consumption of fish confirms the outcome of previous studies showing a low consumption of fish among the adult population living in Beirut, Lebanon [5,25]. To cook with olive oil, onion, garlic, and tomato is very usual among Mediterranean people since they are the ingredients of a typical Mediterranean sauce, which is a key component of the MedDiet and strongly associated with reduced risk of CVD mainly due to its phenolic, polyphenols, and carotenoids contents [25]. Lebanese population showed an alarming increase in nutrition-related CVD risk factors [26]. ...
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Scarce studies described eating habits and diet quality among university students in Lebanon. The aim of this study is to assess the rate of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) among Lebanese university students. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out on 525 students (53% men, 18–25 years old) from the University of Balamand, Lebanon. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed using a validated 14-item MedDiet adherence score. Mean adherence to the MedDiet was 7.96 (standard deviation 2.2), and it was adequate in 59% of participants. Adherence to the MedDiet was higher in older students and nonsmokers. Legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts were consumed according to the MedDiet standards among a minimum of 48.4% and a maximum of 69.5% of participants. Chicken, turkey, or rabbit was preferred by 66.9% of participants instead of beef, pork, hamburgers, or sausages; however, just 56.2% of participants showed adequate intake of red meat, hamburger, or meat products. Only 28.8% of them referred to an adequate intake of fish or shellfish. Most of the participants (86.3%) used olive oil as the main added fat, and 67.2% reported a low intake of butter and derivatives. Sofrito was also very usual among participants (79.6%). Only half of the studied sample reported an adequate intake of sweet or carbonated beverages and commercial sweets or pastries. Among the assessed sample, half the participants showed adequate adherence to the MedDiet; however, the mean of adherence among the sample is low.
... At the same time, the inner contents of the cells become more accessible such as, for example, polyphenols and other flavouring molecules such as organic acids, sugars and volatile compounds [3]. This effect is negative from a nutritional point of view on those thermosensitive antioxidants like vitamin C but at the same time, the extractability of bounded polyphenols and flavonoids is improved as they become more available [4][5][6]. In this sense, a recent study concluded that the use of onions among the ingredients of the sofrito combined with an adequate simmering process improves the bioavailability of lycopene in tomato products [2]. However, sofrito contains other valuable compounds which can contribute to healthy properties of the preparation such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid, and vitamin E. The determination of antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content assays are frequently found in literature, their sensitivity and selectivity being different, although the principle of working is similar. ...
... Studies based on antioxidant capacity in fresh and industrial processed tomato using different types of assays such as the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity [6,7], total antioxidant activity (TEAC) [4], ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation scavenging assay [7] can be found in the literature. These studies are focused on industrially processed tomatoes [5] and derivatives but information on the influence on the change of one ingredient on the antioxidant and volatile contents in homemade sofrito is actually scarce. ...
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In this study, six different sofrito formulations were compared with the raw recipe for total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) methods. The volatile profile was also obtained by the headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC–MS) procedure. The cooking process and the addition of herbs, and garlic improved the final content of antioxidant compounds compared to the basic recipe and the raw ingredients. The total volatile content was higher in the samples that contained rosemary and thymus. Some of the volatiles had proven antioxidant properties and for that reason the sofrito with rosemary with the higher volatile content was also the one with the higher antioxidant capacity and TPC. In conclusion, as well as the processing technique, the addition of selected typical Mediterranean herbs apart from given flavour can contribute to improving the nutritional antioxidant profile of dishes and be used as a natural method to increase the shelf-life of preparation.
... The cladodes of the prickly pear are a source of BC, which the dietary fiber (mucilages), betalaínas, and to a lesser extent, carotenoids; also minerals, and some vitamins [109]. Within the betacyanins of the purple prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica), betanine has been mainly identified, with isobetanine and indicaxanthin at lower levels [110]. Both the fruits and the cladodes of the prickly pear are also a source of PC [30,110]. ...
... Within the betacyanins of the purple prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica), betanine has been mainly identified, with isobetanine and indicaxanthin at lower levels [110]. Both the fruits and the cladodes of the prickly pear are also a source of PC [30,110]. Purple Opuntia has the highest concentration of PC, about 660 mg GAE/L of juice. ...
Article
Functional foods have been used worldwide since ancient times, particularly, the prehispanic civilizations used several plants as medicinal foods. Nowadays many Mexicans populations preserve their traditions and dietary patterns based on corn, beans, besides other endemic vegetables, mainly diverse varieties of chili, tomatoes and other plant-foods. It is well known that each species has a special complex mixture of bioactive compounds (BC) in which each component contributes to its overall bioactivity. These BC are plant metabolites that benefit human health by means of anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, and antioxidant effects. However, its to become bioactive at human body when these BC must undergo diverse intestinal transformations, due to the action of digestive enzymes, but also by the action of microbiota metabolism. Thus, the intestinal microbiota is a key factor in the mediation of the physiological functions of dietary polyphenols. Really, limited information is available, especially on dietary phytochemicals and metabolism in the commonly available Mexican plant-foods. In this review, the bioaccesibility and bioavailability major BC from traditional Mexican plant-foods products and its potential health benefits will be discussed. Besides, we compile the scientific reports and the evidence of the impact of some Mexican plant-foods on the gut microbiota dynamic composition, specific microbial metabolites and its possible contributions to human health.
... The polyphenol and carotenoid profile of sofrito varies according to its composition [8], but as tomato is the principle ingredient, the major carotenoids are lycopene and β-carotene [8]. Carotenoids in food are mainly all-trans isomers, whereas cis-isomers predominate in the human organism [9]. ...
... The polyphenol and carotenoid profile of sofrito varies according to its composition [8], but as tomato is the principle ingredient, the major carotenoids are lycopene and β-carotene [8]. Carotenoids in food are mainly all-trans isomers, whereas cis-isomers predominate in the human organism [9]. ...
Article
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Sofrito is a Mediterranean tomato-based sauce that typically also contains olive oil, onion, and garlic. The preparation of sofrito modifies the bioactive compounds (carotenoids and polyphenols) in the ingredients to more bioavailable forms, promoting cis-lycopene formation and polyphenol bioaccessibility. To evaluate the health benefits of this cooking technique, the effect of consuming an acute dose of sofrito on the inflammatory status was studied. In a clinical trial, 22 healthy male subjects consumed a single dose of sofrito (240 g/70 kg) after three days without ingesting any tomato products and following a low-antioxidant diet the day before the intervention. Plasma carotenoids and total polyphenol excretion (TPE) were evaluated, as well as the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). After the sofrito intake, a significant decrease in CRP (p = 0.010) and TNF-α (p = 0.011) was observed, but only TNF-α was inversely correlated with an increase in TPE and plasma β-carotene (not the major carotenoid, lycopene). The positive health effects of this tomato-based product may be attributed not only to lycopene, but to the bioactive compounds of all the ingredients.
... The diet was analysed by HPLC-MS/MS to confirm the lack of naringenin and its metabolites. Extraction of the polyphenol compounds from the diet was performed in triplicate following the procedure described by Vallverdú-Queralt et al. (10) with some modifications. Samples of 0·3 g were homogenised by adding 3 ml of 80 % (v/v) ethanol in Milli-Q water acidified with 0·1 % (v/v) formic acid; after sonication for 5 min and centrifugation (1484·7 g at 48C) for 20 min (Centrifuge 5415R), the supernatant was transferred into a flask and the extraction was repeated once following the same parameters. ...
... from Phenomenex using the following parameters: the mobile phase was H 2 O (A) and acetonitrile (B), with 0·1 % formic acid in both solvents. An increasing linear gradient (v/v) of B was used (t (min), %B), as follows: (0, 5); (2,25); (10,90); (11,100); (12,100); (17,5); (20,5), at a constant flow rate of 0·6 ml/min, and the injection volume was 20 ml. The turbo ion spray source was in negative mode with the following settings: capillary voltage, 2 4500 V; nebuliser gas (N 2 ), 10 (arbitrary units); curtain gas (N 2 ), 12 (arbitrary units); and drying gas (N 2 ) heated to 4008C. ...
Article
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The present study aims to determine the permeability of naringenin in the stomach, small intestine and colon, to evaluate intestinal and hepatic first-pass metabolism, and to study the influence of the microbiota on the absorption and disposition of naringenin (3·5 μg/ml). A single-pass intestinal perfusion model in mice (n 4-6) was used. Perfusate (every 10 min), blood (at 60 min) and bile samples were taken and analysed to evaluate the presence of naringenin and its metabolites by an HPLC-MS/MS method. To study the influence of the microbiota on the bioavailability of naringenin, a group of animals received the antibiotic rifaximin (50 mg/kg per d) for 5 d, and naringenin permeability was determined in the colon. Naringenin was absorbed well throughout the gastrointestinal tract but mainly in the small intestine and colon (mean permeability coefficient 7·80 (sd 1·54) × 10- 4cm/s and 5·49 (sd 1·86) × 10- 4cm/s, respectively), at a level similar to the highly permeable compound, naproxen (6·39 (sd 1·23) × 10- 4cm/s). According to the high amounts of metabolites found in the perfusate compared to the bile and plasma, naringenin underwent extensive intestinal first-pass metabolism, and the main metabolites excreted were sulfates (84·00 (sd 12·14)%), followed by glucuronides (8·40 (sd 5·67)%). Phase II metabolites were found in all perfusates from 5 min of sampling. Mice treated with rifaximin showed a decrease in naringenin permeability and in the amounts of 4-hydroxyhippuric acid and hippuric acid in the lumen. Naringenin was well absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and its poor bioavailability was due mainly to high intestinal metabolism.
... Foods are a source of nutrients, energy and other bioactive compounds [41], but not all of them have the same composition. Some foods can be used as sources of specific nutrients or compounds in the design of foods for target populations with specific dietary requirements. ...
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Micro- and macro-nutrient deficiencies among women are considered a global issue that the food industry has not adequately considered until recently. The industry must provide and guarantee a diversity of food products worldwide that allow women to get a correct and balanced diet according their life stage. The food industry must focus on this challenge within a framework of sustainable production, minimizing the use of natural resources and avoiding the emission of waste and pollutants throughout the life cycle of food. Food coproducts are presented as potential bioactive functional compounds which can be useful for technological purposes, due to the fact that they can serve as non-chemical, natural and health-improving food ingredients. In this review, we focus on the potential use of food processing coproducts which must be part of a strategy to promote and improve women’s health and well-being. This knowledge will make it possible to select potential ingredients from coproducts to be used in the fortification of foods intended for consumption by females and to introduce sustainability and gender perspectives into food innovation. The attainment of fortifications for foods for women has to be linked to the use of sustainable sources from food coproducts in order to be economically viable and competitive.
... Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a plant food that originated in Asia and whose consumption is widespread throughout the world, being a fundamental ingredient in the diet of the Mediterranean basin. 1 Historically, the regular consumption of garlic has been associated with a multitude of health benefits, making it an interesting subject of study for many researchers. 2,3 For instance, regular garlic consumption has been related to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome by decreasing serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing fibrinolytic activity. ...
... A mixture of flavonoids-rich foods is present in the sofrito, widely used in the Mediterranean diet (152). Sofrito is composed of several ingredients rich in phenolic compounds, such as tomatoes, onions and olive oil (153). Naringenin is the main flavonone present in fresh tomatoes and tomato sauces (154,155) (158)]. ...
Article
Since in late 2019, when the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to spread all over the world, causing the awful global pandemic we are still experiencing, an impressive number of biologists, infectious disease scientists, virologists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, immunologists, and other researchers working in laboratories of all the advanced countries focused their research on the setting up of biotechnological tools, namely vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, as well as of rational design of drugs for therapeutic approaches. While vaccines have been quickly obtained, no satisfactory anti-Covid-19 preventive, or therapeutic approach has so far been discovered and approved. However, among the possible ways to achieve the goal of COVID-19 prevention or mitigation, there is one route, i.e., the diet, which until now has had little consideration. In fact, in the edible parts of plants supplying our food, there are a fair number of secondary metabolites mainly belonging to the large class of the flavonoids, endowed with antiviral or other health beneficial activities such as immunostimulating or anti-inflammatory action that could play a role in contributing to some extent to prevent or alleviate the viral infection and/or counteract the development of SARS induced by the novel coronavirus. In this review, a number of bioactive phytochemicals, in particular flavonoids, proven to be capable of providing some degree of protection against COVID-19, are browsed, illustrating their beneficial properties and mechanisms of action as well as their distribution in cultivated plant species which supply food for the human diet. Furthermore, room is also given to information regarding the amount in food, the resistance to cooking processes and, as a very important feature, the degree of bioavailability of these compounds. Concluding, remarks and perspectives for future studies aimed at increasing and improving knowledge and the possibility of using this natural complementary therapy to counteract COVID-19 and other viral pathologies are discussed.
... A mixture of flavonoids-rich foods is present in the sofrito, widely used in the Mediterranean diet (152). Sofrito is composed of several ingredients rich in phenolic compounds, such as tomatoes, onions and olive oil (153). Naringenin is the main flavonone present in fresh tomatoes and tomato sauces (154,155) (158)]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since in late 2019, when the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to spread all over the world, causing the awful global pandemic we are still experiencing, an impressive number of biologists, infectious disease scientists, virologists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, immunologists, and other researchers working in laboratories of all the advanced countries focused their research on the setting up of biotechnological tools, namely vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, as well as of rational design of drugs for therapeutic approaches. While vaccines have been quickly obtained, no satisfactory anti-Covid-19 preventive, or therapeutic approach has so far been discovered and approved. However, among the possible ways to achieve the goal of COVID-19 prevention or mitigation, there is one route, i.e., the diet, which until now has had little consideration. In fact, in the edible parts of plants supplying our food, there are a fair number of secondary metabolites mainly belonging to the large class of the flavonoids, endowed with antiviral or other health beneficial activities such as immunostimulating or anti-inflammatory action that could play a role in contributing to some extent to prevent or alleviate the viral infection and/or counteract the development of SARS induced by the novel coronavirus. In this review, a number of bioactive phytochemicals, in particular flavonoids, proven to be capable of providing some degree of protection against COVID-19, are browsed, illustrating their beneficial properties and mechanisms of action as well as their distribution in cultivated plant species which supply food for the human diet. Furthermore, room is also given to information regarding the amount in food, the resistance to cooking processes and, as a very important feature, the degree of bioavailability of these compounds. Concluding, remarks and perspectives for future studies aimed at increasing and improving knowledge and the possibility of using this natural complementary therapy to counteract COVID-19 and other viral pathologies are discussed.
... APX, ascorbate peroxidase; CAT, catalase; GPX, guaiacol peroxidase; GR, glutathione reductase; SOD, superoxide dismutase; TFC, total flavonoid compounds; TPA, total phenolic acids; TPC, total phenolic compounds. damage (Upadhyay et al., 2010;Vallverdú-Queralt et al., 2013). At 400 mM NaCl, the reduced levels of DPPH suggest a failure in the ROS scavenging system, resulting in the imbalance between the produced antioxidants and ROS, which explains the chlorosis and/or necrosis of almost 20% of the leaves (data not shown). ...
... Therefore, peak P9 was tentatively identied as eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, 30 while peaks P10, P18, and P19 were tentatively identied as eriodictyol-O-hexoside isomers. 31 3.3.2 Flavanonols. ...
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In this study, Malay cherry fruit were explored for the changes in their nutritive and phenolic compositions upon ripening (unripe and ripe stages). Nutritive compositions (sugars, proteins, and fats) of the fruit increased, whilst organic acids of the fruit decreased in ripe fruit. Twenty-eight non-anthocyanin phenolics of the fruit were identified by the high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF/MS²). Among them, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are dominant species in the unripe fruit, and four more phenolics are shown in the ripe fruit. Additionally, seventeen anthocyanins were solely identified in the ripe fruit. This could be the signature phenolic profile of Malay cherry fruit. The total phenolics and total proanthocyanidins of the fruit significantly decreased upon ripening. Consistently, antioxidant capacities of the fruit also decreased upon ripening. Our results suggest unripe fruit are good sources of phenolic antioxidants that are worthwhile for utilisation as functional food sources.
... Onion is also often added in processed tomato products such as sauces and soups and home cooking such as sofrito (Koutidou, Grauwet, Van Loey, & Acharya, 2017). Sofrito is a typical home-made tomato-based Mediterranean sauce (Vallverdú-Queralt, de Alvarenga, Estruch, & Lamuela-Raventos, 2013) where onions are lightly fried in olive oil prior to addition of tomato and further cooking for typically ¼ to ½ h; such sauces (lipids, onion or other Alliaceae, and tomato) exist in many culinary variants around the world. ...
Article
Tomatoes, the major sources of lycopene in human diet, are often processed into multi-ingredient products that contain vegetable oil and onion. Microwave heating (250W for 20 min) tomato-based purees in the presence ofboth onion and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) clearly promoted Z-isomerization of lycopene and increased transfer of lycopene into oil (expressed as partition factor (PF) between tomato-based puree and oil), while only PF increased with either one of both ingredients. The proportion of Z-lycopene and PF increased with the additionof onion (10–50%) and EVOO (1–10%). This increase could be fitted with a linear equation, with R2 over 0.807. Microwave heating time (0–30 min at 250 W) also promoted Z-isomerization of lycopene and PF (R2 over 0.910), and among different microwave heating combinations (power, time), the combinations of high power and short time had greater effects. The PF of total-Z-lycopene was higher than that of all-E-lycopene. Theproportion of total-Z-lycopene and 5-Z-lycopene present in the tomato-based purees after the same microwave treatment was positively correlated with the PF of total lycopene, with R2 higher than 0.690 (p=0.0008), which illustrated that the increased proportion of Z-lycopene with onion and EVOO could contribute to enhancedtransfer of lycopene.
... In addition to lipids, onion is frequently used in sauces and soups (Koutidou, Grauwet, Van Loey, & Acharya, 2017) as well as home cooking (e.g. sofrito, a typical home-made tomato-based Mediterranean sauce) (Vallverdú-Queralt, de Alvarenga, Estruch, & Lamuela-Raventos, 2013) and could impact the ratio of lycopene E/Z isomers (Rinaldi de Alvarenga et al., 2017). ...
Article
Z-lycopene isomers are more bioavailable than all-E-lycopene, especially 5-Z-lycopene. Based on our observations, the addition of unblanched onion could favor Z-isomerization of lycopene (by more than 94%) during heating tomato-onion-extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) purees at 90 °C for 2 h. The increase in Z-lycopene was correlated linearly with the addition of unblanched onion, with R² > 0.92, and increased rates of 5-Z-lycopene were 3–4 times higher than for 9-Z-lycopene and 13-Z-lycopene. Diallyl disulfide (DADS), formed by alliinase-catalyzed breakdown of non-volatile precursors in onion, contributed to these increases and correlated linearly (R² > 0.79, 0–0.50 mg/g puree) with increased Z-lycopene. Increased rates of 5-Z-lycopene were also 3–4 times higher than for 9-Z-lycopene and 13-Z-lycopene. However, blanching of onion, in tomato-onion-EVOO purees, before heating, significantly decreased the effect of onion on Z-isomerization of lycopene.
... Examination of mass spectra of kernel peach samples revealed 8 flavanonols and their ester and ether derivatives. Except compounds 29 and 30, the rest of flavanonols were pinobanksin (32) and its derivatives (31,(33)(34)(35)(36). Taxifolin (29) was identified only in kernel of the standard cultivar Bolero. The main fragmentation ions at m/z 285, 177, and 125 from taxifolin were also observed and matched with Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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Recently, search for new natural sources of compounds with health-enhancing properties prompted interest in fruit kernels. This paper aims to assess peach kernels as a source of nutritionally important compounds, such as phenolic compounds. A total of 25 kernels from various peach germplasm differing in origin and ripening time were characterized by their phenolic profiles. Ultra-high-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap MS/MS hybrid mass spectrometry was used for determination of 76 different organic compounds. The content of identified phenolic compounds indicated peach kernel as reliable source of bioactive substances with prevalent concentrations of catechin and several phenolic acids. Statistical procedures confirm that phenolic compounds could be used as phytochemical biomarkers to differentiate peach kernel samples belonging to different cultivars/genotypes according to their origin and ripening time. The CATPCA confirmed the possibility of application of chemical profiles presented only as categorical variables for classification.
... The addition of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) sauce is another important step in the preparation. Forty polyphenols and seven carotenoids have been identified in a typical Med Diet tomato sauce, whose composition has attracted the interest of food professionals for its nutritional and chemo preventive value (MARTÍ et al., 2016;SHEN et al., 2007;VALLVERDÚ-QUERALT et al., 2013). Tomatoes contain several micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, folates, phenolic compounds and lycopene (VALLVERDÚ-QUERALT et al., 2012). ...
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The basic ingredients used to make the Italian soffritto were studied in order to define the polyphenol, antioxidant capacity and lycopene content of homemade or commercial tomato sauces, as well as their contribute in whole wheat or refined wheat pasta. The addition of aromatic herbs to sauces increased polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, with basil providing the biggest boost, whereas ready-made commercial tomato sauces showed the lowest antioxidant values. Cooked whole wheat pasta with homemade tomato sauce offers an enormous amount of antioxidants, which could protect against oxidative stress.
... Igualmente, se ha reportado que el consumo de alimentos ricos en licopeno reduce el riesgo de cáncer, especialmente cáncer de próstata [27][28][29][30][31][32] . Precisamente, en el estudio PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea), el cuestionario validado para evaluar el cumplimiento de la dieta mediterránea adjudica puntaje a los que consumen sofrito dos o más veces por semana 33,34 . ...
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The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a healthy dietary pattern. It includes a great variety of foods, which are eaten in moderation and within a positive social environment. The generic term “Mediterranean diet” was born after the “Seven Countries Study” led by Ancel Keys around 1960. This dietary pattern is characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, white meats and olive oil. It also includes moderate consumption of fermented dairy products, low intake of red meat and drinking wine with moderation during meals. Nutritionally, this diet is low in saturated fats and animal protein, high in antioxidants, fiber and monounsaturated fats, and exhibits an adequate omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid balance. The main bioactive compounds, which explain the health benefits of this dietary pattern, are antioxidants, fiber, monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and probiotics. This diet is not exclusively confined to the Mediterranean Basin. Central Chile has a Mediterranean climate and our agriculture and culinary traditions are similar to those found in Mediterranean countries. Therefore, it is fundamental to increase awareness about the richness of our natural produce as well as our culinary culture, which may bring many health benefits and improve the quality of life in our population.
... The PREDIMED (PREvención con Dieta MEDiterranea) study confirmed the 38 health benefits of the vegetable-based Mediterranean diet, which are attributed to a high 39 ingestion of phytochemicals (Estruch et al., 2013). Adherence to this diet has become 40 popular in non-Mediterranean countries and assessment of its effects must take into studied, but to our knowledge, a possible synergistic effect of the ingredients of home-77 made sofrito has not been studied. ...
Article
There has been increasing interest in tomato products rich in lycopene Z-isomers since these carotenoids present greater bioavailability and antioxidant capacity than the all-E lycopene form. Intrinsic food properties as well as processing and the interaction between dietary components can all influence the content, type and bioavailability of carotenoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether carotenoid content and isomerization in tomato-based Mediterranean sofrito is affected by the process of home cooking and the presence of other ingredients such as extra virgin olive oil, onion and garlic. We used a full factorial design to clarify the contribution of each ingredient to the carotenoid composition of sofrito and to determine whether this can be improved by the cooking time and ingredient synergism. Cooking time and onion content were associated with a higher production of 5-Z-lycopene, 9-Z-lycopene and 13-Z-lycopene in sofrito. Onion proved to be the most interesting ingredient in the sofrito formulation due to their enhancing effect on lycopene isomerization. The use of onion combined with an adequate processing time may improve the bioavailability of lycopene in tomato products.
... Compounds 6 (Rt 18.81 min), 8 (Rt 22.83 min), and 10 (Rt 28.56 min) presented the same fragmentation pattern with a carbon dioxide loss, which is common for acidic phenylpropanoids ( Bastos et al., 2007). Based on their exact masses and fragmentation behaviors, three hydroxycinnamic acids were proposed: caffeic (m/z 179.0360), p-coumaric (m/z 163.0423), and ferulic (m/z 193.0506) acids, respectively ( Vallverdú-Queralt, de Alvarenga, Estruch, & Lamuela-Raventos, 2013). Compound 7 (Rt 21.25 min) displayed the deprotonated molecule at m/z 197.0472, together with the main fragments at m/z 179 (− H 2 O) and 135 (− CO 2 ). ...
... Tomatoes are the most important component of the Mediterranean diet, known to be beneficial for human health [6]. A relationship between the consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based foods and the prevention of chronic degenerative disease induced by oxidative stress and inflammation has been indicated in several studies [7 -10]. ...
Chapter
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world and probably the most preferred garden crop. It is a key component of the Mediterranean diet, commonly associated with a reduced risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Currently there are a large number of tomato cultivars with different morphological and sensorial characteristics and tomato-based products, being major sources of nourishment for the world’s population. Its consumption brings health benefits, linked with its high levels of bioactive ingredients. The main compounds are carotenoids such as β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, and mostly lycopene, which is responsible for the red colour, vitamins in particular ascorbic acid and tocopherols, phenolic compounds including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids, and lectins. The content of these compounds is variety dependent. Besides, unlike unripe tomatoes, which contain a high content of tomatine (glycoalkaloid) but no lycopene, ripe red tomatoes contain high amounts of lycopene and a lower quantity of glycoalkaloids. Current studies demonstrate the several benefits of these bioactive compounds, either isolated or in combined extracts, namely anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects among other health benefits, mainly due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The chemistry, bioavailability and bioactivity of these bioactive compounds will be discussed, as well as the main mechanisms of action against cancer and other bioactivities including antioxidant, antiinflammatory, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective effects in humans. Possible applications of tomato bioactive compounds in the industry will also be proposed.
... An exhaustive identification of polyphenols in food and biological samples is of great interest due to their health-promoting effects. Although a wide range of methods have been reported for the detection of phenolic compounds in food, beverages, or biological samples (i.e., spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis, near-infrared spectroscopy, HPLC-UV-DAD) [9-12], liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) [13][14][15][16][17][18] is the most commonly used technique due to its high sensitivity and selectivity. ...
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An UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tomato phenolic metabolites in human fluids was optimized and validated, and then applied in a pilot dietary intervention study with healthy volunteers. A 5-fold gain in speed (3.5 min of total run); 7-fold increase in MS sensitivity and 2-fold greater efficiency (50% peak width reduction) were observed when comparing the proposed method with the reference-quality HPLC-MS/MS system, whose assay performance has been previously documented. The UHPLC-MS/MS method led to an overall improvement in the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for all the phenolic compounds studied. The recoveries ranged between 68% and 100% in urine and 61% and 100% in plasma. The accuracy; intra- and interday precision; and stability met with the acceptance criteria of the AOAC International norms. Due to the improvements in the analytical method; the total phenolic metabolites detected in plasma and urine in the pilot intervention study were 3 times higher than those detected by HPLC-MS/MS. Comparing with traditional methods; which require longer time of analysis; the methodology described is suitable for the analysis of phenolic compounds in a large number of plasma and urine samples in a reduced time frame.
... The flow rate was set to 350 µL/min and the injection volume was 5 µL. These conditions were adapted from a previous work with some modifications (Vallverdú-Queralt et al., 2013a). ...
Article
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Culinary herbs and spices have long been considered essentially as flavor enhancers or preservatives, with little attention given to their potential health-promoting properties. Nevertheless, recent research has shown them to be significant dietary sources of bioactive phenolic compounds. Despite noteworthy efforts performed in recent years to improve our knowledge of their chemical composition, a detailed phenolic profile of these plant-based products is still lacking. In the present work, antioxidant activities and phenolic composition of five herbs and spices, namely caraway, turmeric, dill, marjoram and nutmeg, have been studied. The use of liquid chromatography coupled to LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry enabled the identification of up to 42 phenolic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, two of them, apigenin-C-hexoside-C-pentoside and apigenin-C-hexoside-C-hexoside have not been previously reported in turmeric. Qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in polyphenol profiles, with the highest phenolic content found in caraway. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the detection of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices.
... The red wine extract and the ZF embryos were also analysed for their antioxidant capacity (AC) using a DPPH assay (Vallverdú-Queralt et al., 2013). ...
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The present study provides, for the first time, a physicochemical and biochemical characterization of the redox processes associated with the ripening of Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet) berries. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPRS) and Imaging (EPRI) measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed in parallel with the tissue-specific metabolic profiling of major antioxidants and assessment of antioxidant enzymes activity. Fruit transition from the mature green (MG) to ripe red (RR) stage involved changes in the qualitative and quantitative content of antioxidants and the associated cellular oxidation and peroxidation processes. The skin of bittersweet berries, which was the major source of antioxidants, exhibited the highest antioxidant potential against DPPH radicals and nitroxyl spin probe 3CP. The efficient enzymatic antioxidant system played a critical protective role against the deleterious effects of progressive oxidative stress during ripening. Here, we present the EPRI methodology to assess the redox status of fruits and to discriminate between the redox states of different tissues. Interestingly, the intracellular reoxidation of cell-permeable nitroxide probe 3CP was observed for the first time in fruits or any other plant tissue, and its intensity is herein proposed as a reliable indicator of oxidative stress during ripening. The described noninvasive EPRI technique has the potential to have broader application in the study of redox processes associated with the development, senescence, and postharvest storage of fruits, as well as other circumstances in which oxidative stress is implicated.
Article
Background Emerging evidence indicates that healthy dietary patterns are associated with higher cognitive status; however, few clinical trials have explored this association in diverse middle-aged adults before the onset of cognitive decline. We use novel ambulatory methods to assess cognition in natural settings in tandem with diet recording. Aims We investigate whether the Multicultural Healthy Diet Study to Reduce Cognitive Decline & Alzheimer's Disease Risk, a pilot randomized controlled trial of an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern compared to usual diet, can mitigate cognitive decline and Alzheimer's Disease risk in a diverse population of 40–65 year old adults in Bronx, New York. Methods Primary cognitive outcomes assessed at nine months are collected in an ecological momentary assessment “measurement burst” design, over the course of participants' daily lives. These ultra-brief, ambulatory cognitive assessments examine processing speed, visuospatial working memory, short-term associative memory binding, long-term associative memory, and working memory capacity. Key secondary outcomes relate to comparing dietary intake between study arms with respect to cognitive outcomes. We assess diet with food records using the National Cancer Institute's Automated Self-Administered 24-h record and serum biomarkers. We further investigate the association of self-reported diet and dietary biomarkers with inflammatory-based biomarkers. Conclusion This randomized controlled trial of diet and cognition for the first time combines novel measures of ambulatory cognitive assessment with web-based assessment of dietary intake recording. This new approach enabled the study to continue in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic in remote format.
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Background Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), the main fat in the Mediterranean diet, is consumed both raw and cooked. During the cooking process, its major and minor fractions are transformed, degraded, and oxidized due to exposure to heat and oxygen. Scope and approach This review examines the effect of cooking on EVOO, including the modification of its fatty acids and minor compounds; the interaction between EVOO and food matrices; the migration of components from the oil to food and vice versa; and how EVOO may enhance the stability and health properties of the cooked food. Key findings and conclusions EVOO has several advantages over other vegetable oils used in cooking. Its fatty acid profile and minor constituents keep the oil stable under high temperatures. By absorbing the oil, the cooked food is likewise protected from oxidation and enriched with EVOO health-promoting bioactive compounds. Finally, food bioactive compounds become more bioavailable upon migration to the oil.
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Background: Tomato is widely consumed throughout the world for its flavor and nutritional value. This functional food largely depends on the implementation of new strategies to maintain the nutraceutical value, e.g. lycopene concentration, and overcome the challenges of sustainable production and food security. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-based biostimulants represents one of the most promising tools for sustainable management of agricultural soils, being fundamental for organic food production, reducing fertilizers and pesticides use, and decreasing environmental damage. This study aimed at elucidating whether native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could positively affect tomato yield and lycopene concentration. Results: Native AMF inoculum consisted of two inoculum types: the single species Claroideoglomus claroideum, and a mix of Scutellospora calospora, Acaulospora laevis, Claroideoglomus claroideum, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum. At the end of the study up to 78% of the root system was colonized by single inoculum. Tomato diameters in single and mix mycorrhizal plants showed increases of 80% and 35% respectively. Fresh weights were 84% and 38% higher with single and mix inocula compared with the controls, respectively. The lycopene concentration in tomato fruits of plants with single and mix inoculum was higher than controls. The lycopene concentration was 124.5% and 113.9% greater in single and mix than non-inoculated plants. Conclusion: Tomato diameters, fresh weight and lycopene concentration was significantly higher in plants colonized by AMF compared with uninoculated plants. Results suggest that the role of single species Claroideoglomus claroideum could generate better plant performance due to its high production of extraradical mycelium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Many studies indicate that diets including carotenoid-rich foods have positive effects on human health. Some of these compounds are precursors of the essential nutrient vitamin A. The present work is aimed at implementing a database of carotenoid contents of foods available in the European market. Factors affecting carotenoid content were also discussed. Analytical data available in peer-reviewed scientific literature from 1990 to 2018 and obtained by HPLC/UHPLC were considered. The database includes foods classified according to the FoodEx2 system and will benefit compilers, nutritionists and other professionals in areas related to food and human health. The results show the importance of food characterization to ensure its intercomparability, as large variations in carotenoid levels are observed between species and among varieties/cultivars/landraces. This highlights the significance of integrating nutritional criteria into agricultural choices and of promoting biodiversity. The uncertainty quantification associated with the measurements of the carotenoid content was very rarely evaluated in the literature consulted. According to the EuroFIR data quality evaluation system for food composition tables, the total data quality index mean was 24 in 35, reflecting efforts by researchers in the analytical methods, and less resources in the sampling plan documentation. Citation: Dias, G.; Borge, G.I.A.; Kljak, K.; Mandić, A.I.; Mapelli-Brahm, P.; Olmedilla-Alonso, B.; Pintea, A.M.; Ravasco, F.; Šaponjac, V.T.; Sereikaitė, J.; et al. European Publisher's Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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Bioactive compounds may lose their antioxidant activity (e.g., phenolic compounds) at elevated temperatures, enhanced oxidative conditions and severe light exposures so they should be protected by various strategies such as nano/microencapsulation methods. Encapsulation technology has been employed as a proper method for using antioxidant ingredients and to provide easy dispersibility of antioxidants in all matrices including food and pharmaceutical products. It can improve the food fortification processes, release of antioxidant ingredients, and extending the shelf-life and bioavailability of them when ingested in the intestine. In this study, our main goal is to have an overview of the influence of nanoencapsulation on the bioactivity and bioavailability, and cellular activities of antioxidant ingredients in different delivery systems. Also, the effect of encapsulation process conditions, storage conditions, carrier wall materials, and release profile on the antioxidant activity of different natural bioactives are explained. Finally, analytical techniques for measuring antioxidant activity of nanoencapsulated ingredients will be covered.
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Most of daily eaten food are cooked, which helps in absorbing nutrients and phytochemicals, but at the same time it can decrease its content. Currently, the impact of cooking has been studied that could influence food health related compounds, but they have a limited view of compounds by not consider molecular structural modifications and new compounds formation. An untargeted approach using LC-ESI-LQT-Orbitrap-MS/MS and univariate/multivariate statistical analysis was applied to understand how the preparation of a recipe, varying its ingredients (olive oil, 5–10%; onion, 20–40%; and garlic, 2–4%) and cooking time, could modulate the chemical profile of a tomato sofrito sauce. The presence of unexplored compounds that may have a beneficial effect on health, such as phytoprostanes, hydroxycinnamic acid amides and compounds such as 3,4 dihydroxyphenylglycone was revealed. Moreover, cooking was able to modulate the content of compounds like aminoacids, thiosulfates or phenolics and could be used as a tool to increase these molecules. The untargeted approach on cooking allows to use a recipe as a tool to improve a chemical profile of a dish, which opens the view for new dietary recommendations by cuisine to improve our diet, habits and health.
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Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with a low incidence of colorectal cancer, but the specific dietary constituents involved and mechanisms related to these beneficial effects are still sparse. Sofrito, a traditional MD preparation, is a mix of foods characteristics of MD such as tomato, onion, garlic, and extra virgin olive oil, which contains many bioactive phenolic compounds and carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to determine the action of these components of sofrito on reactive oxygen species and eicosanoid production as well as the cell growth/cell cycle in adenocarcinoma cell cultures. We observed that hydroxytyrosol, naringenin, naringenin glucuronide, and to a lesser extent lycopene and β-carotene modulate these events in Caco-2 cell cultures. Interestingly, we also found an additive action of these bioactive compounds that could explain these biological actions on concentrations reached after the consumption of a traditional MD.
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Background: Sofrito, a basic culinary technique widely used in the Mediterranean, may preserve dietary polyphenols and enhance their intake in the Mediterranean population. The aim of this study was to investigate if the sofrito technique improves the polyphenol extractability in a tomato-based sofrito sauce. Results: A full factorial design was applied using mathematical models. The content of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid hexoside and naringenin was higher in the sofrito sauce than in raw tomato. The bioaccessibility of some tomato polyphenols was enhanced by the presence of olive oil and they were protected from oxidation during the cooking process by the use of onion. Conclusion: The use of olive oil and onion in Mediterranean cooking as a base for sauces and dishes, with an appropriate cooking time, preserve the polyphenol content of food. Thus, Mediterranean cuisine may contributes to the health effects of the Mediterranean diet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Traditional tomatoes are highly valued for their organoleptic quality and cultural links with a territory. At present, strong competition has put these crops at risk, and it is necessary to differentiate the local cultivars and improve their nutritional value. This work focused on the nutritional study of four selected lines of a local tomato grown in two locations and in two agronomic conditions to nutritionally characterize the tomatoes and to study the effect of location and cultivation on nutritional parameters. Data on nutritional characterization revealed significant effects of location and treatment in most compounds. Tomatoes grown in traditional areas showed a significantly higher concentration of some phenolic acids and beta-carotene. Lycopene contents were not location dependent. The open field test showed significant differences in all the components. Regarding the best nutritional genotypes, all the components were dependent on lines, and significant differences were confirmed between them.
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The PREDIMED clinical trial provided strong evidence that a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) could help prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in high risk middle-aged/older people. This report considers the feasibility of replicating PREDIMED in the U.S., including recommendations for dietary and behavioral principles. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Score (MEDAS) guided the PREDIMED MedDiet recommendations. At baseline MEDAS points were ~8.5. During intervention this score increased to nearly 11 in MedDiet vs. 9 in control. In the MedDiet groups, only about 0.5 points of the net 2 point MEDAS increase was attributable to the gratis supplements of olive oil or nuts. An issue in a U.S. replication is the large difference in typical U.S. versus Spanish diet and lifestyle. A typical U.S. diet would achieve a MEDAS of 1-2. A replication is scientifically feasible with an assumption such as that the MedDiet reflects a continuum of specific food choices and meal patterns. As such, a 2 point change in MEDAS at any point on the continuum would be hypothesized to reduce incident CVD. A conservative approach would aim for a randomized 4 point MEDAS difference, e.g. 5-6 points vs. an average U.S. diet group that achieved only 1-2 points.
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Foods that are commonly consumed in the diet are considered to provide more than 40 different carotenoids. However, the content in carotenoids varies considerably both in qualitative and quantitative terms as a consequence of different genotypes, climatic conditions of the production area and agronomic factors, among others. In this paper, analytical data, obtained by HPLC or UHPLC, of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables produced in Ibero-America have been compiled from peer-reviewed journals, organized in food categories and documented in relation to the sampling and analytical quality system used. In addition to common products of the diet of the Ibero-American countries, other wild or little used fruit and vegetables have been included with the aim of contributing to promote and to value species and local varieties. The importance of the commodities containing carotenoids in food, health, agriculture and biodiversity, and the need of their preservation, was evidenced in this work namely by the large differences in carotenoid content related to the locals of production and varieties, and the high levels of carotenoids in native fruits and vegetables. The contribution of these compounds to meet the needs of vitamin A as well as the necessity of establishing recommendation for the daily intakes of theses bioactive compounds were also discussed.
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Objectives To examine the association between a dietary fat quality index (FQI), and the risk of incident cardiovascular events or deaths in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. DesignLongitudinal analysis during 10.1 years of median follow-up. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD) according to tertiles of FQI and of different fat subtypes. SettingUniversity of Navarra, Spain. Participants19,341 middle-aged adults. MeasurementsFat intake was measured with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The FQI was calculated according to the ratio: (monounsaturated+polyunsaturated) / (saturated+trans fatty acids). ResultsWe observed 140 incident cases of CVD. No association was found for FQI (HR=0.94, 95 %CI 0.61–1.47 for the highest vs the lowest tertile, p for trend=0.884). No significant associations were found for different dietary fat subtypes on CVD risk. The results suggest no clear association between a higher FQI and a higher amount of energy from fat and incidence of CVD (p for interaction: 0.259 and p for trend only among participants with a percentage of energy from fat ≥35% of total energy: 0.272). Conclusion In this Mediterranean cohort, the FQI was not associated with cardiovascular events. A “heart-healthy diet” should focus its attention on dietary fat sources and should use an overall dietary pattern approach, rather than limiting the focus on fat subtypes. More research is needed to validate dietary advice on specific fatty acids intake or saturated fatty acids replacements for reducing CVD risk.
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Background: The sensory and head-space profiles of Italian and Spanish commercial tomato sauces have been studied. The Flash Profiling method was used to evaluate the sensory characteristics and samples within each set and were ranked according to selected descriptors. A hundred volatile compounds were identified by SPME-GC-MS. Results: For Italian samples, the sensory notes of basil/aromatic herbs, acid and cooked tomato were among the most perceived by assessors, whereas in Spanish ones the sensory attributes of garlic/onion, onion/sweet pepper and, as for the Italian ones, cooked tomato were among the most frequently found. Data were elaborated by multivariate statistical approaches and interesting correlations were seen among different sensory attributes and related volatile compounds. Conclusions: Spanish samples were characterized by highest content of volatiles linked to thermal treatment of tomatoes and to raw and sautéed garlic and onion, whereas the Italian ones by terpenic compounds typical of basil and volatile molecules derived from fresh tomato. These results confirm the influence of formulation and production processes on the aromatic profile (sensory attributes and volatile compounds) of tomato products probably linked to different eating habits and culinary tradition in Italy and Spain.
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Flavonoids have elicited significant attention as a result of their importance in plants, their influence on the properties of natural-product derived commodities and especially as a consequence of their purported health benefits. Research in all of these fields relies heavily on accurate analytical data, and in this LC-MS has come to play an influential role by allowing relatively fast tentative identification and accurate quantification of low levels of flavonoids in a variety of matrices. The field has undergone rapid expansion in the last decade due to important developments in both HPLC and MS instrumentation, which nowadays allow much faster and more accurate analysis of flavonoids. This contribution aims to provide an overview of these developments and their application in flavonoid analysis since 2009. The discussion is focussed first on methodologies which provide improved LC separation of flavonoids in terms of speed and/or resolution, including ultra high pressure LC (UHPLC), monolithic and superficially porous phases, high temperature LC (HTLC) and comprehensive two-dimensional LC (LC×LC). The fundamental background relevant to each of these will be briefly outlined, as well as the implications and promise of their hyphenation to MS. Secondly, the possibilities and limitations of a range of the latest MS instruments available in combination with advanced LC analysis will be discussed, including ion trap, triple quadrupole, time-of-flight, Orbitrap, ion mobility and various hybrid instruments. Examples from the latest literature will be used to illustrate the performance gains achievable in flavonoid analysis by the hyphenation of advanced LC separation and high-end MS instrumentation.
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The demand for organic food is increasing annually due to the growing consumer trend for more natural products that have simpler ingredient lists, involve less processing and are grown free of pesticides. However, there is still not enough nutritional evidence in favor of organic food consumption. Classical chemical analysis of macro- and micronutrients has demonstrated that organic crops are poorer in nitrogen, but clear evidence for other nutrients is lacking. Omics technologies forming part of the new discipline of foodomics have allowed the detection of possible nutritional differences between organic and conventional production, although many results remain controversial and contradictory. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the studies that use foodomics techniques as a tool to differentiate between organic and conventional production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Oxidative and nitrosative stress resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction are an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor and regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. Thus known Nrf2 activators from food materials were tested for improvement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP level in neuronal pheochromocytoma cell (PC12) models of oxidative and nitrosative stress. The effects of rotenone and sodium nitroprusside (complex inhibitors of the respiratory chain) on mitochondrial function were also studied. Furthermore, Nrf2 activators were tested in human embryonic kidney cells bearing the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APPsw HEK cells) as a cellular model of familial AD. Preincubation with S-allyl-l-cysteine and isoliquiritigenin increased MMP in both PC12 cell models in a similar range as the positive control l-sulforaphane. None of the test compounds, however, improved MMP and ATP level in APPsw HEK cells.
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The major chemical compounds in the ethyl acetate extract from Ficus pandurata Hance aerial roots were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF MS). The ESI-MS analysis was operated at the mass range of m/z 100-800 under both the positive and the negative ionization modes, respectively. A total of 34 compounds, such as 12 phenolics, 8 coumarins, 9 flavonoids, 4 fatty acids, and 1 anthraquinone, which are characterized in the ethyl acetate extract, based on the accurate mass of molecular and product ions provided by Q-TOF MS, comparison with standard substances and references. It is an effective method to provide chemical information concerning the constituents in herbal medicines, which makes component analysis more convinced. ©, 2015, Chinese Society for Mass Spectrometry. All right reserved.
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The question of whether heated fats in the diet may be detrimental to health is nowadays of the upmost concern, but finding an answer is not easy and requires careful consideration of different aspects of lipid oxidation. This review is divided into two sections. The first part deals with the nature of the new compounds formed at high temperature in the frying process as well as their occurrence in the diet while the second part focuses on their possible nutritional and physiological effects. Oxidation products present in abused frying fats and oils are the compounds most suspected of impairing the nutritional properties of the oils or involving adverse physiological effects. The recent studies on their health implications include those related to their fate and those focused on their effects in metabolic pathways and the most prevalent diseases.
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This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) leaves, a byproduct when processing AST stalk, and identify the antioxidant constituents by using HPLC-QTOF-MS(2). The total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant abilities of fractions resulted from the successively partition of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were compared. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest TFC (65.44mgQuE/gfraction), n-butanol fraction (nBuF) showed the highest TPC (384.78mgGAE/gfraction) and the best DPPH scavenging ability, ABTS(+) scavenging ability and reducing power. Totally, 57 compounds were identified or tentatively identified in nBuF and EAF, 40 of them were reported in AST for the first time. The major constituents in EAF were flavonoids, and the major constituents in nBuF were phenolic acids and organic acids. Thus, AST leaves might be a potential low-cost resource of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The carotenoid levels in Indian spices of nutritional and medicinal importance were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels (mg/100g dry wt) in curry leaves (27.34), spearmint (18.0), green chilli (13.74), coriander leaves (9.92) and mustard seeds (1.2) were higher (2–22-fold) than mace, anise seeds, onion, fenugreek seeds and carum seeds (0.62 and 0.85) whilst their levels in cumin seeds, black pepper, green cardamom and coriander seeds were in the range of 0.32–0.47. β-Carotene (mg/100g dry wt) was higher in coriander leaves (67.5), green chilli (9.06), curry leaves (8.95) and spearmint (7.5) than black cardamom (0.22) and coriander seeds (0.22), respectively. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin and α-carotene levels were also discussed. Spices analysed are a better source of L+Z than β-carotene (except for coriander leaves). Usage of spices as an adjuvant in food preparations also provides L+Z as antioxidants.
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Background Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. We conducted a randomized trial of this diet pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Methods In a multicenter trial in Spain, we randomly assigned participants who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly individual and group educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was the rate of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). On the basis of the results of an interim analysis, the trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Results A total of 7447 persons were enrolled (age range, 55 to 80 years); 57% were women. The two Mediterranean-diet groups had good adherence to the intervention, according to self-reported intake and biomarker analyses. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.92) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96) for the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (96 events) and the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (83 events), respectively, versus the control group (109 events). No diet-related adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Among persons at high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events. (Funded by the Spanish government's Instituto de Salud Carlos III and others; Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN35739639 .).
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BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. We conducted a randomized trial of this diet pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. METHODS: In a multicenter trial in Spain, we randomly assigned participants who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly individual and group educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was the rate of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). On the basis of the results of an interim analysis, the trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. RESULTS: A total of 7447 persons were enrolled (age range, 55 to 80 years); 57% were women. The two Mediterranean-diet groups had good adherence to the intervention, according to self-reported intake and biomarker analyses. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.92) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96) for the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (96 events) and the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (83 events), respectively, versus the control group (109 events). No diet-related adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons at high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events. (Funded by the Spanish government's Instituto de Salud Carlos III and others; Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN35739639.).
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Our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction (MI) in young and middle-aged women is limited, and the impact of diet is largely unknown. Dietary flavonoids exert potential beneficial effects on endothelial function in short-term trials; however, the relationship between habitual intake and risk of MI in women is unknown. We followed up 93 600 women 25 to 42 years of age from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and the risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid subclasses was calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 years using an updated and extended US Department of Agriculture database. During 18 years of follow-up, 405 cases of MI were reported. An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.96; P=0.03, highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment. The addition of intermediate conditions, including history of hypertension, did not significantly attenuate the relationship (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.97; P=0.03). Combined intake of 2 anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.08) in a comparison of those consuming >3 servings a week and those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid subclasses were not significantly associated with MI risk. A high intake of anthocyanins may reduce MI risk in predominantly young women. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the health impact of increasing intakes of commonly consumed anthocyanin-rich foods.
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The aim of this work was to characterize Arbequina extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from different locations in southern Catalonia (Spain) in terms of their phenolic profile, to show the classification of oil samples with respect to geographical area. The phenolic compounds present in 32 olive-oil samples were analyzed by a rapid and effective HPLC–ESI-TOF/MS method, and 18 phenolic compounds belonging to different phenolic types were identified. The results showed no qualitative differences in the phenolic fractions among EVOO from different geographical region. However, quantitative differences were observed in a wide number of phenolic compounds. In all olive-oil samples studied, secoiridoids were the most abundant, followed by lignans, phenolic alcohols, and flavonoids, respectively. Multivariate data were analysed by canonical dis-criminant analyses. Seventeen variables were used without a variable reduction step. Phenolic content of extra-virgin olive oils was found to depend highly on geographical area.
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Previous systematic reviews suggest beneficial effects of flavonoids on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but have overlooked the impact of dose response or food complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the relative impact of composition, flavonoid structure and dose. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of flavonoids or flavonoid-rich foods/extracts. Flavonoid composition was established using United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol-Explorer databases. Effects of six flavonoid subgroups on endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation; FMD), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were assessed by random effects meta-analyses and regression analyses. Meta-analyses of combined flavonoid subclasses showed significant improvements in FMD (chronic, 0.73% (0.17, 1.30) 14 RCTs; acute, 2.33% (1.58, 3.08) 18 RCTs) and blood pressures (systolic, -1.46 mmHg (-2.38, -0.53) 63 RCTs; diastolic, -1.25 mmHg (-1.82, -0.67) 63 RCTs). Similar benefits were observed for the flavan-3-ol, catechol flavonoids (catechins, quercetin, cyanidin etc.), procyanidins, epicatechin and catechin subgroups. Dose-response relationships were non-linear for FMD (R(2) ≤ 0.30), with greater associations observed when applying polynomial regression analyses (R(2) ≤ 0.72); there was no indication of a dose response for blood pressure. The present analysis suggests that flavonoid bioactivity does not follow a classical linear dose-response association and this may have important biological implications.
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BACKGROUND: Tomato, one of the most important vegetables worldwide, contains a range of flavonoids and phenolic acids in addition to lycopene, which are regarded as potentially useful compounds with respect to health benefits. Composition data in fresh tomatoes vary due to genetic and environmental factors and cultural practices. Breeding programs aim to produce tomatoes with enhanced levels of flavonoids and other phenolics.RESULTS: The present paper gives an overview of flavonoids, stilbenoids and other phenolics reported to occur in tomato fruits. Contents are reported for a wide range of cultivars and types. Metabolism of phenolics during fruit maturation and tissue location are described, and an overview of measured contents is given. Effects of environmental conditions and cultural practices are estimated using available literature. Recent literature on transgenic tomatoes is included, and possibilities for regulating phenolic contents in tomatoes are discussed.CONCLUSION: The literature review clearly discloses a rapidly growing interest in flavonoids and other phenolics in tomato fruits and products made thereof. This is particularly connected to the antioxidant properties of these compounds as well as other possible health effects. Choice of cultivar and effects of environment and agronomic practices are important factors with respect to phenolic qualities and quantities of tomatoes. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry
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The effects of peeling and laboratory- or industrial-scale heating on carotenoid content and radical scavenging activity of tomato and tomato-virgin olive oil mixtures were investigated. A decrease in carotenoid content was detected only after long heating times. Such a decrease was lower for the unpeeled than for the peeled tomatoes. No change, either in lycopene concentration or in the chain-breaking activity of the lipophilic fractions, was observed when both laboratory- and industrial-scale heating treatments were performed on peeled-tomato puree containing 5% virgin olive oil. The aqueous fractions, including high-molecular-weight brown polymers formed as a consequence of heating, were also characterized for color, elementary composition and antioxidant activity.
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The progressive transformation of olive growing and the increasing demands for high-quality monovarietal virgin olive oil (VOO) have triggered interest in olive breeding programs, in which the evaluation of the new genotypes is the basis for obtaining new olive cultivars. In this work, the phenolic composition of VOOs from two progenies from crosses between 'Arbequina', 'Arbosana' and 'Sikitita' has been evaluated along two years. A higher degree of variation was observed in segregating population as compared to genitors. The results also showed that the variability within crosses constitutes the major contribution to total variance for all considered parameters (>92% of total sum of squares). All compounds under study were present in oils obtained in both years; however, clear differences in their concentrations were observed between years. Olive breeding can indeed provide genotypes that produce oils with improved phenolic profiles as compared to traditional cultivars. In addition, the data showed that selection as a function of tyrosol content could be achieved in only one crop year. Finally, p-coumaric acid was the unique component able to discriminate between both crop years under study.
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This study further examines the factors which affect the chromatographic response of carotenoids and contribute to analytical variation and inaccuracies in their quantitative determination. A method for the analysis of carotenoids in vegetables and fruits is described and data are presented for the carotenoid content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in the UK. The addition of a solvent modifier (triethylamine) to the mobile phase was shown to improve the recovery of carotenoids from the column from around 60% to over 90%. The linearity and reproducibility of the chromatographic response was investigated and the robustness and reproducibility of the method was measured using a reference vegetable material developed in the laboratory. Short and longer term reproducibility showed an average CV of around 8% for all carotenoids. Analysis showed that good sources (>1000 μg/100 g) of lutein were broccoli, butterhead lettuce, parsley, peas, peppers, spinach and watercress; of lycopene: tomatoes and tomato products; and of β-carotene: broccoli, carrots, greens, butterhead lettuce, mixed vegetables, parsley, spinach and watercress. There was little or no loss of carotenoids on cooking, green vegetables showed an average increase in lutein levels of 24% and in β-carotene levels of 38%. This study and previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that a number of factors affect the validity of the ‘peak response’ and are likely to contribute to within and between laboratory variation. It is suggested that the development and use of standard reference materials would significantly improve the quality of data.