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International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Rep. No. A-8)

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... Some have general semantics, while others include content suitable for domain use, such as pictures of food, pictures in military settings, pictures with emotions rated by children only, etc. However, the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) [22], the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) [23], the Geneva affective picture database (GAPED) [24], the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS) [25], and The DIsgust-RelaTed-Images (DIRTI) database [26] stand out as the most often used and the largest general picture repositories, respectively. A concise overview of these specific types of databases is provided in the related literature [4,5]. ...
... The dimensional theory of emotion assumes that a small number of dimensions can well characterize affective meaning. Therefore, dimensions are selected for their ability to statistically represent subjective emotional ratings with the smallest possible number of dimensions [23]. Russell estimated the approximate central coordinates of certain discrete emotions in the dimensional model space [27][28][29]. ...
... Positivity and negativity of a stimulus are specified by valence, while arousal describes the intensity or energy level, and dominance represents the controlling and dominant nature of the emotion. Frequently, only the first two are used because dominance is the least informative measure of the elicited affect [23]. The three dimensions are described with continuous variables val, ar, dom, where val ∈ [1,9] ∈ Val, ar ∈ [1,9] ∈ Ar, and dom ∈ [1,9] ∈ Dom, respectively. ...
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Digital documents created to evoke emotional responses are intentionally stored in special affective multimedia databases, along with metadata describing their semantics and emotional content. These databases are routinely used in multidisciplinary research on emotion, attention, and related phenomena. Affective dimensions and emotion norms are the most common emotion data models in the field of affective computing, but they are considered separable and not interchangeable. The goal of this study was to determine whether it is possible to statistically infer values of emotionally annotated pictures using the discrete emotion model when the values of the dimensional model are available and vice versa. A positive answer would greatly facilitate stimuli retrieval from affective multimedia databases and the integration of heterogeneous and differently structured affective data sources. In the experiment, we built a statistical model to describe dependencies between discrete and dimensional ratings using the affective picture databases NAPS and NAPS BE with standardized annotations for 1356 and 510 pictures, respectively. Our results show the following: (1) there is a statistically significant correlation between certain pairs of discrete and dimensional emotions in picture stimuli, and (2) robust transformation of picture ratings from the discrete emotion space to well-defined clusters in the dimensional space is possible for some discrete-dimensional emotion pairs. Based on our findings, we conclude that a feasible recommender system for affective dataset retrieval can be developed. The software tool developed for the experiment and the results are freely available for scientific and non-commercial purposes.
... Since emotional responses are believed to start within the subsecond range of an event, the temporal dynamics of emotion experiences have frequently been explored (Esslen et al., 2004). Most of this research has focused on event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG signals using stimuli from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) since its introduction in 1988 (Lang et al., 1988). With its normative valence and arousal ratings for more than a thousand images, IAPS has proved to be a convenient tool for such studies. ...
... In total, 120 IAPS images (Lang et al., 2008) were presented full screen and in color. Half of these were negative valence images and half were positive valence images. ...
... Distribution of the normative valence and arousal ratings for the selected disgust and sadness evoking images. Note: Violin plots depict the distribution of the normative valence (left) and arousal (right) ratings of the selection of disgust eliciting (blue) and sadness eliciting (orange) IAPS images as reported by Lang et al. (2008). Within the violin plots, boxplots are shown with the box indicating the Q1 to Q3 range, the solid line within the box represents Q2 (the median) and the dashed line represents the mean. ...
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Being able to classify experienced emotions by identifying distinct neural responses has tremendous value in both fundamental research (e.g. positive psychology, emotion regulation theory) and in applied settings (clinical, healthcare, commercial). We aimed to decode the neural representation of the experience of two discrete emotions: sadness and disgust, devoid of differences in valence and arousal. In a passive viewing paradigm, we showed emotion evoking images from the International Affective Picture System to participants while recording their EEG. We then selected a subset of those images that were distinct in evoking either sadness or disgust (20 for each), yet were indistinguishable on normative valence and arousal. Event-related potential analysis of 69 participants showed differential responses in the N1 and EPN components and a support-vector machine classifier was able to accurately classify (58%) whole-brain EEG patterns of sadness and disgust experiences. These results support and expand on earlier findings that discrete emotions do have differential neural responses that are not caused by differences in valence or arousal.
... Whereas other scientific disciplines have been using standardized materials for a long time, psychology is still lagging behind (Lang & Bradley, 2007). To equip psychologists with standardized stimulus sets, several research groups assembled databases of stimuli, such as the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) or the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS; Kurdi et al., 2017). As an example, the OASIS consists of 900 license-free photographs with standardized information on their valence and arousal. ...
... In the OASIS database, the average standard deviation of a picture's valence rating is 1.10, indicating substantial heterogene ity in the evaluation of most pictures. Similar heterogeneity can also be found in other standardized sets (e.g., Lang et al., 2008). Where might this heterogeneity come from? ...
... We chose this stimulus pool for its similarity to those used in a typical psychological paradigm (such as evaluative conditioning) regarding size, symmetric differences in valence, but no differences in arousal. Future research should aim to replicate our findings with another selection of pictures, perhaps even from other popular standardized databases, such as the IAPS (Lang et al., 2008). ...
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The use of normed picture sets has become the gold standard in the study of affect, emotion, or attitudes. However, normed picture sets not only show the intended variance between pictures, but for each picture, normed ratings also show substantial variance between persons. Here, we examine whether interindividual variance in the pictures’ evaluations is systematic and associated with personality traits. In a large-scale preregistered study, a heterogeneous sample of English- and German-speaking participants (total N = 901) completed a Big Five questionnaire and evaluated pictures of positive, neutral, and negative average valence from the OASIS database. The findings show that self-reported Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness are associated with individual differences in picture evaluations, which supports and extends previous theorizing on personality and affect. Our results suggest that individual differences observed in paradigms employing valenced pictures may come from individual differences in picture evaluations rather than the processes under study.
... The video clips were screened and edited several times to ensure their integrity and fluency. Subsequently, a selfassessment pilot test by Manikin (SAM, Lang et al., 2008) was conducted to ensure that the material would elicit the desired level of emotional arousal. Finally, 160 clips were selected and artificially divided into four groups to ensure Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
... The sad emotion pictures used for SCJ were selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, Lang et al., 2008), the Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS, Bai et al., 2005), and the Internet. The contents included homeless refugees, sick children, funerals, and related images. ...
... The contents included homeless refugees, sick children, funerals, and related images. Pictures containing only sad emotion features were first selected and then scored on a 9-point scale (Lang et al., 2008). Finally, 40 sad pictures (M valence = 3.27 ± 0.36, M arousal = 5.82 ± 0.44) were selected. ...
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The prevailing view emphasizes the up-regulation of positive emotions, as they are essential for individuals to expand flexibility of thought, maintain healthy mental state, and nurture harmonious interpersonal relationships. However, an increasing number of studies have found that excessive positive emotions can be maladaptive, both clinically and non-clinically, especially when the intensity and duration do not match the context and personal expectations. Traditional Chinese medicine advocates the appropriate expression of positive emotions, and it has introduced the emotion regulation strategy of sadness-counteracts-joy (SCJ) to down-regulate excessive positive emotions. The present study examined the efficacy of distraction, reappraisal, and sadness-counteracts-joy (SCJ) in the down-regulation of high-intensity positive emotions. Twenty-one participants (18-30 years old) were sampled, self-reported data were collected, and late positive potentials (LPP) in the regulation task were analyzed. The results showed that (1) the three strategies were effective in the self-reported rating, and the participants perceived SCJ and distraction as more effective than reappraisal; (2) the three strategies all reduced the self-reported positive emotion valence and arousal, but SCJ led to negative valence deflection; (3) both distraction and reappraisal significantly reduced the LPP amplitudes during the early LPP window, and the attenuation of reappraisal lasted for almost the whole implementation; and (4) the LPP for SCJ was consistently the same as that for the free view and did not differ significantly throughout the whole-time window. These results provide preliminary neurophysiological evidence for SCJ and suggest that SCJ is a strategy that differs from distraction and reappraisal.
... Obtaining a valid and reliable measurement of food-evoked emotions is, however, a major concern when evaluating emotions evoked by food experiences, since emotions are difficult to verbalize (33). A well-established method for measuring emotional responses to affective pictures is the Self-Assessment Manikin scale, a non-verbal pictorial technique that makes the rating very intuitive, requiring little explanation (34,35). In addition, reports of affective experiences using the Self-Assessment Manikin scale correlate with physiological responses (such as bradycardia or tachycardia, sweating, and contraction or relaxation of the facial muscles) to emotional stimuli providing, to some extent, information about implicit motivational responses (25,36,37). ...
... Arousal affective responses reflect the level of motivational system activation (25,26). The study of appetitive and defensive motivational systems can be accomplished through the presentation of normative emotional pictures during experimental investigations (34,35). The Self-Assessment Manikin scale can be used (34) to assess the dimensions of pleasantness and arousal associated with each picture. ...
... The stimuli presented comprised food pictures (depicting UMPF or UPF) and pictures depicting other emotional content (such as nature, puppies, sports, adventure, erotic pictures, mutilated bodies, illness, loss, etc.). The latter were obtained from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database designed to provide a standardized set of pictures for studying emotion (35). The focus here was on the appetitive motivation responses evoked by the presentation of food pictures. ...
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Background Ultra-processed foods (UPF) are becoming extensively available in the food environments. UPF are industrial formulations that are designed to maximize palatability and consumption through a combination of calorie-dense ingredients and chemical additives. UPFs are also aggressively marketed, which may make them more attractive than unprocessed/minimally processed foods (UMPF). Since consumers' purchase decisions are guided by food-evoked emotions, we aimed to provide evidence that UPF visual cues trigger higher emotional responses and approach motivation than UMPF visual cues, with potential impacts on individuals' intention to consume the UPF over the UMPF.Methods Participants (n = 174; 144 women; mean age = 20.7 years; standard deviation = 4.35) performed two tasks. In the first task, 16 pictures of foods (8 UPF and 8 UMPF), and 74 pictures from other affective categories, were presented. After viewing each picture, the participants rated it along two basic dimensions of emotion through the Self-Assessment Manikin scale: pleasantness and arousal. In the second task, the participants viewed the same food pictures, and they rated their intention to consume the foods depicted in the pictures. Each picture was plotted in terms of its mean pleasantness and arousal ratings in a Cartesian plane, which resulted in an affective space.ResultsPictures of UPF and UMPF were positioned in the upper arm of the boomerang-shaped affective space that represents approach motivation. Pictures containing UPF triggered higher approach motivation and intention to consume than pictures containing UMPF. We also found a stronger association between emotional responses and intention to consume UPF relative to UMPF.Conclusion These results shed new light on the role of ultra-processed foods evoked emotions that contribute to less healthy and sustainable food environments.
... E-Prime 2.0 software was used for presenting stimuli, collecting responses, and measuring the RTs. The experimental stimuli consisted of images of everyday graspable objects and emotional pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System-IAPS (Lang et al., 2008). The common graspable objects were displayed in 16 colour images showing artifacts and natural objects, half dangerous and half neutral (see Table 1); the dangerousness is valued as a degree of risk for pain. ...
... tested on a different group of 25 participants through an online survey. The survey was used to control whether any object used in the study appeared in the IAPS 1 The library numbers for IAPS pictures (Lang et al., 2008(Lang et al., ) used in this study are: neutral: 2020(Lang et al., , 2107(Lang et al., , 2200(Lang et al., , 2210(Lang et al., , 2215(Lang et al., , 2271(Lang et al., , 2280(Lang et al., , 2357(Lang et al., , 2385(Lang et al., , 2441(Lang et al., , 2493(Lang et al., , 2499pleasant: 4311, 4608, 4643, 4651, 4652, 4656, 4660, 4664, 4668, 4676, 4683, 4687, 4689, 4693, 4697, 4698, 8470;unpleasant: 2352.2, 3000, 3010, 3051, 3059, 3060, 3061, 3062, 3071, 3101, 3130, 3131, 3160, 3168, 3170, 3185, 3225 2 The library numbers for IAPS pictures (Lang et al., 2008(Lang et al., ) used in online survey was: neutral: 2020(Lang et al., , 2107(Lang et al., , 2190(Lang et al., , 2200(Lang et al., , 2210(Lang et al., , 2214(Lang et al., , 2215(Lang et al., , 2271(Lang et al., , 2280(Lang et al., , 2357(Lang et al., , 2385(Lang et al., , 2397(Lang et al., , 2440(Lang et al., , 2441(Lang et al., , 2493(Lang et al., , 2499(Lang et al., , 2512(Lang et al., , 2570(Lang et al., , 2620pleasant: 4290, 4311, 4608, 4611, 4643, 4651, 4652, 4656, 4658, 4660, 4664, 4666, 4668, 4672, 4676, 4680, 4681, 4683, 4687, 4689, 4690, 4693, 4694, 4695, 4697, 4698, 4800, 5470, 8185, 8470;unpleasant: 2352.2, 2799 images in order to eliminate the semantic relationship between IAPS pictures and graspable stimuli. Participants were asked whether natural, artifact, or "no objects" appeared in each image. ...
... tested on a different group of 25 participants through an online survey. The survey was used to control whether any object used in the study appeared in the IAPS 1 The library numbers for IAPS pictures (Lang et al., 2008(Lang et al., ) used in this study are: neutral: 2020(Lang et al., , 2107(Lang et al., , 2200(Lang et al., , 2210(Lang et al., , 2215(Lang et al., , 2271(Lang et al., , 2280(Lang et al., , 2357(Lang et al., , 2385(Lang et al., , 2441(Lang et al., , 2493(Lang et al., , 2499pleasant: 4311, 4608, 4643, 4651, 4652, 4656, 4660, 4664, 4668, 4676, 4683, 4687, 4689, 4693, 4697, 4698, 8470;unpleasant: 2352.2, 3000, 3010, 3051, 3059, 3060, 3061, 3062, 3071, 3101, 3130, 3131, 3160, 3168, 3170, 3185, 3225 2 The library numbers for IAPS pictures (Lang et al., 2008(Lang et al., ) used in online survey was: neutral: 2020(Lang et al., , 2107(Lang et al., , 2190(Lang et al., , 2200(Lang et al., , 2210(Lang et al., , 2214(Lang et al., , 2215(Lang et al., , 2271(Lang et al., , 2280(Lang et al., , 2357(Lang et al., , 2385(Lang et al., , 2397(Lang et al., , 2440(Lang et al., , 2441(Lang et al., , 2493(Lang et al., , 2499(Lang et al., , 2512(Lang et al., , 2570(Lang et al., , 2620pleasant: 4290, 4311, 4608, 4611, 4643, 4651, 4652, 4656, 4658, 4660, 4664, 4666, 4668, 4672, 4676, 4680, 4681, 4683, 4687, 4689, 4690, 4693, 4694, 4695, 4697, 4698, 4800, 5470, 8185, 8470;unpleasant: 2352.2, 2799 images in order to eliminate the semantic relationship between IAPS pictures and graspable stimuli. Participants were asked whether natural, artifact, or "no objects" appeared in each image. ...
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Traditionally, research on affordances and emotions follows two separate routes. For the first time, this article explicitly links the two phenomena by investigating whether, in a discrimination task (artifact vs. natural object), the motivational states induced by emotional images can modulate affordances-related motor response elicited by dangerous and neutral graspable objects. The results show faster RTs: (i) for both neutral and dangerous objects with neutral images; (ii) for dangerous objects with pleasant images; (iii) for neutral objects with unpleasant images. Overall, these data support a significant effect of emotions on affordances. The article also proposes a brain neural network underlying emotions and affordance interplay.
... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ the passive viewing of pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) library 72 . The formulated hypothesis was twofold and was based on the abovementioned functional correlates of delta, theta and alpha bands. ...
... The present study examined affective disposition and cognitive processing in dysphoria through the analysis of the time-frequency changes within delta, theta, and alpha bands during the exposure to emotional pictures 72 . Regarding affective disposition, the dysphoria group was expected to show a hypoactivation of the approachrelated motivational system and, as suggested by the ECI model, a hypoactivation of the withdrawal-related motivational system. ...
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To date, affective and cognitive processing of emotional information in individuals with depressive symptoms have been examined through peripheral psychophysiological measures, event-related potentials, and time–frequency analysis of oscillatory activity. However, electrocortical correlates of emotional and cognitive processing of affective content in depression have not been fully understood. Time–frequency analysis of electroencephalographic activity allows disentangling the brain's parallel processing of information. The present study employed a time–frequency approach to simultaneously examine affective disposition and cognitive processing during the viewing of emotional stimuli in dysphoria. Time–frequency event-related changes were examined during the viewing of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures in 24 individuals with dysphoria and 24 controls. Affective disposition was indexed by delta and alpha power, while theta power was employed as a correlate of cognitive elaboration of the stimuli. Cluster-based statistics revealed a centro-parietal reduction in delta power for pleasant stimuli in individuals with dysphoria relative to controls. Also, dysphoria was characterized by an early fronto-central increase in theta power for unpleasant stimuli relative to neutral and pleasant ones. Comparatively, controls were characterized by a late fronto-central and occipital reduction in theta power for unpleasant stimuli relative to neutral and pleasant. The present study granted novel insights on the interrelated facets of affective elaboration in dysphoria, mainly characterized by a hypoactivation of the approach-related motivational system and a sustained facilitated cognitive processing of unpleasant stimuli.
... Positive mood and music + pain conditions were combined into one group based on the shared positive emotional valences, while neutral mood valence and no-music conditions were combined into another condition which we used as a control. Efforts were taken in the Music study to ensure that the participant-selected music fulfilled criteria for positive emotional valence, and the positive, neutral, and negative valences were standardized in the Mood study based on images obtained from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) database (Lang et al., 2008). The negative emotional valence was not used here as it lay outside of the scope of the current investigation. ...
... The Mood study compared three conditions to elucidate the effects of different emotional valences on the experience of pain. Data were acquired in 4 runs of each positive, negative, and (Lang et al., 2008). For the purposes of this investigation, only the positive and neutral emotional valences were used to better compare with the Music study as none of the music selections elicited negative emotional responses. ...
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Our psychological state greatly influences our perception of sensations and pain, both external and visceral, and is expected to contribute to individual pain sensitivity as well as chronic pain conditions. This investigation sought to examine the integration of cognitive and emotional communication across brainstem regions involved in pain modulation by comparing data from previous functional MRI studies of affective modulation of pain. Data were included from previous studies of music analgesia (Music), mood modulation of pain (Mood), and individual differences in pain (ID), totaling 43 healthy women and 8 healthy men. The Music and Mood studies were combined into an affective modulation group consisting of runs with music and positive-valenced emotional images plus concurrent presentation of pain, and a control group of runs with no-music, and neutral-valenced images with concurrent presentation of pain. The ID group was used as an independent control. Ratings of pain intensity were collected for each run and were analyzed in relation to the functional data. Differences in functional connectivity were identified across conditions in relation to emotional, autonomic, and pain processing in periods before, during and after periods of noxious stimulation. These differences may help to explain healthy pain processes and the cognitive and emotional appraisal of predictable noxious stimuli, in support of the Fields’ Decision Hypothesis. This study provides a baseline for current and future investigation of expanded neural networks, particularly within higher limbic and cortical structures. The results obtained by combining data across studies with different methods of pain modulation provide further evidence of the neural signaling underlying the complex nature of pain.
... The stimuli and procedures were the same as those in our previous study (Jin et al., 2013). Subjects viewed 40 neutral and 40 negative pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Lang et al., 2008). The selection was based on normative valence and arousal evaluation using a 9-point scale ranging from "1" (extremely unpleasant) to "9" (extremely pleasant) and "1" (low excitement) to "9" (high excitement), respectively, as reported in the study by Lang et al. (2008). ...
... Subjects viewed 40 neutral and 40 negative pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Lang et al., 2008). The selection was based on normative valence and arousal evaluation using a 9-point scale ranging from "1" (extremely unpleasant) to "9" (extremely pleasant) and "1" (low excitement) to "9" (high excitement), respectively, as reported in the study by Lang et al. (2008). Neutral and negative pictures were selected for safety and threat stimuli respectively. ...
Article
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Detection of safety-threat signals during uncertainty is an important mechanism of developmental anxiety disorder (AD). Although extensive research has focused on the detection of uncertain threat signals in anxious individuals, relatively little attention has been given to the identification of safety signals during uncertainty, which is an important way to relieve anxiety in individuals with AD. To investigate this phenomenon, 16 subjects with high trait anxiety (HTA) and 16 with low trait anxiety (LTA) completed a modified cue-target task in certain and uncertain stimulus blocks. In the uncertain block, the cue was followed by a threat picture or safety picture in 20% of trials, respectively; in the certain block, the cue could be followed by a threat picture or a safety picture on 100% of trials. Behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The ERP results demonstrated that LTA participants exhibited larger P2 amplitudes in the detection of safety cues than of threat cues during the uncertain block, whereas HTA participants showed significant P2 amplitudes between the safety and threat cues during the certain block, impairing the detection of safety stimuli during uncertainty. However, all participants exhibited greater N2 amplitudes following threat cues in certainty or uncertainty conditions. These findings pertaining to the P2 amplitude suggested distinctive attentional biases between HTA and LTA individuals, whereas the N2 amplitude showed association learning in uncertain conditions, compensating for safety-threat detection in HTA individuals.
... We thus developed an experiment that compared P300 and LPP responses elicited by pictures of various cybersecurity notifications with pictures of non-threatening computer stimuli and pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, 2005), a well-studied repository of images that have been indexed for the systematic study of attention and emotion. Though the IAPS is most often used to investigate the specific physiological processes related to emotional processing, it has also been applied in broader contexts such as exploring the emotional effect of art (Gerger et al., 2014) and emotions In addition, we cross-referenced our findings with behavioral responses to the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a well-studied affective rating system, which can help establish confidence in the veracity of our neurophysiological measures. ...
... We suggest two directions for future work. First, it is possible to apply these findings to create an index of normative affective responses to cybsersecurity notifications, similarly to the work undertaken in the development of the IAPS (Lang, 2005). By providing a comprehensive index of responses to cybersecurity notifications, researchers would be able to identify which designs elicit strong emotional responses. ...
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Cybersecurity notifications play an important role in encouraging users to use computers safely. Emotional reactions to such notifications are known to positively influence users’ adherence to these notifications, though it is challenging for researchers to identify and quantify users’ emotional reactions. In this study, we explored electroencephalography (EEG) signals that were elicited by the presentation of various emotionally charged image stimuli provided by the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and compared signals to those elicited by images of cybersecurity notifications and other computer-related stimuli. Participants provided behavioral assessments of valence and arousal elicited by the images which were used to cross-reference the results. We found that EEG amplitudes corresponding to the late positive potential (LPP) were elevated in reaction to images of cybersecurity notifications as well as IAPS images known to elicit strong positive and negative valence, when compared to neutral valence or other computer-related stimuli. These findings suggest that the LPP may account for emotional deliberation about cybersecurity notifications, which could be a useful measure when conducting future studies into the role such emotional reactions play in encouraging safe computer behavior.
... Participants were presented with pictures that were expected to induce different levels of workload and types of emotion. There were five types of these pictures: 1) inducing workload: displaying three three-digit numbers arranged around the letter 'A' indicating that these numbers needed to be added (NumbersAdd), 2) inducing no workload: displaying three three-digit numbers arranged around the letter 'N' indicating that these numbers did not need to be added (NumbersNone), 3) inducing pleasant emotion: a picture from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) [19] with high valence and high arousal (HVHA), 4) inducing unpleasant emotion: a picture from the IAPS with low valence and high arousal (LVHA), 5) inducing no emotion: a picture from the IAPS with neutral valence and low arousal (Neutral). ...
... For the EDA, the phasic and tonic components were extracted using Continuous Decomposition Analysis [19] as implemented in the Ledalab toolbox for MATLAB®. The phasic component was z-score standardized following [21]. ...
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Peripheral physiological measures such as electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate and pupil dilation, as well as neurophysiological measures such as electroencephalography (EEG), can inform us about individuals’ cognitive and emotional state. We are interested in exploiting such measures in real life situations. A challenge of interpreting physiological measures as markers of mental state in real life is the lack of context information. We here approach this challenge by relating physiological measures to eye tracking. Participants scanned stimuli that induced different levels of workload (small sets of numbers that needed to be added or not) and different types of emotion (neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures). EDA, heart rate, pupil size and EEG were related to the first eye fixation on the stimulus. For peripheral measures, response traces across the following 10s were determined and signal amplitudes were compared between the different types of stimuli. EEG signals were compared for the different types of stimuli in the time interval from fixation onset to 1500ms later using a cluster-based, nonparametric randomization approach. For the peripheral measures, high workload stimuli stood out from all other stimuli in all modalities, with patterns as expected from literature under more traditional experimental conditions: high values of EDA, heart rate, and pupil size for high compared to low workload stimuli. For emotional stimuli, peripheral physiological effects tended to be in the expected direction but were more modest in size. In the EEG signals, a significant late parieto-occipital cluster could be identified with higher amplitudes for high compared to low workload stimuli, as well as for emotional stimuli compared to the neutral stimuli. In future analyses we will combine fixation-locked signals from different modalities to detect mental states elicited by information that is being looked at. Our first results indicate that this may be especially helpful in situations related to cognitive workload, e.g. determining whether operators are not only looking at, but are also cognitively processing information that is presented on a screen.
... As regards visual cues, most studies use images taken from the International Affective Picture System [74,75], which comprises more than a thousand images related to everyday situations, rated and classified according to the affective dimension of level of control or dominance, level of arousal or calm and level of pleasantness or unpleasantness [74]. Studies also use photographs designed to represent scenes and objects from concrete life stages (e.g., primary school) [75] or specific events [76], as well as personal photographs [77]. ...
... As regards visual cues, most studies use images taken from the International Affective Picture System [74,75], which comprises more than a thousand images related to everyday situations, rated and classified according to the affective dimension of level of control or dominance, level of arousal or calm and level of pleasantness or unpleasantness [74]. Studies also use photographs designed to represent scenes and objects from concrete life stages (e.g., primary school) [75] or specific events [76], as well as personal photographs [77]. ...
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Background In recent years, mood induction procedures have been developed in experimental settings that are designed to facilitate studying the impact of mood states on biological and psychological processes. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic mapping review with the intention of describing the state of the art in the use of different types of autobiographical stimuli for mood induction procedures. Methods Based on a search for publications from the period 2000–2021, conducted in four recognised databases (Scopus, Medline (PubMed), PsycINFO and Web of Science), we analysed a total of 126 published articles. Text mining techniques were used to extract the main themes related. Results The induction of emotions through autobiographical memories is an area under construction and of growing interest. The data mining approach yielded information about the main types of stimuli used in these procedures, highlighting those that only employ a single type of cue, as well as the preference for verbal cues over others such as musical, olfactory and visual cues. This type of procedure has been used to induce both positive and negative emotions through tasks that require access to personal memories of specific events from a cue, requiring the person to set in motion different cognitive processes. The use of the latest technologies (fMRI, EEG, etc.) is also shown, demonstrating that this is a cutting-edge field of study. Conclusions Despite the study of mood induction procedures still being a growing field, the present review provides a novel overview of the current state of the art in the field, which may serve as a framework for future studies on the topic.
... • Forty pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) 1 were used for the threatening (e.g., lunging dogs) and neutral (e.g., domestic objects) conditions. Mean ratings of valence and arousal were as per by Lang et al., 2008 (nine points Likert-type scale: 1 = negative, low). ...
... • Forty pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) 1 were used for the threatening (e.g., lunging dogs) and neutral (e.g., domestic objects) conditions. Mean ratings of valence and arousal were as per by Lang et al., 2008 (nine points Likert-type scale: 1 = negative, low). Valence and arousal were significantly different between the two conditions, F (1,38) = 264 and F (1,38) = 438, respectively. ...
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According to attachment theory, care-seeking is the primary coping strategy in threatening situations. However, anxious and avoidant individuals often use secondary regulation strategies. The purpose of this study was to test whether, in a potentially threatening situation, the participants' attachment orientation affects whether they prefer to resort to care or food to regulate their negative emotions. Ninety-two participants took part in an experimental situation in which they had to choose between pictures of care or food, following the presentation of threatening images randomly alternating with neutral ones. Results showed that care pictures were chosen to a greater extent in the threatening condition compared to the food pictures and the neutral condition, without distinction of attachment orientation. In addition, in threatening condition, anxious individuals chose to care less than non-anxious individuals. Finally, avoidant participants chose care pictures to a lesser extent than individuals low on avoidance in the neutral condition, but not in the threatening condition. In conclusion, attachment anxiety was associated with more difficulty in the choice of representation of care in a threatening condition, while avoidant individuals show their defensive strategies in the neutral condition rather than in the threatening condition.
... Emotional images were drawn from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008), a database of ~1000 images for which normative data for valence and arousal has been collected in large community samples (Lang et al., 2008). As part of the larger study, 12 pleasant (6 nurturant, 6 erotic), 12 aversive (6 threat, 6 mutilation/disgust), and 12 neutral (6 people, 6 objects) images were presented to participants. ...
... Emotional images were drawn from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008), a database of ~1000 images for which normative data for valence and arousal has been collected in large community samples (Lang et al., 2008). As part of the larger study, 12 pleasant (6 nurturant, 6 erotic), 12 aversive (6 threat, 6 mutilation/disgust), and 12 neutral (6 people, 6 objects) images were presented to participants. ...
Article
Motivational responses to food stimuli are relevant for eating disorders (EDs). Research examining reactions to food in EDs has been mixed, with some studies reporting enhanced appetitive responses, and others observing defensive responses, to food. Thin-ideal internalization, a socio-cognitive factor implicated in EDs, may relate to these mixed findings, as individuals with eating pathology may experience food as a threat to internalized ideals of thinness, despite its inherently appetitive qualities. In the present study, physiological reflexes measuring defensive (startle blink reflex) and appetitive (postauricular reflex) responding as well as self-report ratings were recorded while 88 women with and without eating pathology viewed images of high- and low-calorie food. Greater global eating pathology, but not thin-ideal internalization, was associated with negative self-report valence ratings and lower craving ratings of high-calorie food. In contrast, greater thin-ideal internalization and eating pathology both related to more positive self-report valence ratings of low-calorie food, with thin-ideal internalization accounting for some of the shared variance between low-calorie food ratings and eating pathology. Overall, thin-ideal internalization may represent a higher-order factor that may contribute to the relationship between conscious reactions to food and disordered eating.
... S1s were 24 different colored pictures of 4 male and 4 female Caucasian models from the NimStim Set of Facial Expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009), each posing fearful (NEG), happy (POS) and neutral (NEU) facial expressions. S2s were 120 colored pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Lang et al., 2008): 40 high-arousing negative (NEG), 40 high-arousing positive (POS), and 40 lowarousing neutral (NEU). Two additional S1s (1 male and 1 female, posing angry and surprised expressions) and 4 additional S2s (2 low-arousing positive and 2 low-arousing negative) were employed for practice trials. ...
Article
In a recent study we outlined the link between Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) and the neural correlates of affective predictions, as constructed by the brain (generation stage) to prepare to relevant stimuli (implementation stage), and update predictive models according to incoming stimuli (updating stage). In this study we further explored whether the brain's functional organization at rest can modulate neural activity elicited within an emotional S1-S2 paradigm as a function of IU and uncertainty of S1-S2 contingencies. We computed resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) from a 3-min resting period recorded with high density EEG, and we tested whether RS graph theory nodal measures (i.e., strength, clustering coefficient, betweenness centrality) predicted in-task ERP modulation as a function of IU. We found that RS-FC differently predicted in-task ERPs within the generation and updating stages. Higher IU levels were associated to altered RS-FC patterns within both domain-specific (i.e., right superior temporal sulcus) and domain-general regions (i.e., right orbitofrontal cortex), predictive of a reduced modulation of in-task ERPs in the generation and updating stages. This is presumably ascribable to an unbalancing between synchronization and integration within these regions, which may disrupt the exchange of information between top-down and bottom-up pathways. This altered RS-FC pattern may in turn result in the construction of less efficient affective predictions and a reduced ability to deal with contextual uncertainty in individuals high in IU.
... Subjective report of negative emotions is more dependent on individuals themselves, and not universal or suitable for timelimited studies (Keller et al., 2014). The presentation of negative stimuli, such as that of the International Affective Picture System (Lang et al., 2008), is widely used in research to stimulate negative emotion; however, it has low ecological validity (Wu et al., 2019) and was unable to reflect the emotions experienced by teachers in real life.Therefore, it's necessary to examine emtions in a situational context (Lazarus, 2006;Smith & Kirby, 2001). ...
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This study developed a database of negative emotional scenes experienced by primary and secondary school teachers in real life. The database consisted of 70 negative emotional scenes of teachers and the description of each scene was reported and rated on four dimensions: valence, arousal, dominance and frequency.
... Aversive images were presented on the MRI screen and included normed images from the IAPS database 79 . To induce four stimulus intensity levels, we selected four groups of seven images each in a two-step process: (1) preliminary selection based on normed aversiveness ratings (averaged across male and female raters) available in the IAPS database, and (2) final selection based on ratings by N = 10 laboratory members (5 males, 5 females) in response to 'how aversive is this image? ...
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The brain contains both generalized and stimulus-type-specific representations of aversive events, but models of how these are integrated and related to subjective experience are lacking. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with predictive modeling to identify representations of generalized (common) and stimulus-type-specific negative affect across mechanical pain, thermal pain, aversive sounds and aversive images of four intensity levels each. This allowed us to examine how generalized and stimulus-specific representations jointly contribute to aversive experience. Stimulus-type-specific negative affect was largely encoded in early sensory pathways, whereas generalized negative affect was encoded in a distributed set of midline, forebrain, insular and somatosensory regions. All models specifically predicted negative affect rather than general salience or arousal and accurately predicted negative affect in independent samples, demonstrating robustness and generalizability. Common and stimulus-type-specific models were jointly important for predicting subjective experience. Together, these findings offer an integrated account of how negative affect is constructed in the brain and provide predictive neuromarkers for future studies. Using multiple types of negative affect stimuli, functional magnetic resonance imaging and predictive modeling, Čeko et al. show that the brain integrates generalized and stimulus-type-specific representations of aversive events to jointly predict subjective experience.
... The pictures were spiders, negative, positive, and neutral. For each category, 30 pictures (and one example picture) were taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, Bradley & Lang, 2017;Lang et al., 2008). The official IAPS codes are reported as supplementary material. ...
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Specific phobia can be treated successfully with exposure therapy. Although exposure therapy has strong effects on self-reported ratings and behavioral avoidance, effects on measures derived from electroencephalography (EEG) are scant and unclear. To fill this gap, spider-phobic individuals received either in-vivo or virtual reality exposure treatment. Patients were tested twice (one week before and after treatment), and control subjects once. In each session, EEG was recorded to spider pictures as well as other positive, negative, and neutral pictures. During EEG recording, participants performed a simple detection task while task-irrelevant pictures were shown in the background. The task was used to reduce potential confounding effects from shifts of attention. After the task, subjects were shown the pictures again and rated each in terms of their emotional reaction (arousal and pleasantness). The results showed that before treatment, patients rated spiders as more negative than did control subjects. Patients also showed elevated early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) to spiders. After treatment, the negative emotional ratings of spiders were substantially reduced. Critically, Bayesian analyses suggested that EPN and LPP were unaffected by treatment and that the treatment groups did not differ in their responses (EPN, LPP, and ratings). These findings suggest that the effects of in vivo and virtual reality exposure therapy are similar and that the initial stages of motivated attention (EPN and LPP) are unaffected by treatment.
... The Cognitive Emotion Regulation (CER) task was identical with Bodrogi et al. (2020). Social-emotional scenarios were selected from a standard affective stimulus database (Lang et al., 2005;Deak et al., 2010) and two different captions, a negative and a neutral were added to each picture based on results of previous pilot studies. Altogether 15 pairs of pictures were presented one by one. ...
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Neuroscientists have formulated the model of emotional intelligence (EI) based on brain imaging findings of individual differences in EI. The main objective of our study was to operationalize the advantage of high EI individuals in emotional information processing and regulation both at behavioral and neural levels of investigation. We used a self-report measure and a cognitive reappraisal task to demonstrate the role of EI in emotional perception and regulation. Participants saw pictures with negative or neutral captions and shifted (reappraised) from negative context to neutral while we registered brain activation. Behavioral results showed that higher EI participants reported more unpleasant emotions. The Utilization of emotions scores negatively correlated with the valence ratings and the subjective difficulty of reappraisal. In the negative condition, we found activation in hippocampus (HC), parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate cortex, insula and superior temporal lobe. In the neutral context, we found elevated activation in vision-related areas and HC. During reappraisal (negative-neutral) condition, we found activation in the medial frontal gyrus, temporal areas, vision-related regions and in cingulate gyrus. We conclude that higher EI is associated with intensive affective experiences even if emotions are unpleasant. Strong skills in utilizing emotions enable one not to repress negative feelings but to use them as source of information. High EI individuals use effective cognitive processes such as directing attention to relevant details; have advantages in allocation of cognitive resources, in conceptualization of emotional scenes and in building emotional memories; they use visual cues, imagination and executive functions to regulate negative emotions effectively.
... The total number of trials was n 5 80 (40 erotic and 40 non-erotic trials). Picture stimuli were obtained from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008) and the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) (Marchewka, Zurawski, Jednorog, & Grabowska, 2014;Wierzba et al., 2015). Stimuli from both databases have been validated and shown to induce significant levels of sexual arousal in various previous studies (Gola et al., 2016;Marchewka et al., 2014;Politis et al., 2013;Walter et al., 2008;Wierzba et al., 2015). ...
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Background and aims Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) is characterized by persistent patterns of failure to control sexual impulses resulting in repetitive sexual behavior, pursued despite adverse consequences. Despite previous indications of addiction-like mechanisms and the recent impulse-control disorder classification in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), the neurobiological processes underlying CSBD are unknown. Methods We designed and applied a behavioral paradigm aimed at disentangling processes related to anticipation and viewing of erotic stimuli. In 22 male CSBD patients (age: M = 38.7, SD = 11.7) and 20 healthy male controls (HC, age: M = 37.6, SD = 8.5), we measured behavioral responses and neural activity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The main outcomes were response time differences between erotic and non-erotic trials and ventral striatum (VS) activity during anticipation of visual stimuli. We related these outcomes with each other, to CSBD diagnosis, and symptom severity. Results We found robust case-control differences on behavioral level, where CSBD patients showed larger response time differences between erotic and non-erotic trials than HC. The task induced reliable main activations within each group. While we did not observe significant group differences in VS activity, VS activity during anticipation correlated with response time differences and self-ratings for anticipation of erotic stimuli. Discussion and Conclusions Our results support the validity and applicability of the developed task and suggest that CSBD is associated with altered behavioral correlates of anticipation, which were associated with ventral striatum activity during anticipation of erotic stimuli. This supports the idea that addiction-like mechanisms play a role in CSBD.
... Seventy images (60 negative, 10 neutral) were chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008). Material selection criteria were referred to previous studies (Qi et al., 2017;Sullivan and Strauss., 2017). ...
Article
Reappraisal is an effective emotion regulation strategy which can be divided into self- and situation-focused subtypes. Previous studies have produced inconsistent findings on the moderating effects and neural mechanisms of reappraisal; thus, further research is necessary to clarify these inconsistencies. In this study, a total of 44 participants were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups. 23 participants were assigned to the self-focused group, while 21 participants were assigned to the situation-focused group. The participants' resting EEG data were collected for 6 minutes before the experiment began, followed by an emotional regulation task. During this task, participants were asked to view emotion-provoking images under four emotion regulation conditions (View, Watch, Increase, and Decrease). Late positive potential (LPP) was obtained when these emotional images were observed. LPP is an effective physiological indicator of emotion regulation, enabling this study to explore emotion regulation under different reappraisal strategies, as well as the functional connectivity and node efficiency within the brain. It was found that, in terms of the effect on emotion regulation, situation-focused reappraisal was significantly better than self-focused reappraisal at enhancing the valence of negative emotion, while self-focused reappraisal was significantly better than situation-focused reappraisal at increasing the arousal of negative emotion. In terms of neural mechanisms, multiple brain regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex, the frontal lobe, the parahippocampal gyrus, parts of the temporal lobe, and parts of the parietal lobe were involved in both reappraisal processes. In addition, there were some differences in brain regions associated with different forms of cognitive reappraisal. Self-focused reappraisal was associated with the posterior cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and lingual gyrus, and situation-focused reappraisal was associated with the parietal lobule, anterior central gyrus, and angular gyrus. In conclusion, this research demonstrates that self- and situation-focused reappraisal are not homogenous in terms of their effects and neural mechanisms and clarifies the uncertainties over their regulatory effects. Different types of reappraisal activate different brain regions when used, and the functional connectivity or node efficiency of these brain regions seems to be a suitable indicator for assessing the effects of different types of reappraisal.
... The paradigm has been previously described by Kampa and colleagues [37] and was adapted from Kanske and colleagues [59]. Stimuli were selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and EmoPics [60] based on normative ratings in valence and arousal [61]. In a fully balanced, three-by-two factorial design, the three types of picture valences were combined with either situation-focused reappraisal or viewing the pictures as a control condition (see supplementary Figure S5). ...
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BACKGROUND Stress-related mental disorders are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on individuals and society. Improving strategies of their treatment and prevention requires knowledge about risk and resilience. This multi-center study aims to contribute to this endeavor by investigating psychological resilience in healthy, but vulnerable young adults over nine months. Resilience is operationalized as maintained or quickly recovered mental health despite exposure to stressors and assessed longitudinally in a frequent monitoring approach. OBJECTIVE We aim to investigate factors predicting, and adaptive processes and mechanisms contributing to mental resilience, and to provide a methodological and evidence-based framework for later intervention studies. METHODS In a multi-center setting, across five research sites, a sample with the total target size of N=250 male and female young adults is assessed longitudinally over nine months. Participants are included if they had an elevated level of (internalizing) mental health problems and reported at least three stressful life events while not affected by any mental disorder other than mild depression. At baseline, sociodemographic, psychological, neuropsychological, structural and functional brain imaging data, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase, as well as cardiovascular data are acquired. In a six-months longitudinal phase I, bi-weekly online monitoring of stressor exposure, mental health problems, and positive appraisal style takes place, as well as monthly one-week ecological momentary assessments (EMA) and ecological physiological assessments (EPA). In a subsequent three-months longitudinal phase II, online monitoring is reduced to once a month and psychological resilience and risk factors are assessed again at the end of the nine-month period. In addition, genetic, epigenetic, and microbiome data are assessed at baseline, month three (microbiome only), and month six. As an approximation of resilience, an individual stressor reactivity (SR) score will be calculated. Using regularized regression methods, network modeling, ordinary differential equations, landmarking methods, and neural net-based methods for imputation and dimension reduction, we will identify predictors and mechanisms of SR and thus be able to identify resilience factors and mechanisms that facilitate adaptation to stressors. RESULTS Participant inclusion started in October 2020 and data acquisition is expected to be completed in June 2022. CONCLUSIONS The DynaM-OBS study provides a methodological framework and dataset to identify predictors and mechanisms of mental resilience, which are intended to serve as an empirical foundation for future intervention studies.
... Our results demonstrate a clear association between subjective pleasure, clean landscape perception, and approach-type behavior on one hand, and displeasure, polluted landscape perception, and avoidance-type behavior on the other hand. In that sense, our results are in perfect accordance with the biphasic theory dimension of emotions [24], which conceptualizes pleasant stimuli as inducing an approach-type behavior and unpleasant stimuli as inducing withdrawal-type behavior. The clarity of our results is in contrast to the complexity of those in the literature on the posturographic correlates of emotional information processing. ...
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In our contemporary societies, environmental issues are more and more important. An increasing number of studies explore the biological processes involved in environment perception and in particular try to highlight the mechanisms underlying the perception of environmental scenes by our brain. The main objective of the present study was to establish whether the visualization of clean and polluted environmental scenes would lead to differential postural reactions. Our hypothesis was based on a differential postural modulation that could be recorded when the subject is confronted with images representing a “polluted” environment, differential modulation which has been reported in previous studies in response to painful-scenes compared to non-painful scenes visualization.Thirty-one subjects participated in this study. Physiological measurements [heart rate variability (HRV) and electrodermal activity] and postural responses (Center Of Pression—COP—displacements) were recorded in response to perception of polluted or clean environmental scenes. We show, for the first time, that images representing polluted scenes evoke a weaker approach movement than images representing clean scenes. The displacement of the COP in the anteroposterior axis reflects an avoidance when subjects visualize “polluted” scenes. Our results demonstrate a clear distinction between “clean” and “polluted” environments according to the postural change they induce, correlated with the ratings of pleasure and approach evoked by images.
... The IAPS is a repository of 956 photos chosen to be standardized visual stimuli in experiments of emotion and attention. Just like the ANEW system, the photos are chosen based on their ability to cause emotions and are primarily classified using valence and arousal [52]. Photos can also be rated based on dominance, but the latter variable was not considered in this study. ...
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In the last decade there has been significant growth in the interest and application of using EEG (electroencephalography) outside of laboratory as well as in medical and clinical settings, for more ecological and mobile applications. However, for now such applications have mainly included military, educational, cognitive enhancement, and consumer-based games. Given the monetary and ecological advantages, consumer-grade EEG devices such as the Emotiv EPOC have emerged, however consumer-grade devices make certain compromises of data quality in order to become affordable and easy to use. The goal of this study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of EPOC as compared to a research-grade device, Brainvision. To this end, we collected data from participants using both devices during three distinct cognitive tasks designed to elicit changes in arousal, valence, and cognitive load: namely, Affective Norms for English Words, International Affective Picture System, and the n-Back task. Our design and analytical strategies followed an ideographic person-level approach (electrode-wise analysis of vincentized repeated measures). We aimed to assess how well the Emotiv could differentiate between mental states using an Event-Related Band Power approach and EEG features such as amplitude and power, as compared to Brainvision. The Emotiv device was able to differentiate mental states during these tasks to some degree, however it was generally poorer than Brainvision, with smaller effect sizes. The Emotiv may be used with reasonable reliability and accuracy in ecological settings and in some clinical contexts (for example, for training professionals), however Brainvision or other, equivalent research-grade devices are still recommended for laboratory or medical based applications.
... As a check for attention, in eight blocks of each session, a book was shown instead of one of the first three priming pictures, and participants had to press a mouse key to indicate that they saw the book. The sexual pictures were chosen from the International Affective Picture System (Lang et al. 2008). Sexual and neutral pictures were displayed in sepia color to increase perceptual similarity. ...
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Hypersexuality in medicated patients with PD is caused by an increased influence of motivational drive areas and a decreased influence of inhibitory control areas due to dopaminergic medication. In this pilot study, we test a newly developed paradigm investigating the influence of dopaminergic medication on brain activation elicited by sexual pictures with and without inhibitory contextual framing. Twenty PD patients with and without hypersexuality were examined with fMRI either OFF or ON standardized dopaminergic medication. The paradigm consisted of a priming phase where either a neutral context or an inhibitory context was presented. This priming phase was either followed by a sexual or a neutral target. Sexual, compared to neutral pictures resulted in a BOLD activation of various brain regions implicated in sexual processing. Hypersexual PD patients showed increased activity compared to PD controls in these regions. There was no relevant effect of medication between the two groups. The inhibitory context elicited less activation in inhibition-related areas in hypersexual PD, but had no influence on the perception of sexual cues. The paradigm partially worked: reactivity of motivational brain areas to sexual cues was increased in hypersexual PD and inhibitory contextual framing lead to decreased activation of inhibitory control areas in PD. We could not find a medication effect and the length of the inhibitory stimulus was not optimal to suppress reactivity to sexual cues. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms of hypersexuality and warrant a replication with a greater cohort and an optimized stimulus length in the future.
... We used pictures from four validated picture inventories for the primary task: The Geneva Affective Picture Database (Dan-Glauser & Scherer, 2011), the International Affective Picture System (Lang et al., 2008), the Necki Affective Picture System (Marchewka et al., 2014), and the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (Kurdi et al., 2017). We excluded any pictures with sexual content or nudity, because these might lead to stronger variation in valence ratings in a mixed sample. ...
... Participants had to decide whether a pair of visual target stimuli was equal while another pair was presented as a distractor. In each trial a pair of non-emotional pictures and a pair of pictures from one of three emotional categories (negative, positive, neutral) taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2005) was shown. The selection of IAPS stimuli was balanced with respect to normed emotional valence and arousal ratings (see Supplement of Vetter et al., 2015: https://bit.ly/3rggS7V). ...
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We investigated development from adolescence to young adulthood of neural bottom-up and top-down processes using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task on emotional attention. We followed 249 participants from age 14 to 22 in up to four waves resulting in 687 total scans of a matching task in which participants decided whether two pictures were the same including distracting emotional or neutral scenes. We applied generalized additive mixed models and a reliability approach for longitudinal analysis. Reaction times and error rates decreased longitudinally. For top-down processing, we found a longitudinal increase for the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for negative stimuli and in the left IFG also for positive and neutral stimuli. For bottom-up activation in the bilateral amygdala, we found a relative stability for negative and neutral stimuli. For positive stimuli, there was an increase starting in the twenties. Results show ongoing behavioral and top-down prefrontal development relatively independent from emotional valence. Amygdala bottom-up activation remained stable except for positive stimuli. Current findings add to the sparse literature on longitudinal top-down and bottom-up development into young adulthood and emphasize the role of reliability. These findings might help to characterize healthy in contrast to dysfunctional development of emotional attention.
... Contamination images (e.g., urinal) were selected from the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Stimuli Set (MOCSS) which has demonstrated excellent convergent and discriminant validity (Mataix-Cols et al., 2009). Because unacceptable thoughts are often difficult to visualize, we elected to rely on harm-related images (e.g., gun) taken from the negative picture set of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008). Specifically, images were selected if they were linked to the most commonly endorsed unacceptable thought triggers (e.g., image of a gun). ...
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Objectives Despite growing research on mindfulness-based interventions for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), it remains unknown which aspects of mindfulness are most beneficial and whether the effects vary for different OCD symptom domains. Methods To clarify these relationships, we examined the links between dispositional mindfulness, experimentally induced mindfulness, and obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms in a sample of young adults selected for elevated OC symptoms (N = 97). First, we investigated the association between dispositional mindfulness on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and clinical interview-assessed OC symptoms, as well as anxiety and urge to ritualize in response to two OC symptom provocation tasks. Second, we examined the effects of a brief, computerized Mindful Attention (MA) training relative to a Control training on responses to two different OC symptom provocation tasks (harm- or contamination-related). Results FFMQ-nonjudgment negatively predicted obsession and compulsion severity, as well as post-task urge intensity. None of the other FFMQ indices was predictive of any OC symptom measures. The effect of MA training, relative to Control training, was moderated by the type of OC symptom (harm-related vs. contamination-related concerns) such that it appeared to have a beneficial effect for the former, but not the latter. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the nonjudgment facet of mindfulness may be especially important for individuals with OCD, and that MA training may be more helpful for harm-related unacceptable thoughts than for contamination concerns. Future research and clinical interventions would benefit from further examination of the relationship between specific facets of mindfulness and OC symptoms.
... Overall, our findings are consistent with the interpretation of motivated vigilance when viewing environmental scenes, in which defensive or appetitive motivation leads to goal-oriented behavior. 20,31 In the case of visual art, however, we interpret the slower temporal information intake (i.e., fewer and longer fixations) due to increased pleasantness as indicative of a specific mental state that may well be characterized by disinterested pleasure or aesthetic distance. In contrast to environmental scenes, pleasantness had no effect on spatial parameters, such as saccade amplitudes, which further supports the view that pleasantness influences eye movement parameters differently in the two image categories. ...
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For centuries, Western philosophers have argued that aesthetic experiences differ from common, everyday pleasing sensations, and further, that mental states, such as disinterested contemplation and aesthetic distance, underlie these complex experiences. We empirically tested whether basic perceptual processes of information intake reveal evidence for aesthetic distance, specifically toward visual art. We conducted two eye tracking experiments using appropriately matched visual stimuli (environmental scenes and representational paintings) with 59 participants using two different presentation durations (25 and 6 s). Linear mixed‐effects models considering individual differences showed that affective content (pleasantness and arousal), but not stimulus composition (complexity), leads to differential effects when viewing representational paintings in comparison to environmental scenes. We demonstrate that an increase in aesthetic pleasantness induced by representational paintings during a free‐viewing task leads to a slower and deeper processing mode than when viewing environmental scenes of motivational relevance, for which we observed the opposite effect. In addition, long presentation durations led to an increase in scanning behavior during visual art perception. These empirical findings inform the debate about how aesthetic experiences differ from everyday perceptual processes by showing that the notion of aesthetic distance may be better understood by examining different modes of viewing. We empirically tested whether basic perceptual processes of information intake reveal evidence for aesthetic distance, specifically towards visual art. We demonstrate that an increase in aesthetic pleasantness induced by representational paintings during a free‐viewing task leads to a slower and deeper processing mode than when viewing environmental scenes of motivational relevance, for which we observed the opposite effect.
... Gallardo and Ulrich (2020) were the first to create a tactile version of SAM (called T-SAM), which they evaluated with a focus group and further revised based on their findings. They removed the third featureperception dominance/controlas they found that Lang (Lang, Bradley, and Cuthbert 2008) and other scholars tend not to use this feature (Iturregui-Gallardo and Méndez-Ulrich 2020). Gallardo and Ulrich also simplified the graphic features of the T-SAM used to represent the valence and arousal scales. ...
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Museums face a particular challenge in enabling blind and partially sighted (BPS) visitors to engage emotionally with the narrative(s) they present. In collaboration with a world-leading tourist attraction (Titanic Belfast) and the Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB), we have applied several different approaches for improving emotional engagement for BPS visitors. This paper addresses the critical challenge of how to obtain reliable evidence for evaluating the emotional response of BPS visitors to the museum’s audio description (AD) and overall experience. We consider six different methods for measuring emotional engagement, and consider their potential for providing reliable experimental evidence. Based on BPS-user feedback, we present a qualitative comparison of these methods, uniquely all applied to the same museum context.
... Participants completed an emotional interrupt task (Mitchell et al., 2006;Weinberg & Hajcak, 2011b) during EEG collection. Sixty IAPS images (Lang et al., 2008), comprised of 20 pleasant, 20 neutral, and 20 unpleasant images, were selected for this task (see Supporting Information). The task included 180 trials, with 60 trials for each picture valence, presented in random order. ...
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Background Internalizing psychopathologies (IPs) are highly comorbid and exhibit substantial overlap, such as aberrant affective reactivity. Neural reactivity to emotional images, measured via the late positive potential (LPP) event‐related potential (ERP) component, has been utilized to index affective reactivity in IPs. The LPP is often examined in isolation with a specific disorder, ignoring overlap between IPs. The current study examined how transdiagnostic IP symptom dimensions relate to neural affective reactivity in a highly comorbid patient sample. Methods Participants (N = 99) completed a battery of IP symptom assessments as well as a target categorization task while viewing pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images during electroencephalography recording. ERPs to each image valence were averaged from 400 to 1000 ms following picture onset at pooled centroparietal and occipital electrodes to calculate the LPP. A principal components analysis performed on the IP symptom measures resulted in two factors: affective distress/misery and fear‐based anxiety. Results Fear‐based anxiety was associated with enhanced LPP reactivity to unpleasant, but not pleasant, images. Distress/misery was related to attenuated average LPP reactivity across images. Conclusions Results revealed a dissociable effect of IP symptom factors in a transdiagnostic sample such that enhanced reactivity to negative images was specific to enhanced fear‐based anxiety symptoms while distress/misery symptoms predicted blunted affective reactivity. Neural affective reactivity may serve as an objective biological marker to elucidate the nature of psychological concerns in individuals with comorbid IPs.
... In two more recent studies, Lazarov et al. (Lazarov, Friedman, Comay, Liberman, & Dar, 2020) examined a more basic dimension of emotional experience, namely the valence (on a positive-negative dimension) of one's emotional reactions. They presented participants with pictures taken from affective picture systems (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008 and NAPS-BE; Riegel et al., 2016) and asked them to rate how these pictures made them feel. As predicted, OCD symptoms were related in both studies to larger deviations from the valence norms of these pictures and to larger variances of the ratings. ...
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People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) tend to distrust their memory, perception, and other cognitive functions, and many OCD symptoms can be traced to diminished confidence in one's cognitive processes. For example, poor confidence in recall accuracy can cause doubt about one's memory and motivate repeated checking. At the same time, people with OCD also display performance deficits in a variety of cognitive tasks, so their reduced confidence must be evaluated in relation to their actual performance. To that end, we conducted an exhaustive review and meta-analysis of studies in which OCD participants and non-clinical control participants performed cognitive tasks and reported their confidence in their performance. Our search resulted in 19 studies that met criteria for inclusion in the quantitative analysis, with all studies addressing either memory or perception. We found that both performance and reported confidence were lower in OCD than in control participants. Importantly, however, confidence was more impaired than performance in participants with OCD. These findings suggest that people with OCD are less confident in their memory and perception than they should be, indicating a genuine under-confidence in this population. We discuss potential mechanisms that might account for this finding and suggest avenues for further research into under-confidence and related meta-cognitive characteristics of OCD.
... Each image in the database comes with a series of parameters, including Valence and Arousal values expressed on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from À2 (very negative/very calm) to +2 (very positive/ very arousing). The reason EmoMadrid has been chosen over the more popular International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008) is that although the latter has been widely used for affective research, it presents some major issues regarding the obsolescence of some pictures and their cultural-geographical background, which is mostly representative of USA (Carretié et al., 2019;Henrich, Heine, & Norenzayan, 2010). ...
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Sleep has a beneficial effect on memory consolidation. However, its role in emotional memory is currently debated. Here, we investigate the role of sleep and a similar period of wakefulness on the recognition of emotional pictures and subjective emotional reactivity. Forty participants without any major physical, neurological or psychological condition were randomly assigned to the Sleep First Group or Wake First Group. The two groups underwent the encoding phase of an emotional images task with negative and neutral pictures at either 09:00 hours (Wake First Group) or 21:00 hours (Sleep First Group). Then participants performed an immediate recognition test (T1), and two delayed tests 12 hr (T2) and 24 hr (T3) later. Perceived arousal and valence levels were collected for each picture. Sleep parameters were recorded at participants' homes with a portable device. No differences were observed at T1, whereas at T2 the Sleep First Group showed a higher memory performance than the Wake First Group. At T3, performance decreased in the Sleep First Group (who spent the previous 12 hr awake), but not in the Wake First Group (who slept during the previous 12 hr). Overall, negative images were remembered better than neutral ones. We also observed a positive association between memory performance for negative items at the immediate test and the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep the night before the encoding. Our data confirm that negative information is remembered better over time than neutral information, and that sleep benefits the retention of declarative information. However, sleep seems not to preferentially improve emotional memory, although it may affect the encoding of negative information.
... The task included 25 negative images selected to elicit dysphoric emotions (e.g., crying or mourning people), consistent with prior research (Kudinova et al., 2016), and 25 neutral images in a pseudorandom order. Images were acquired from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008; details in Supporting Information). ...
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... Specifically, participants were presented with negative images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA, http://www.csea.phhp.ufl. edu), and were instructed to down-regulate negative affect [23]. The task comprises three conditions: maintain, reinterpretation, and distraction. ...
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Thesis
Hintergrund und Ziele Neben den motorischen Symptomen sind nicht-motorische Symptome (NMS) des idiopathischen Parkinson-Syndroms (IPS) in den letzten Jahren zunehmend in den Fokus gerückt (Pont-Sunyer et al., 2015, Pfeiffer, 2016). Anhedonie, die Unfähigkeit Freude und Lust zu empfinden, ist ein häufiges NMS (46%) bei IPS Patienten (Lemke et al., 2005), welches auch unabhängig von einer Depression (Isella et al., 2003, Spalletta et al., 2013) auftreten kann. Wir konnten im Rahmen einer “proof-of-principle“ Studie zeigen, dass Patienten mit IPS ihnen präsentierte Gerüche weniger un-/angenehm beurteilten und somit eine Reduktion des affektiven Beurteilungsspektrums vorlag, selbst nachdem für Hyposmie kontrolliert wurde. Zudem zeigte sich eine Korrelation mit der durch validierte Fragebögen erfassten Anhedonie, jedoch nicht mit einer Depression (Mrochen et al., 2016). Da die unabhängige Erfassung von Anhedonie und Depression unter Berücksichtigung der Vorgaben des DSM-V (American-Psychiatric-Association, 2013) durch Überlappung mit somatischen Symptomen des IPS möglicherweise verfälscht wird, könnte eine akkurate, fragebögenunabhängige Erfassung der Anhedonie bei IPS Patienten einen Beitrag zu einer zielgerichteten Diagnostik und Therapie der NMS leisten. In dieser Studie soll, zusätzlich zur Evaluation olfaktorischer Stimuli, die affektive Wahrnehmung von akustischen und visuellen Reizen beim IPS untersucht werden. 3 Folgende Hypothesen werden überprüft: 1. Hypothese: Beim IPS liegt eine multisensorische Störung der affektiven Wahrnehmung vor. 2. Hypothese: Die affektive Evaluation sensorischer Stimuli korreliert mit psychometrischen Fragebögen der Anhedonie. 3. Hypothese: Ein eingeschränktes affektives Beurteilungsvermögen kann beim IPS unabhängig von depressiven Symptomen auftreten. Methoden Die Diagnose eines IPS erfolgte anhand der Leitlinie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurologie (DGN) (DGN, 2016) in Anlehnung an die Kriterien der „UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank“ (Hughes et al., 1992) und der Movement Disorder Society (MDS) (Postuma et al., 2015). Alle Patienten wurden mit dem Teil III der Unified Parkinson´s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) (Goetz et al., 2008, Martinez-Martin et al., 2013) und der Hoehn und Yahr (H&Y)-Skala (Hoehn and Yahr, 1967, Goetz et al., 2004) bezüglich motorischer Symptome und Erkrankungsstadium beurteilt. Kontrollen wurden eingeschlossen, wenn kein Anhalt für Symptome eines prodromalen IPS bestand (Berg et al., 2015). Es erfolgte die Bestimmung von Hörschwelle, Nah- und Fernvisus. Der kognitive Status wurde durch das Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) (Nasreddine et al., 2005) erfasst. Mittels 16-er Sniffin Sticks® Identifikationstest (Sniffin ID) (Sniffin ID Test ©, Burghart Messtechnik, Deutschland) wurde eine Einordnung in hyposmisch bzw. normosmisch vorgenommen (Hummel et al., 2007). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Aaron T. Beck 1988), Snaith-Hamilton-Pleasure-Scale D (SHAPS-D) (Franz et al., 1998), Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) (Gard et al., 2006) und Starkstein Apathie Skala (SAS) (Starkstein et al., 1992b) wurden zur Erfassung depressiver Symptome (BDI), der Anhedonie (SHAPS und TEPS) und Apathie (SAS) herangezogen. Zur Erfassung der subjektiven affektiven Wahrnehmung wurden drei verschiedene Testserien mit jeweils 22 Stimuli durchlaufen. Die Bewertung bezüglich affektiver Valenz, d.h. Kategorisierung eines Stimulus als positiv bzw. negativ, erfolgte separat für jeden Reiz auf einer 9-stufigen Skala (-4 ≙ „äußerst unangenehm“ bis +4 ≙ „äußerst angenehm“). Wichtig war zudem das „Arousal“, welches es erlaubt, Stimuli bezüglich deren Ausmaß emotionaler Erregung in einem Spektrum von „entspannt“ bis „aufgeregt“ einzuordnen. Dies wurde bei visuellen und akustischen Stimuli auf einer 11- stufigen Skala (0 ≙ „ruhig/entspannt“ bis 10 ≙ „aufgeregt“) bewertet. Bei den Gerüchen wurde analog eine Einstufung der Geruchsintensität vorgenommen (0 ≙ „sehr schwach“ bis 10 ≙ „sehr stark“). Ergebnisse Nach Berücksichtigung der Ein- und Ausschlusskriterien gingen 62 Probanden (30 Patienten und 32 Kontrollen) in die aktuelle Arbeit ein. Demographische Parameter, wie Alter und Geschlecht zeigten keine Unterschiede zwischen den Gruppen. Hörschwelle, Nah- und Fernvisus, kognitive Funktion (MoCA) und Anhedonie (TEPS [CON/ANT]; SHAPS) und Apathie (SAS) unterschieden sich ebenfalls 4 nicht. IPS-Patienten zeigten erwartungsgemäß ein höheres Maß an depressiven Symptomen, sowie eine Hyposmie. 6 von 22 Bildern, 8 von 22 Tönen und 18 von 22 Gerüchen wurden bezüglich ihrer affektiven Valenz signifikant unterschiedlich bewertet. Insbesondere Stimuli am negativen und positiven Ende des abgebildeten affektiven Spektrums wurden signifikant weniger ausgeprägt bewertet. Als Folge ergaben sich signifikante Unterschiede für die absolute affektive Valenz der jeweiligen Sinnesmodalität. Die Resultate der anhedoniespezifischen Fragebögen (TEPS CON, TEPS ANT und SHAPS) korrelierten ausschließlich mit den absoluten Werten der visuellen affektiven Evaluation, während zwischen BDI und absoluten affektiven Werten keinerlei Korrelation vorlag. Schlussfolgerung Die erste Hypothese, dass bei IPS-Patienten ein multisensorisches Defizit bei der affektiven Wahrnehmung sensorischer Stimuli vorliegt, konnte angenommen werden. Die zweite Hypothese konnte nur für das visuelle System angenommen werden, die Ergebnisse der psychometrischen Fragebögen SHAPS und TEPS korrelierten lediglich mit dem absoluten visuellen Punktwert. Eine Korrelation mit der Evaluation olfaktorischer Stimuli (Mrochen et al., 2016) konnte nicht repliziert werden. Die affektive Bewertung akustischer Stimuli erreichte kein Signifikanzniveau, wenngleich mit größerer Gruppenstärke, insbesondere für TEPS und TEPS CON, signifikante Korrelationen zu vermuten sind. Mögliche Ursachen könnten die kleine Studienpopulation und die geringere Prävalenz einer durch SHAPS und TEPS erfassten Anhedonie im untersuchten Studienkollektiv sein. Eine unterschiedliche Bewertung der Stimuli war nicht durch eine höhere Prävalenz an depressiven Symptomen unter den der IPS-Patienten begründet. So bestanden weiterhin signifikante Unterschiede in der affektiven Evaluation nachdem für die Resultate des BDI kontrolliert wurde, so dass die dritte Hypothese angenommen werden konnte. Zukünftige Studien sollten überprüfen, ob 1) der Beginn einer dopaminergen Therapie, bspw. bei de novo IPS-Patienten, die affektive Wahrnehmung verändert, 2) die affektive Wahrnehmung mit motorischen Fluktuationen korreliert, 3) die eingeschränkte affektive Wahrnehmung in einer größeren Kohorte mit einer höheren Anzahl apathischer / anhedoner Patienten signifikant mit diesen Symptomen korreliert, 4) die in der aktuellen Studie untersuchten Probanden im Verlauf eine Apathie / Anhedonie entwickeln, welche mit den Resultaten in dieser Studie übereinstimmt und 5) funktionelle Bildgebung nutzen, um dysfunktionale neuroanatomische Korrelate der defizitären affektiven sensorischen Wahrnehmung zu identifizieren.
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Purpose Phantom eye pain (PEP) is a major clinical problem after eye removal with no standard treatment protocol to date. As pain is a multidimensional experience associated with emotional and cognitive components, this study aimed to explore the possible neuropsychological mechanisms of PEP in a perspective of emotional cognition, in order to provide a basis for clinical treatment. Methods Visual oddball event-related potentials (ERPs) under different external emotional stimuli (Disgust, Fear, Sadness, Happiness, Erotica and Neutral) were tested in 12 patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Participants' affective states were measured with the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32), and the Plutchik–van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP). The amplitudes and latencies of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components were analyzed by three-way ANOVA, i.e., group (2) × emotion (6) × electrode (3). Multiple comparisons were performed using Bonferroni's test. Results Longer N1 latencies, increased N1 amplitudes; shorter P2 latencies under Disgust and Happiness, decreased P2 amplitudes; shorter N2 latencies under Erotica, increased N2 amplitudes were found in patients compared with controls. There was no main effect of group or interaction effect on P3 latencies and P3 amplitudes. The MDQ and HCL-32 scores were lower, and the N1 latencies under Sadness were negatively correlated with PVP scores in patients. Conclusions PEP patients showed reversed patterns in exogenous attention allocation and enhanced involuntary attention to emotional stimuli compared with controls. This study demonstrated cortical processing of emotions in PEP patients and could provide a basis for developing emotional intervention therapy.
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Emotion regulation (ER) strategies can influence how affective predictions are constructed by the brain (generation stage) to prearrange action (implementation stage) and update internal models according to incoming stimuli (updating stage). However, neurocomputational mechanisms by which this is achieved are unclear. We investigated through high-density EEG if different ER strategies (expressive suppression vs. cognitive reappraisal) predicted event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain source activity across affective prediction stages, as a function of contextual uncertainty. An S1-S2 paradigm with emotional faces and pictures as S1s and S2s was presented to 36 undergraduates. Contextual uncertainty was manipulated across three blocks with 100, 75, or 50% S1-S2 affective congruency. The effects of ER strategies, as assessed through the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, on ERP and brain source activity were tested for each prediction stage through linear mixed-effects models. No ER strategy affected prediction generation. During implementation, in the 75% block, a higher tendency to suppress emotions predicted higher activity in the left supplementary motor area at 1,500–2,000 ms post-stimulus, and smaller amplitude of the Contingent Negative Variation at 2,000–2,500 ms. During updating, in the 75% block, a higher tendency to cognitively reappraise emotions predicted larger P2, Late Positive Potential, and right orbitofrontal cortex activity. These results suggest that both ER strategies interact with the levels of contextual uncertainty by differently modulating ERPs and source activity, and that different strategies are deployed in a moderately predictive context, supporting the efficient updating of affective predictive models only in the context in which model updating occurs.
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