Productivity costs of nonviral sexually transmissible infections among patients who miss work to seek medical care: Evidence from claims data
(Impact Factor: 1.37).
08/2013; 10(5). DOI: 10.1071/SH13021
Productivity losses can arise when employees miss work to seek care for sexually transmissible infections (STIs). We estimated the average productivity loss per acute case of four nonviral STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis.
We extracted outpatient claims from 2001-2005 MarketScan databases using International Classification Disease ver. 9 (ICD-9) codes. We linked claims with their absence records in the Health and Productivity Management database by matching enrolee identifiers and the service dates from the claims such that our final data included only those who were absent because they were sick and were diagnosed with an STI on the day of their visit. To ensure that the visit was for the STIs being examined, we restricted the criteria to records with the specified ICD-9 codes only, excluding claims with other codes. We estimated the average number of hours absent and multiplied it by the mean hourly wage rate including benefits ($29.72 in 2011 United States dollars) to estimate the average productivity loss per case.
The average productivity losses per case were: $262 for chlamydia, $197 for gonorrhoea, $419 for syphilis and $289 for trichomoniasis. There were no significant differences between males and females.
Among those who take sick leave to seek care, productivity losses associated with treating nonviral STIs may be higher than their estimated direct medical costs. These productivity cost estimates can help to quantify the overall STI burden, and inform cost-effectiveness analyses of prevention and control efforts.
Available from: Stephane Regnier
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ABSTRACT: Components in 4CMenB vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B have shown to potentially cross-react with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We modeled the theoretical impact of a US 4CMenB vaccination program on gonorrhea outcomes. A decision-analysis model was populated using published healthcare utilization and cost data. A two-dose adolescent vaccination campaign was assumed, with protective immunity starting at age 15 years and a base-case efficacy against gonorrhea of 20%. The 20%-efficacy level is an assumption since no clinical data have yet quantified the efficacy of 4CMenB against Neisseria gonorrhoea. Key outcome measures were reductions in gonorrhea and HIV infections, reduction in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost, and the economically justifiable price assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of $75,000 per QALY gained. Adolescent vaccination with 4CMenB would prevent 83,167 (95% credible interval [CrI], 44,600-134,600) gonorrhea infections and decrease the number of HIV infections by 55 (95% CrI, 2-129) per vaccinated birth cohort in the USA. Excluding vaccination costs, direct medical costs for gonorrhea would reduce by $28.7 million (95% CrI, $6.8-$70.0 million), and income and productivity losses would reduce by $40.0 million (95% CrI, $8.2-$91.7 million). Approximately 83% of the reduction in lost productivity is generated by avoiding HIV infections. At a cost of $75,000 per QALY gained, and incremental to the vaccine's effect on meningococcal disease, a price of $26.10 (95% CrI, $9.10-$57.20) per dose, incremental to the price of the meningococcal vaccine, would be justified from the societal perspective. At this price, the net cost per infection averted would be $1,677 (95% CrI, $404-$2,564). Even if the cross-immunity of 4CMenB vaccine and gonorrhea is only 20%, the reduction in gonorrhea infections and associated costs would be substantial.
Available from: PubMed Central
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ABSTRACT: We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15-24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia screening program and assumed 2 prevaccination prevalences of 3.2% by main analysis and 3.7% by additional analysis. Estimated ICERs of vaccinating 14-year-old girls were $35,300/QALY by main analysis and $16,200/QALY by additional analysis compared with only screening. Catch-up vaccination for 15-24-year-old women resulted in estimated ICERs of $53,200/QALY by main analysis and $26,300/QALY by additional analysis. The ICER was most sensitive to prevaccination prevalence for women, followed by cost of vaccination, duration of vaccine-conferred immunity, and vaccine efficacy. Our results suggest that a successful chlamydia vaccine could be cost-effective.
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