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The root parasitic species of Christisonia Gardner (Orobanchaceae) are lectotypified. After screening of herbarium specimens and the results of field expeditions, the morphological characters and distribution of Chritisonia lawii are within the range of C. calcarata. As a result, it is reduced to C. calcarata.
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Rheedea
Vol. 23(1)
00-00
2013
Lectotypification and notes on the identity of
Christisonia
calcarata
(Orobanchaceae)
Mayur Nandikar*
1
, Rajdeo Singh
2
, Rajaram Gurav
1
, Rajendra Shinde
2
1
Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, MS, India 416004
2
Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College, Mahapalika Marg, Mumbai, India (MS) 400 001
*E-mail: mnandikar@gmail.com
Abstract
The root parasitic species of
Christisonia
Gardner (Orobanchaceae) are lectotypified. After screening of
herbarium specimens and the results of field expeditions, the morphological characters and distribution of
Chritisonia lawii
are within the range of
C. calcarata
. As a result, it is reduced to
C. calcarata
.
Keywords:
Christisonia
, Orobanchaceae, typification
Introduction
The mostly parasitic and species-rich family
Orobanchaceae is recognized worldwide with 90
genera and c. 1800 species. Of these the East Asian
genus Christisonia Gardner (including Campbellia
Wight) consists of 17 species distributed in India,
Sri Lanka, Laos, SW China, Thailand and Malesia
(modied after Nickrent 2012). In India 9 species
of Christisonia have been recorded (Benniamin et al
2012). During excursions in the Shayadri ranges of
the Western Ghats of Maharashtra state [Matheran
(Raigad district), Tungar Hills and Vangani
(Thane district), Khandala (Pune district) and Kas
(Satara district)] the authors collected Christisonia
specimens from ve dierent populations. It
was found that these were neither identical to C.
calcarata nor to C. lawii Wight. Apparently, it looked
as if these were intermediate between these two;
therefore a taxonomic and nomenclature survey
was carried out.
Christisonia calcarata and C. lawii were rst
described by Robert Wight (1849), based on the
collections made by J. S. Law from Thane near
Mumbai and Konkan from Maharashtra. In the
protologue, long pedicillate owers and shortly
pedicilate to subsessile owers, were emphasized
to distinguish C. calcarata from C. lawii. Wight
cited specimens of Law without collection number
and these specimens are preserved at K. We were
able to study photographs of the sheets placed at
Kew (Fig. 3). These specimens clearly belong to
C. calcarata, but many apparently have pedicels
ranging between 2 10 cm. It is probable that Wight
recognized continuous morphological variation
as two dierent species. In a leer, by Law to
Hooker (1852, Fig. 1), he believed that C. stocksii
featured in Hooker’s Icones Plantarum (1852) was
‘evidently identical’ with C. calcarata, in Wight’s
Icones Plantarum. Furthermore, he added, “I have
got another coloured drawing of it [C. lawii Wt. Ic.
Pl. t. 1427] beer than the those from which Dr.
Wight’s gure was prepared and which shows that
the characters he arm to the owers of having
subsessile is incorrect, the pedicels having as long
as in your gure [C. stocksii Hook. Ic. Pl. t. 836]”
Law also stated, “the specimen cited by Hooker to
describe Christisonia stocksii was not collected by
Stocks, nor it found in Scinde [Sindh], Stocks must
have been obtained that specimen from Dalzell
who, in turn, obtained it from me”. Leer revealed
that, the specimens which were obtained by Wight
from Law were collected from the neighbourhood
of Tanna (Thane), Mumbai (Bombay). This shows
that both the specimens were collected from single
locality. Specimens deposited in Kew [sh. nos.
K000821668; K000821669; K000821670; K000821671;
K000821672], were annotated by Wight, Stocks,
Dalzell, W. Hooker, but these all were collected by
J. S. Law.
Dalzell & Gibson (1861), ten years after Wight’s and
W. Hooker’s, cited C. stocksii and C. lawii from the
Bombay (Salsee) and Ramghat. In addition, they
stated C. calcarata Wt. as a synonym of C. stocksii.
This means they were aware of earlier publications
of Wight (1849) and Hooker (1852), but have not
cited Law’s collection neither in C. stocksii nor in
C. lawii. Herbarium sheet placed at Kew, sh. no.
K000821672, is having specimens of Law from
2 Lectotypification and notes on the identity of
Christisonia calcarata
Fig. 1. Letter from J. S. [John Sutherland] Law to [Sir William Jackson Hooker]; from Dharwar [Dharwad], India; 27 Mar
1852; four page letter comprising four images; the magnified part from page 3, paragraph 1. Image reproduced from
http://plants.jstor.org/visual/viewer/kdcas601?p=3.
Fig. 2.
Christisonia calcarata
a. uprooted individual; b & c. Habit (b. in flowering; c. in fruiting)
M. Nandikar
et al.
3
Thane (Bombay) and that of Dalzell’s from Salsee
and the laer has been identied as C. stocksii by
Dalzell himself (Kew has tagged the same sheet
with two dierent numbers K000821671 might be
for Dalzell’s specimen and K000821672 for Law’s
specimens). In addition, sheet nos. K000821669
and K000821670 also annotated with two dierent
collectors viz. Stocks and Dalzell, possibly
annotation was made by Hooker. Surprisingly, the
sheet has three dierent names, one was wrien
by Stocks as on label Plelifaea?, the second was
Christisonia lawii Dalzell, crossing out lawii Dalzell
and as C. calcarata Wight by Hooker. All the
evidences made from the herbarium specimens
and leer from J. S. Law to Hooker conrms that,
the root parasitic individuals from Thane were
collected by J. S. Law, who have travelled long
and these collections were well known to Wight,
Dalzell, Stocks and Hooker.
Hooker f. (1884) in his ora of British India
stated C. calcarata which is probably a more fully
developed state of C. lawii, as armed by Cooke
(1908). Authors could also examine Woodrow’s
(1898) specimen from Purandhar (Maharashtra),
which was identied as C. lawii in his ‘the ora of
Western Ghats. As in Law’s specimen, here also
we found glabrous habit apart from the corolla
tube and pedicel length. These observations forced
us to conduct a critical study on the identity of C.
calcarata and C. lawii.
On examining herbarium specimens and fresh
specimens of Christisonia obtained from eld
expeditions in dierent localities of Western Ghats,
we noticed continuous variation in habit, pedicel
size, length of corolla tube, calyx, pubescence,
shape and size of corolla lobes and corolla tube and
ower colour. Therefore, it become impossible to
distinguish between C. calcarata and C. lawii based
solely on morphological characters. Moreover,
the data shows that both the species were found
in the same geographical locations as root parasite
on Strobilanthes species. Based on all these
facts, it is concluded that both these names are
conspecic and C. lawii is synonym of C. calcarata.
The nomenclature is changed accordingly and a
revised description is provided.
Christisonia calcarata Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient.
4(3): 6, t. 1426. 1849; Hook. f., Fl. of Brit. India 4:
322. 1884; Cooke, Fl. Bombay Pres. 2: 312. 1908.
Typus: INDIA, Bombay (Mumbai) in Herb. Wight,
J.S. Law s.n. (K, lectotype– sh. 000821668, designated
here). Fig. 1–3.
Christisonia lawii Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4(3): 6,
t. 1427. 1849; Hook. f., Fl. of Brit. India 4: 322. 1884;
Dalzell & Gibson, Bombay Fl. 202. 1861; Cooke, Fl.
Bombay Pres. 2: 312. 1908. syn. nov.
Christisonia stocksii Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 9: t. 836. 1852;
Dalzell & Gibson, Bombay Fl. 202. 1861; Woodrow
in J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 12: 175. 1898.
Parasitic herbs, eshy, 10 – 20 cm erect. Stems
broader, 2 5 cm, covered with whorled, ovoid-
elliptic bracts (on uprooting stem looks like
bromeliad). Flower and bud yellow–purple, raised
on glabrous pedicel which is 2 10 cm long, buds
covered with copious, translucent tasteless slime
when young. Calyx glabrous, yellow, tubular, 1.5
2.5 cm, 5 toothed; teeth 2 6 mm long. Corolla
4 6 cm long, tubular, companulate, somewhat
curved when fresh; corolla lobes 5, equal to
unequal; tube covered with white pubescent
outside and densely pubescent at base (marginally
or basally), bright yellow and glabrous inside;
lobes rounded to acute at apex, with undulate
margin, creamy white-blue, 1 2 cm long, lower
lips smaller then upper ones. Stamen 4, included,
Fig. 3. Lectotype of
Christisonia calcarata
Wight, in
Herb. Wight Law s.n. (K, sh. 000821668)
4 Lectotypification and notes on the identity of
Christisonia calcarata
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to express their thanks to the
authorities of Blaer Herbarium, Mumbai (BLAT)
and Shivaji University Herbarium, Kolhapur
(SUK) for permission to examine the specimens
and literature. We are most grateful to Tim
Harris, Assistant Botanist, Herbarium Royal
Botanic Gardens, Kew, for his comments on
Law’s specimen of Christisonia from India and for
providing photographs.
Literature Cited
Benniamin, A., Chaturvedi, S.K., Dey, S. &
Moaakum 2012. Supplements to the Root
Parasitic Plant in India. A New Recorded Species
Christisonia siamensis Craib. (Orobanchaceae).
Taiwania 57(2): 217-221.
Cooke, T. 1908. The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay,
2: 312. L. Reeve and Co. London.
Dalzell, N. A. & Gibson, A. 1861. The Bombay Flora,
202. Edu. Society’s Press, Byculla, Bombay.
Hooker J. D. 1884. The Flora of British India 4: 322. L.
Reeve and Co. London.
Hooker, W. J. 1852. Icones Plantarum 9: t. 836. L.
Reeve and Co. London.
Jafri, S.M.H. 1976. Orobanchaceae. In: E. Nasir
& S. I. Ali (eds.), Flora of West Pakistan,
vol. 98. Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Printed at
Ferozsons.
Nickrent, D.L. 2012. The parasitic plant connection:
parasitic plant genera. Department of
plant Biology, Southern Illinois University,
Carbondale, Illinois, USA. Website. hp://
www.parasiticplants.siu.edu/ListParasites.
html [accessed 17 July 2012].
Petch, T. 1924. Campbellia aurantiaca, Wight,
and Christisonia albida, Thwaites. Ann. Bot.
28(152): 680–697.
Wight, R. 1849. Icones Plantarum Indiae orientalis, 6:
6, t. 1426–1427. Madras.
Woodrow M. 1898. The Flora of Western India. J.
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.12: 175.
____________________________________________
Received : 05.11.2012
Revised and Accepted : 01.04.2013
didynamous, lower pair half in length of upper
pair; laments white with pubscence; anthers pale
to white, 2-celled, one of the cell fertile, ovate to
rounded, with acute to acuminate apex, other cell
sterile, prominently spurred or beaked, or look
like inverted comma, projected upwardly, paired
anthers aached laterally to each other in young
owers while detached in mature ones. Ovary one
celled; style included, longer than the stamens,
white, glabrous; stigma of two ovoid, folded discs,
bent downwardly forming a crown on upper pair
of anthers. Capsule globose, or oviod, crowned by
the persistent calyx teeth; seeds minute, subglobose
to ovoid, testa faintly reticulate–smooth.
Flowering & fruiting: July to September.
Distribution & ecology: India and Pakistan; collected
from the roots of Strobilanthes species & Pleocaulis
species, occasional at high to medium altitude
slopes and lateritic plateaus.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Maharashtra, Kas,
Satara district, 16.8.1998, S.P. Gaikwad 202; Kas,
Satara district, 12.8.2012, M.D. Nandikar C01(SUK);
Salsee, Thane, s. d., E. Blaer 8724; Khandala, Pune,
7.1916, C. McCann 22779; Khandala, Pune, 7. 1917,
C. McCann 22551; Echo point, Khandala, Pune,
25.7.1943, H. Santapau 2271; Bhoma hill, Khandala,
Pune, 18.8.1945, H. Santapau 6957; Bhoma hill,
Khandala, Pune, 23.7.1949, H. Santapau 10138;
Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 6.7.1951, H. Santapau
12850; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1957,
H. Santapau 21905; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune,
18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21906; Bhoma hill, Khandala,
Pune, 18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21907; Dasturi point,
Matheran, Raigad, 2.7.1959, N. A. Irani NI4153;
Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad, 2.7.1959, N.A. Irani
NI4154; Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad, 2.7.1959,
N.A. Irani NI4155; Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad,
2.7.1959, N.A. Irani 4156; Dasturi point, Matheran,
Raigad, 13.7.1959, N.A. Irani NI4203; Monkey
point, Matheran, Raigad, 4.7.1960, N.A. Irani
NI5024; Usgaon, Thane district, 15.8.1960, N.Y. Das
NYD1759; Usgaon, Thane district, 15.8.1960, N.Y.
Das NYD1760; Usgaon, Thane district, 15.8.1960,
N.Y. Das NYD1700; Usgaon, Thane district,
15.8.1960, N.Y. Das NYD1701; Vangni, Thane
district, 24.7.2012, Rajdeo Singh R102; Vangni, Thane
district, 24.7.2012, Rajdeo Singh R103; Bhoma Hill,
Khandala, Pune district, 26.8.1982, Rajdeo Singh &
M. D. Nandikar R108; Bhoma Hill, Khandala, Pune
district, 26.8.1982, Rajdeo Singh & M. D. Nandikar
R109 (BLAT).
M. Nandikar
et al.
5
6 Lectotypification and notes on the identity of
Christisonia calcarata
M. Nandikar
et al.
7
8 Lectotypification and notes on the identity of
Christisonia calcarata
... Christisonia, a genus in Buchnereae, occurs in southern China, India, Sri Lanka, Indochina, and part of Malesia (Fischer 2004;Parnell et al. 2014;Van der Ent and Wong 2015). This genus includes about 20 species, most of which are parasitic on the roots of bamboos (Parnell 2001;Fischer 2004), Acanthaceae (Nandikar et al. 2013), or Vitaceae (Benniamin et al. 2012;Tan 2013). Plants are fleshy and covered in sticky translucent slime, and preserve poorly when pressed. ...
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Christisonia kwangtungensis is a new combination proposed in this study on the basis of both molecular andmorphological evidence. The basionym, Gleadovia kwangtungensis, was subsumed into Christisonia hookeri by Zhang in 1986. Because the type material of C. hookeri lacks important diagnostic characters and no fresh materials from Sikkim were available, Chinese plants with white flowers were conservatively treated as C. sinensis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that samples of G. kwangtungensis from the type locality on Danxia Mountain were monophyletic and sister to a clade including the reciprocally monophyletic C. sinensis and C. siamensis. Moreover, morphological comparisons showed that C. kwangtungensis differs from C. sinensis by having a conspicuously inflated (vs. scarcely inflated) corolla and clustered hairs in the throat of the corolla (vs. hairs scattered throughout the interior of the corolla). Further, C. kwangtungensis differs from both C. sinensis and C. siamensis by the length and color of the corolla.
... 56:28 (Nandikar et al. 2013) and Vitaceae (Benniamin et al. 2012). ...
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Background Christisonia is a little-documented and poorly studied root-parasitic genus in the Orobanchaceae occurring in India, China, Indochina and part of the Malesian region. Recent collection of a Christisonia taxon in Kinabalu Park in Sabah, Borneo, taxonomically identical to earlier Sabah collections that have hitherto not been recorded in the literature, led to an assessment of the taxonomic identity of the species against Christisonia scortechinii, C. siamensis, C. sinensis and related species. Results Some taxa in China, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines are morphologically identical to the Borneo taxon except in the number of calyx lobes, but differ by several distinctive characters from other well-distinguished species in the region. Studies of dried herbarium specimens, augmented by photographic images of different stages of fresh flowering material and a scrutiny of available descriptions confirmed that the calyx has two primary lobes in the bud that may separate into 3–5 portions, giving a variable number of apparent lobes in specimen material collected at different localities. This new scrutiny of the calyx also permitted an improved description of the calyx differences that separate Christisonia and the closely related Aeginetia, which have not been clearly elucidated in the past. Conclusions Christisoniascortechinii Prain (Orobanchaceae), the only species that was described as having an initially spathaceous calyx among species of this root-parasitic genus, is newly recorded for Borneo (including Kinabalu Park, where its presence has been overlooked). The range of the species in mainland Southeast Asia, previously extended from Peninsular Malaysia to Thailand and Vietnam, is here further extended to Laos and China. Christisonia wightii Elmer (relevant to the Philippines) and C. sinensis Beck (China) are reduced to synonymy.
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A root parasitic plant species Christisonia rarissima (Orobanchaceae) is described as a new species from the Tamil Nadu parts of outhern Western Ghats, India.
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“Dust seeds” with an undifferentiated embryo and unipolar germination are produced by holoparasitic species in 10 families of angiosperms. However, aside from a few Orobanchaceae species important in agriculture (crop weeds) and in Chinese traditional medicine we know little about seed germination in these achlorophyllous plants. Our primary purpose was to review the literature on seed germination in nine families of the mostly economically-nonimportant taxa of holoparasites and (briefly) of Cynomoriaceae, an economically important medicinal family for which several publications on its germination are in Chinese. A second purpose was to pull together information on sizes of dust seeds and their undifferentiated embryos and endosperm in both economically- and noneconomically-important holoparasitic plants. We found that not much progress has been made in understanding dormancy-break/germination in these holoparasites since 1969, when the author of a book on parasitic flowering plants pointed out how little we know about their germination. Lack of progress on germination of dust seeds of these holoparasites is not necessarily due to lack of research but at least in part to their nonresponsiveness to well-known treatments used to break dormancy in seeds of autotrophic and hemiparasitic flowering plants. For most species, seed length is <1.0 mm (in many <0.50 mm) and embryo length < 0.40 mm (in many <0.10 mm); endosperm is scant to copious. We suggest that seed conditioning, an essential step in germinating seeds of weedy Orobanchaceae holoparasites, be added to the protocol for germinating the dust seeds of noneconomically-important holoparasites with an undifferentiated embryo.
  • India Maharashtra
  • Satara Kas
  • District
examined: INDIA, Maharashtra, Kas, Satara district, 16.8.1998, S.P. Gaikwad 202; Kas, Satara district, 12.8.2012, M.D. Nandikar C01(SUK);
Santapau 2271; Bhoma hill Santapau 6957; Bhoma hill
  • Thane D Salsette
Salsette, Thane, s. d., E. Blatter 8724; Khandala, Pune, 7.1916, C. McCann 22779; Khandala, Pune, 7. 1917, C. McCann 22551; Echo point, Khandala, Pune, 25.7.1943, H. Santapau 2271; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1945, H. Santapau 6957; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 23.7.1949, H. Santapau 10138; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 6.7.1951, H. Santapau 12850; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21905; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21906; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21907; Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad, 2.7.1959, N. A. Irani NI4153;
McCann 22551; Echo point, Khandala, Pune, 25.7.1943, H. Santapau 2271; Bhoma hill
  • Pune Khandala
Khandala, Pune, 7. 1917, C. McCann 22551; Echo point, Khandala, Pune, 25.7.1943, H. Santapau 2271; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1945, H. Santapau 6957; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 23.7.1949, H. Santapau 10138;
Santapau 12850; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21905; Bhoma hill
  • Bhoma Hill
  • Pune Khandala
Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 6.7.1951, H. Santapau 12850; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21905; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21906; Bhoma hill, Khandala, Pune, 18.8.1957, H. Santapau 21907; Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad, 2.7.1959, N. A. Irani NI4153;
Irani NI4154; Dasturi point
  • Dasturi Point
  • Matheran
Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad, 2.7.1959, N.A. Irani NI4154; Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad, 2.7.1959, N.A. Irani NI4155; Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad, 2.7.1959, N.A. Irani 4156; Dasturi point, Matheran, Raigad, 13.7.1959, N.A. Irani NI4203; Monkey point, Matheran, Raigad, 4.7.1960, N.A. Irani NI5024;
Rajdeo Singh R102; Vangni, Thane district, 24.7.2012, Rajdeo Singh R103; Bhoma Hill
  • Thane Vangni
  • District
Vangni, Thane district, 24.7.2012, Rajdeo Singh R102; Vangni, Thane district, 24.7.2012, Rajdeo Singh R103; Bhoma Hill, Khandala, Pune district, 26.8.1982, Rajdeo Singh & M. D. Nandikar R108; Bhoma Hill, Khandala, Pune district, 26.8.1982, Rajdeo Singh & M. D. Nandikar R109 (BLAT).