2 '-Hydroxy C16-Ceramide Induces Apoptosis-Associated Proteomic Changes in C6 Glioma Cells

Journal of Proteome Research (Impact Factor: 4.25). 08/2013; 12(10). DOI: 10.1021/pr4003432
Source: PubMed


Ceramide is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in regulation of numerous cell signaling pathways. Evidence is accumulating that difference in ceramide structure, such as N-acyl chain length and desaturation of sphingoid base, determines the biological activities of ceramide. Using synthetic (R) 2'-hydroxy-C16-ceramide, which is the naturally occurring stereoisomer, we demonstrate this ceramide has more potent pro-apoptotic activity compared to its (S) isomer or nonhydroxylated C16-ceramide. Upon exposure to (R) 2'-hydroxy-ceramide, C6 glioma cells rapidly underwent apoptosis as indicated by caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, chromatin condensation, and annexin V stain. A 2D-gel proteomics analysis identified 28 proteins whose levels were altered during the initial 3 hours of exposure. Using the list of 28 proteins, we performed a software-assisted pathway analysis to identify possible signaling events that would result in the observed changes. The result indicated that Akt and MAP kinase pathways are among the possible pathways regulated by (R) 2'-hydroxy-ceramide. Experimental validation confirmed that 2'-hydroxy-ceramide significantly altered phosphorylation status of Akt and its downstream effector GSK3β, as well as P38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 MAP kinases. Unexpectedly, robust phosphorylation of Akt was observed within 1 hr of exposure to 2'-hydroxy-ceramide, followed by dephosphorylation. Phosphorylation status of MAPKs showed a complex pattern, in which rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was followed by dephosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 and phosphorylation of the 46 kDa isoform of JNK1/2. These data indicate that (R) 2'-hydroxy-ceramide regulates multiple signaling pathways by affecting protein kinases and phosphatases with kinetics distinct from that of the extensively studied non-hydroxy-ceramide or its unnatural stereoisomer.

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Available from: Venkatesh Kota, Sep 30, 2014
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