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The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine


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The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.
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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume , Article ID ,  pages.//
Review Article
The Relationship between Traditional Chinese
Medicine and Modern Medicine
Jingcheng Dong1,2
1Institute of Integrated Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
2Department of Integrated Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Jingcheng Dong; jcdong@.com
Received  January ; Revised  April ; Accepted  June 
Academic Editor: Christopher G. Lis
Copyright ©  Jingcheng Dong. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
e essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in
the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to nd simple
knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. e basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts:
one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. e
part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine,
and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. e
part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional
Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and
acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that aect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has
been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. e part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of
pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.
1. Introduction
e essence of traditional Chinese medicine has always been
the most advanced and experienced medicine in the world.
proven experiences that have been gradually incorporated
into modern medicine; it has knowledge that can impact the
direction of future medical development, yet its knowledge is
simple enough to t changing times and varied cultures. e
basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed
of the following three parts: the part that is consistent with
modern medicine, the part that is involuntarily beyond
modern medicine, and the part that needs to be further
evaluated or abandoned.
2. The Part That Is Consistent with
Modern Medicine
In the th century, what is now known as “western medicine”
was introduced to China but was not commonly used and
thus had little eect. It was not until the Opium War that
“western medicine” began to develop in China. erefore,
prior to that event, traditional Chinese medicine was always
the leading force of medical care in China.
e key to successful medicine lies in its ecacy. A popu-
lar Chinese saying states “Excellence is from experience.” e
foundation of traditional Chinese medicine is based on ,
years of practice and experiences. With the founding of a new
China in , western medicine in the region also began to
play a large role in medical care. As modern (westernized)
medicine’s impact increased, it led to the development of
“integrative medicine” at the end of the s. eories,
therapeutic principles, technologies, and understanding of
the life sciences were elaborated, and the basic structure
of traditional Chinese medicine also became clearer. Most
importantly, traditional Chinese medicine began to reach a
common point with modern medicine.
2.1. Consensus on Several eories and Conceptions of Tra-
ditional Chinese Medicine. For example, “the essence of
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
kidney” is a core concept of traditional Chinese medical
theory. Studies by Shen showed that “kidney deciency
syndrome” is equivalent to the aging in modern medicine,
regardless of its external performance and internal changes
[]. Studies by Chen et al. showed that what is known as
“heart qi deciency” is associated with cardiac insuciency
in modern medicine [].
2.2. Consensus on Inspection, Auscultation-Olfaction, Inquiry,
and Palpation Method. ere are four main components of
traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis [,]. Inspection is a
method to determine the medical status by visually examin-
ing the changes in appearance and the movement of the whole
body or part of the body. Generally speaking, inspection
includes examination of the tongue as well as the observation
of a patient’s external appearance, in order to recognize
the internal and external manifestations of disease. Visual
examination is consistent with modern medicine’s emphasis
on observation of a patient appearance and movement. For
example, a pale lip can indicate anemia in modern medicine.
e use of auscultation-olfaction, including listening to
the sounds and smelling for odors, is also consistent with
modern medicine. If a patient speaks loudly and powerfully,
the physician can determine that the patient is full of energy.
Conversely, if a patient’s voice is weak or he does not want
to talk, it is most likely that the patient’s diseases are caused
by “deciency.” A patient’s bodily odors can also reveal much
about the respective illness. If a patient has a rotten apple
like odor, it is likely diabetic ketoacidosis. Inquiry refers
to the gathering of a thorough history and reviewing the
systems. ese include physical and mental feelings, life
history, family history, past medical history, onset time,
and the present symptoms, which are widely used both in
traditional medicine and modern medicine.
2.3. Consensus on Several Treatments of Traditional Chinese
Medicine. erapeutic studies show that Chinese medicine
and modern medicine have reached a consensus on the
ing, neutralizing, eliminating, and reinforcing (eight com-
monly used treatments in traditional Chinese medicine). For
instance, the “reinforcing method” is able to improve neu-
roendocrine regulatory function, enhance the body’s ability
to combat stress, adjust immune function, and improve the
body’s systemic function. Diaphoresis is able to promote
perspiration and defervescence as well as play a role in
reducing inammation among other methods adopted by
modern medicine.
2.4. Consensus on Several Prescriptions of Traditional Chinese
MedicineandCommonlyUsedChineseHerbs. Illnesses cured
by many ancient Chinese compounds are similar to certain
diseases or conditions also seen in modern medicine and are
summarized in Tab l e .
ere are many Chinese herbs either given as single drugs
or as formulations that have been eective treatments for par-
of modern medicine, the pharmacology and mechanism of
action of many of these Chinese herbs have been determined,
so that traditional Chinese medicine has gradually formed a
consensus with modern medicine (Table ).
3. The Part Ahead of Modern
Medicine Involuntarily
Traditional Chinese medicine is a practical medicine built
on experience. e theoretical system is built by means
of an ancient plain materialist philosophy, the method of
“syndrome dierentiation,” and the use of natural means
to treat illness rather than emphasizing consistency with
contemporary science and technology [,]. Unlike modern
medicine that has view that “Nature that cannot be certied
cannot be conquered,” keeping abreast of requirements of
contemporary science, traditional Chinese medicine with the
beyond the era. e so-called “integrative medicine” is able
to reveal this essence continually.
3.1. Several Advanced eories and Important Conceptions of
Traditional Chinese Medicine. In terms of medical theories
and ways of thinking, traditional Chinese medicine has a
signicant contribution to modern medicine. For example,
the theory of the “correspondence between man and uni-
verse” in traditional Chinese medicine is the unied outlook
of body and environment. What are known as the “biological
life” theory and the “biological clock” theory in modern
medicine refers to the patterns of hormone secretion, and
treating diseases according to the place of origin are all the
embodiment of “correspondence between man and universe.
e views of “unity of opposites” and “balance amongst
dynamic forces” indicate the existence of universal laws in
life science, both approaches dier from traditional Chinese
medicine because traditional Chinese medicine always con-
siders these views as its guiding ideology and as fundamental
law. erefore, the cognitive degrees of Chinese medicine and
western medicine in these views are of dierence.
For example, studies by Shen show that “kidney de-
ciency” is due to neuroendocrine disturbance and preaging
of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which is
consistent with the hypothesis that “the senile bell lies in
hypothalamus” proposed by Everi in the s []. How-
ever, the practice of traditional Chinese medicine precedes
modern medicine by thousands of years. Our study found
that the knowledge of “chronic disease involving kidney” in
traditional Chinese medicine has a profound connotation in
modern life sciences. Many diseases, such as airway inam-
matory diseases, with long-term recurrence, oen exacerbate
the pathological changes in the anti-inammatory system
signicant “kidney deciency.” We summarized many the-
ories and concepts with advanced knowledge in traditional
Chinese medicine in Table .
3.2. Several Relatively Advanced Treatments of Traditional
Chinese Medicine. “Same treatment for dierent diseases,
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
T : Several ancient herbal formulas that form consensus with modern medicine.
Formula Origin Composition Function Traditional application Modern
Shenshu from
Large ginseng – g
Invigorating qi
to prevent
It is seen aer hemorrhage, ulcer, and sore.
ose who get qi and blood deciency, pale
complexion, aversion to cold with fever, cold
sweating, and faint pulse catch this kind of
Hemorrhagic or
Tai y a n g
from Treatise
on Febrile
Radix Glycyrrhizae
Preparate (monarch,
two liang), Rhizoma
Zingiberis (minister,
one and half liang),
Radix Aconiti
Preparata (assistant,
one piece, uncooked)
Warming the
energizer to
dispel cold,
Rescuing from
collapse by
restoring Yang
Shanghan Taiyang disease which is
mistakenly treated by sweating method
damages yang, yangming, taiyin, shaoyin,
jueyin and cholera, displaying such
symptom as deadly cold hand and foot,
aversion to cold, vomiting and no eagerness
to drink, hypogastralgia and diarrhea,
spiritual deciency and always sleeping,
white and slippery tongue coating, faint
pulse, and such diseases as plague, malaria,
disease. All above belong to yin syndrome.
Multiple shocks
from Treatise
on Febrile
Poria cocos, Paeonia
Lactiora Pall, Ginger
(sliced) each three
liang, Atractylodes
macrocephala koidz
(two liang), Radix
Aconiti Lateralis
Preparata (one piece,
Warming yang
to promote
It directs to deciency of spleen-yang and
kidney-yang and Water and Dampness
Retention. e syndromes show as follows:
dysuria; heavy limbs with pain;
hypogastralgia and diarrhea; limb swelling;
white tongue coating and no eagerness to
drink; deep pulse; taiyang-diseases which
are overused sweating method; edema due
to yang insuciency; sweating but not
relieve the symptom; fever; epigastric throb;
dizziness; trembling body.
Cardiogenic or
renal edema
Powder []
from Danxi’s
divaricata, Radix
astragali, one liang
each, Atractylodes
macrocephala koidz
(two liang) ree
qian. e above with
one and half cup of
water and three pieces
of ginger
Spleen and
defending qi;
exterior for
It is called by TCM immunomodulator. It
treats spontaneous sweating due to
deciency of yang, susceptibility of
pathogenic wind; body injury by wind, rain,
cold and dampness, and withered skin;
sweating and disgusting wind; pale
complexion, pale tongue, and thin-white
coating, oating and decient pulse. It also
treats decient people with loosened striae
and susceptibility of pathogenic wind.
Rising the
one of the most important and characteristic concepts in
traditional Chinese medicine reects the spirit of “syndrome
dierentiation and treatment” and refers to the thought that
dierent diseases at certain stages of development show
the same pathogenesis. And therefore, the same therapeutic
principles can be applied to diseases. For example, according
to modern medical diagnosis, dierent diseases are able to
be cured by “reinforcing kidney and replenishing qi” as long
as they are attributed to “kidney-qi deciency” syndrome.
Modern research has shown that this concept of “same
treatment for dierent diseases” is likely to be one of the
directions of modern medicine in the future. Because some
of the “walls” that exist between the diseases are not always
reasonable, the reason for division is oen based on anatomy,
rather than etiological and pathological changes. Studies have
shown that dierent diseases with similar syndrome oen
have common pathological and physiological changes. It is
easier to achieve better eects by using the same prescription
because dierent diseases may have comparable changes at
the cellular, molecular, and genetic levels, and drug targets or
the target groups may be similar across various diseases.
3.3. Several Relatively Advanced Formula and
Modern Prescriptions
3.3.1. Realgar-Indigo Naturalis Formula. Acute promyelo-
cytic leukemia (APL) has a poor prognosis. In the s,
a famous Chinese medical expert in China, Doctor Shi-lin
Huang, designed a Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula (RIF),
in which, realgar, a mined ore, is the principal element and
Indigo naturalis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Radix psudostellar-
iae are adjuvant components to assist the eects of realgar.
e main components of RIF are realgar, Indigo naturalis,
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
T : Consensus of several commonly used herbs.
Herb Ecacy Traditional
application Essential component Pharmacologic action Modern
Ephedra []
relieves lung
Used for respir ator y
infections caused by
“wind,” asthmatic
cough and chest
distress, edema
caused by wind,
asthma, pruritis
Ephedrine induces
central nervous system
excitation; improves
contractility, increases
cardiac output; acts on
signicantly relaxes
bronchial smooth
Pseudoephedrine has
better eects on
dieresis compared with
ephedrine; minimal
erethitic eects on
vascular system.
Mainly used for
asthma, the
common cold,
response, nasal
Datura ower
Suppresses cough
and relieves
dyspnea; anesthetic
and odynolytic;
relieves spasms
and pain
Used for coug h,
asthma, abdominal
pain; rheumatic
aches, epilepsy,
infantile convulsion,
and anesthesia.
Analogous to an
alpha-blocking agent,
scopomamine has
analgesic functions and
can strengthen the
analgesic action of
sauteralgyl via blocking
adrenergic receptors;
reduces vagal
inhibitory eects on
the heart and
stimulates the
apneustic center.
For gastric and
duodenal ulcers
and gall bladder
disease, kidney
cramps, and can
also be used for
tremor palsy.
Coptis []Heat dampness,
re detoxication.
For hotness and
humidity, vomiting,
dysentery jaundice,
fever, coma, upset,
hematemesis, and
epistaxis due to blood
hot, toothache,
positive inotropic
eect; detoxication,
antipyretic, and
Commonly used
to treat bacterial
dysentery, and
Aconite []
Reviving yang for
supplementing re
and strengthening
yang, eliminating
cold to stop pain.
e most eective
drug for recovering
depleted yang.
For excessive yin
rejecting yang, loss of
yang due to severe
diaphoresis, vomiting
and diarrhea, cold
extremities, cold
protrusion. Coryza
due to insuciency of
yang, dorsal furuncle
and pyocutaneous
disease, and other
unretractable cold
Has a cardiotonic
eect, dilates blood
vessels, increases blood
ow, improves blood
anticold, improves
tolerance to hypoxia
tolerance and
anti-inammatory and
analgesic eects.
Clinically used
to alleviate pain,
suitable for the
digestive system
and cancer pain.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
T : Continu ed.
Herb Ecacy Traditional
application Essential component Pharmacologic action Modern
Heat clearing and
improves eyesight,
dispels wind and
For anthracia and
hematochezia caused
by pyretic toxicity,
anemopyretic cold,
fever caused by warm
e main component is volatile
Isochlorogenic acid
anti-inammatory and
antipyretic eects,
strengthens the
immune function,
centra analepsia eects,
lipid-lowering eect,
For gastric and
duodenal ulcers
and gall bladder
disease, kidney
cramps, and can
also be used for
tremor palsy.
T : Advances in traditional Chinese medicine that are ahead
of modern medicine.
Traditional Chinese medicine
(thousands of years ago)
Modern medicine
(recent decades)
e integration of life
knowledge/experience with
traditional Chinese medicine
Ranging from primary studies
of a single gene or protein to
current use of genomics,
proteomics and informatics
Emotional pathopoiesis and its
correspondence between man
and his environment
Gradual recognition of
psychological factors and its
relationship with physiology
and pathology.
Syndrome dierentiation,
abidance by the triple
pathogens and physique theory
Establishment of individual
Chinese compound
(multitarget herbal treatment)
From primary single target
drugs to multitarget drugs,
signicantly reduce the side
eects of medical treatment.
and Salvia miltiorrhiza, with tetraarsenic tetrasulde (A),
indirubin (I), and tanshinone IIA (T) as major active ingre-
dients, respectively []. Multicenter clinical trials showed
that a complete remission rate of .% []to%[]and
a -year overall survival rate of .% []wereachieved
in APL patients receiving RIF, with moderate adverse eects
such as gastrointestinal discomfort and rash. Doctor Zhu
Chen claried the molecular mechanism of the compound
Huangdai tablets in the treatment of APL in  from the
perspective of molecular biology and biochemistry in the
renowned journal Proceedings of the National Academy of
show that AsS induces degradation of the cancer protein,
thus reversing the increase in cancer cells and making
them dierentiate and mature. Tanshinone and indirubin
promote the ubiquitination of the oncoprotein and accelerate
its degradation, further promoting the dierentiation and
maturation of the leukemia cells and inhibiting cell cycle and
proliferation of cancer cells. Animal studies also showed that
the use of natural indigo aer realgar substantially reduced
toxicity. ese reect the concepts of typical “minister”
(the place inferior to “monarch” drug) and “assistant” (the
place inferior to “minister” drug) eect. Tanshinone and
indirubin increase the production of channel proteins that
deliver AsS, which signicantly increase the concentration
of AsS in leukemia cells, improving its ecacy. Both
tanshinone and indirubin play the role of “guide” (the place
inferior to “assistant” drug). e compound Huangdai has a
synergistic eect with the other components greater than its
three individual components by the joint application of each
component (Figure ).
3.3.2. Airway Stabilizer Solution. e airway stabilizer solu-
tion created by Doctor Jing-cheng Dong is based on Xiao
Qing Long Tang (Little Dragon Decoction) and Ding Chuan
Tang (Anti-asthmatic Decoction), composed of ligusticum
wallichii, ginkgo biloba, skullcap, Asarum, ginger, almonds,
earthworm, rehmannia, and magnolia. It is eective in the
clinical treatment of bronchial asthma and variability of
cough. e various components and the basis for its ecacy
are rooted in traditional Chinese medical theory, and the
composition of the drug may be the main material basis for
its ecacy (Table ).
3.4. Several Leading Herbs. e study of Chinese medicine
is driven in part by the development of modern pharma-
cology. For instance, Artemisia annua was recorded in the
Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency”(writtenbyHong
Ge in Eastern Jin Dynasty) as a drug used to treat malaria.
Modern research has shown that it has an antimalarial active
ingredient (the peroxide group of sesquiterpene lactone)
consisting of only  elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
It is a completely dierent novel compound compared to
known antimalarial drug structures. is nding overturned
the judgment of experts who insisted that the structure
of the antimalarial drugs must have a nitrogen-containing
heterocyclic ring [,]. It helps provide a direction for
the design and synthesis of new drugs. In addition, ginseng,
skullcap, astragalus, epimedium, and other herbs were also
eachshowntohaveauniqueeect(Tabl e  ).
3.5. Acupuncture Treatment and Acupuncture Anesthesia at
Aect Modern Medicine. ose who practice acupuncture
approach the treatment by looking at pathology in the
whole body. According to dierent body conditions, varied
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Realgar-indigo naturalis formula
Realgar Indigo naturalis Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix pseudostellanae
Tetraarsenic tetrasulde (A) Indirubin (I) Tanshinone IIA (T)
Tetraarsenic tetrasulde is sovereign,
indirubin is guide, and tanshinone IIA
is assistant.
F : Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula.
T : Components and ingredients of the airway stabilizer
Name Herb Ingredient
Ephedra Ephedrine and other minor
Ligusticum wallichii Tetramethylpyrazine
Ginkgo biloba Ginkgolide
Scutellaria Baicalin
Asarum Racemic go A black alkali
Ginger ale Ginger oil glycosides
Almonds Amygdalin
Earthworm Earthworms antipyretic
Rehmannia Habitat catalpol
Magnolia Volatile oil
acupoints and manipulations are selected. e selection
inuences multiple targets and many diseases and stimulates
the body to treat diseases, aecting the pathological process
and improving physique.
is adjustment is accomplished by the integration of
the central nervous system, including cortex recombination,
neural plasticity, and release of various neurotransmitters
and hormones [,]. e basis of acupuncture may be in
changes in gene expression.
Acupuncture anesthesia is a method used to prevent sur-
gical pain and relieve physiological dysfunction. It is suitable
for those who are allergic to narcotic drugs. Since ,
Shanghai No.  People’s Hospital used it instead of narcotic
drugs to perform tonsillectomies. Since then, acupuncture
anesthesia has been passed from general usage to selected
application. According to its clinical eect and scientic eval-
uation, acupuncture anesthesia is eectively used in thyroid
surgery, surgery of posterior cranial fossa, craniocerebral
operation, anterior cervical surgery, pulmonary resection,
caesarean section, tubal ligation, and tooth extraction. It
is also used in some surgeries with uncertain results like
hysterectomy, caldwell-luc operation, subtotal gastrectomy,
and strabismus surgery. It has not proved to provide eective
anesthesia in limb surgery and perineal surgery.
e basis of acupuncture anesthesia is the adjustment
to inhibit large pain pathways by the negative reection
of spinal pain []. e acupuncture signal and the
pain signal from the pain region transmit impulses into
the brain. Acupuncture stimulates the antipain material to
reduce the pain. Endogenous opioids participate in this
process due to the increased release of opioids. Several
neurotransmitters are related to acupuncture anesthesia, and
some relatively central cerebral nuclei were found. CCK-
has the negative-reection-to-opioid eect, which is the vital
factor of acupuncture and morphine. e eect of electric
acupuncture depends on the balance of central opioid and
CCK-. e acupuncture signals can be reected on some
regional area of the brain to deal with the injury stimulations,
which might be the physical basis of acupuncture anesthesia.
Dierent frequencies of electric acupuncture dierentiate the
pain-relieving eects, which may be related to the specic
expression of central genes. Two Hz electric acupuncture is
widely used in the brain treatment, while  Hz has a narrow
extension in the brain treatment. Psychological factors are
not the deciding factors for success, but they are also quite
Modern Medicines. Massage treatment utilizes the particular
skills with hands or limbs to practice manipulation on
the surface of the body. erefore, it has the direct eect
of activating blood and dispersing stagnation, smoothing
tendons, and improving malformation. On the other hand,
massage reectively inuences the neuro and body uid
by acupoint-meridian-viscera network. Clinical researches
show that appropriate manipulations can result in improve-
ment of outcomes [].
Modern research studies show that massage can promote
blood and lymph circulation, increase metabolism, and assist
therepairofsotissueinjury[]. e diastolic function
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
T : Several advanced commonly used herbs.
Herb Function Traditional use Major ingredient Pharmacologic eect Modern
apiacea Hce
Fever, malaria,
Regulation of
immune function,
antimalarial role.
Malaria such
thy, bilious
Panax ginseng
C.A.Mey []
Reinforce qi,
reduce anxiety
Fatigue, chronic
Main component is ginseng saponin (can
be divided into three groups, namely,
oleanolic acid group, protopanaxdiol, and
the original Panaxatriol group)
Improve physical,
mental activity, and
strengthen immunity.
e pharmacological
activity of ginseng has
an “adaptogens” like
Georgi []
Heat dampness,
tocolytic, icterus
Baicalin and baicalein
Decrease cerebral
vascular resistance,
improve cerebral
blood circulation,
increase cerebral
blood ow and
Paralysis aer
hoangtchy []
“Solid the
“Qi weakness,”
diarrhea, rectal
prolapse, blood
in the stool,
bleeding, “blood
Astragaloside IV
immunity, stimulates
increases the number
of red blood cells,
eect, enhances
adrenal function,
improves fatigue,
antiaging, antiulcer
ischemic heart
diabetes, acute
gravis, cardiac
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
T : Continu e d.
Herb Function Traditional use Major ingredient Pharmacologic eect Modern
epimedii []
kidney yang,
Modulates the
pituitary-gonadal axis
and adrenal cortical
axis, and the thymus
eects, antiasthmatic,
and antiviral eects,
improves the
hemodynamic and
treatment of
well aer massage. e total cell count increases, while
lung function improves. e content of catecholamines in
plasma decreases so that the autonomic nervous system is
inhibited, which can cause a reduction in pain []. Massage
can eectively increase digestion in the stomach, adjust the
secretion of stomach uid, and release the spasm of smooth
muscle []. When ST and BL are manipulated, the
function of periphery blood T lymphocyte elevates. Rub-
bing manipulation, embrocation, and kneading manipulation
could increase the elasticity and glossiness of skin.
In short, skilled massage manipulation can eectively
prevent diseases by the combination of static strength and
motive force in a localized point or throughout the entire
4. Some Parts That Need to Be Newly
Recognized or Abandoned
In the system of human science, including medical science,
concepts change from new to old, and ideas become theories
However, this kind of stability is conditional, partial, and
relative, while instability is absolute and unconditional. Any
scientic systems should confess their demerits and rectify
them so as to generate new concepts, methods, and theory.
ditional Chinese medicine were founded in specic cultures
and eras. So TCM theory should be divided into two parts,
one of which needs to be promoted, the other of which need
to be abandoned. Integrative medicine is an important way to
achieve this [].
4.1. About Palpation. “Cunkou pulse” should be newly rec-
ognized. It belongs to the “Lung Meridian of Hand-Taiyin.
Classic of Questioning ” (written by Qui Bian in the Warring
StatesPeriod) put forward that “Cunkou pulse” can detect
diseases of the whole body. “Lung” controls whole meridians,
is the master of “qi”, and is the origin of “qi” and “blood.
erefore, it can reect all the changes of viscera, meridians
and “qi-blood” to diagnose diseases. “e Internal Canon of
Medicine” (written in Huang in the Warring States period)
pointed out that meridians include meridians and collaterals,
not vessels. e pulse we palpate originates from the heart,
which beats. e meridian cannot beat, so it should not be
able to be palpated. e pulse is only one kind of syndrome.
Not all diseases can be presented by the pulse. erefore,
palpation is the only examination method.
4.2. About Formula Prescription. Although formulary pre-
scriptions are benecial in medicine, they still have some
demerits. It is hard to distinguish the “assistant” and the
guide” in some prescriptions, and therefore, it is necessary to
conduct further research. “Compendium of Materia Medica
(written by Si-miao Sun in the Ming Dynasty) has lots of
prescription to treat sterility. If a sterile female drank a cup of
rain water in the spring, she would become fertile. If a sterile
female stole a lamp from a rich person’s bed, she would also
become fertile. Even broom, dishwater, ashes on widow’s bed,
the wood in toilet, the trees red by thunder, and the rope
hung by itself were thought to treat diseases.
4.3. About Chinese Medicine. Si-miao Sun (a well-known
doctor in Chinese history) recorded saltpeter as bitter and hot
in taste, extremely cold, and nontoxic. Modern researchers
nd saltpeter contains nitrocompoundwhich may cause liver
cancer. Also Pollia was recorded as bitter and hot in taste,
warm and nontoxic, although it contains aristolochic acid
which may cause kidney failure, lymphoma, kidney cancer,
and liver cancer.
5. Conclusion
China is a nation composed of many ethnic groups, many
with their own subcultures, beliefs, and history. Because of
this, it is important to note that traditional Chinese medicine
should have two concepts: rstly, it only refers to traditional
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
medicine in the Han nationality; secondly, it is the sum
of traditional medicines of all nationalities in the Chinese
mainland. With respect to the structure and characteristic of
traditional medicines, they can be divided into three parts:
the knowledge and facts in agreement with modern medicine,
the knowledge and practices not recognized in modern
modern medicine, and nally, the component of traditional
medicine that has been adequately disproven and should be
abandoned from future medical practice.
is project was funded from the grants from the
National Basic Science Program of China (CB)
and National Natural Science Program of China (no.
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... Some specialists compare "kidney deficiency syndrome" to "ageing" in Western Medicine. Heart qi failure was also linked to heart failure (Dong, 2013). The Chinese term "zang-fu" refers to both morphological and functional entities of the human body. ...
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Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the health care system developed with the help of clinical trials that are based ideally on the scientific model of regulation. Objective: This systematic health care system relies on some specific unique theories and practical experiences to treat and cure diseases, thus enhancing the public’s health. Review Methodology: The current review covers the available literature from 2000 to 2021. The data was collected from journals research articles, published books, thesis, and electronic databases, search engines such as Google Scholar, Elsevier, EBSCO, PMC, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Willey Online Library, Springer Link, and CNKI) searching key terms, cardiovascular disease, traditional Chinese medicines, natural products, and bioactive compounds. Full-length articles and abstracts were screened for the collection of information included in the paper. Results: Clinical trials on the TCM and basic research carried out on its mechanism and nature have led to the application and development of the perfect design of the research techniques, for example, twofold striking in acupuncture that aid in overcoming the limitations and resistances in integrating and applicability of these experiences and trials into the pre-existing biomedical models. Furthermore, TCM has also been utilized from ancient times to treat heart diseases in Asia, particularly in China, and is now used by people in many other areas. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is mainly developed by oxidative stress. Hence antioxidants can be beneficial in treating this particular disease. TCM has a wide variety of antioxidant components. Conclusion: The current review article summarizes the underlying therapeutic property of TCM and its mechanism. It also overviews the evidence of the mechanism of TCM action in CVD prevention by controlling oxidative stress and its signaling pathway.
... For the past few years, the Chinese medicine has got great attention towards early prognosis and treatment of diabetes. The diagnosis strategy followed by the Western Medicine (WM) and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is different from each other, Dong 3 . TCM follows two basic theories to study the human body, for a healthy wellbeing there should be a perfect balance between five basic elements of universe such as earth, fire, water, metal and wood. ...
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The survival rates for breast cancer (BC) have improved in recent years, but resistance, metastasis, and recurrence still remain major therapeutic challenges for BC. The acidic tumor microenvironment (TME) has attracted attention because of its association with tumorigenesis, metastasis, drug resistance, and immune surveillance. In this study, we evaluated natural compounds from traditional herbal medicine used to treat cancer that selectively target genes regulated by extracellular acidosis. We integrated four transcriptomic data including BC prognostic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, gene expression profiles of MCF-7 cells treated with 102 natural compounds, patterns of gene profiles by acidic condition, and single-cell RNA-sequencing from BC patient samples. Bruceine D (BD) was predicted as having the highest therapeutic potential, having an information gain (IG) score of 0.24, to regulate reprogrammed genes driven by acidosis affecting the survival of BC patients. BD showed the highest IG on EMT (IG score: 0.11) and invasion (IG score: 0.1) compared to the other phenotypes with the CancerSEA database. BD also demonstrated therapeutic potential by interfering with the tumor cell–TME interactions by reducing the amyloid beta precursor protein and CD44 expression. Therefore, BD is a potential candidate to target the acidic TME induced metastatic process in BC.
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Resumen Shen corresponde a un compuesto asociativo polisémico cuya definición es compleja y difícil de interpretar, pues su significado varía según el contexto en el que se encuentra. La presente investigación analiza los caracteres tradicionales de Shen y describe sus implicaciones en diversos textos, tanto médicos tradicionales como filosóficos. Proponemos que Shen constituye una propiedad intrínseca que se expande a diferentes niveles de complejidad (Shen universal, Shen de la naturaleza y Shen individual) y, a su vez, dicta un orden en la estructuración y funcionamiento de todo lo que forma parte del universo. En los seres humanos, Shen determina los procesos de gestación prenatal hasta llegar a nivel posnatal, de esta manera guía el desarrollo, tanto fisiológico como psíquico, del individuo siguiendo los designios del orden celeste. Desvincularse del Shen genera desorden, sobreexplotación, egoísmo, apatía, violencia, enfermedad y muerte. Permitir que aflore el Shen favorece el flujo espontáneo de Qi entre el individuo y el orden cósmico, de esta manera otorga salud, armonía, bienestar, virtud y sentido de trascendencia a su existencia.
The main objective of this chapter is to reflect on the encounters between Argentina and China in terms of knowledge, representations, and practices around health care. First, the forms that these encounters take within Chinese territory are traced, taking into consideration a more global perspective. As a result, the “contact zones” that have been occurring between the so-called “Western” or biomedical health system and the so-called “Chinese Medicine,” are described retrospectively. This genealogy shows how these encounters produced new configurations in health care, based on tensions and negotiations between sectors marked by hierarchies and power relations. This “new geography” in terms of health care configured in China, also makes visible the complex web of encounters that arise around health and how these previous experiences are articulated in subsequent encounters that take place in Argentina. Second, from a more local scale, the interactions between Chinese immigrants and the Argentinian health system, which happens to be highly influenced by biomedical logic, are addressed. Thus, it describes how Chinese immigrants display and negotiate their knowledge and practices about the body, health, and disease when they need to consult the health system in Argentina.
Ethnopharmacological relevance Paonia suffruticosa Andr. belonging to the family Paeoniaceae and has been used as a medicinal plant in Asian countries including China, Korea, and Japan. The roots of P. suffruticosa has been used in traditional medicine in various diseases including cancer and cardiovascular, female genital, and inflammatory diseases. Aim of the study Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) pathologically account for 90% of all head and neck cancers. However, effective targeted therapies for HNSCCs are insufficient and the prognosis is very poor, especially in patients with metastatic HNSCCs. To overcome the current limitations of available therapies for HNSCCs, pathological approaches using natural compounds are attracting attention. Our study aimed to demonstrate the anti-cancer effects of paeoniflorigenone (Paeo, 98.9% purity) isolated from the root bark of P. suffruticosa. Materials and methods Our scientific methodology was performed as follows: cytotoxicity, morphological changes, and apototic DNA fragmentation were analyzed using MTT, light microscopy, and TUNEL assays. Protein expression, apoptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy were analyzed using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Results We demonstrated that Paeo significantly reduced cell proliferation and cell division, leading to caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in human YD-10B HNSCC cells. This result was associated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K signaling in these cells. In addition, we investigated other programmed cell death mechanisms associated with apoptosis and found that Paeo inhibited necroptosis via dephosphorylation of key necroptotic proteins (RIP and MLKL), whereas Paeo induced autophagy via increased LC3I/II expression and autophagosome formation in human YD-10B HNSCC cells. The anti-metastatic effects of Paeo significantly suppressed cell migration and invasion in human YD-10B HNSCC cells. Conclusion Overall, our results demonstrated that the bioactive compound, Paeo, exhibited anti-cancer bioactivities in human YD-10B HNSCC cells, suggesting that Paeo may be an attractive pathological approach for patients with human HNSCCs.
El presente artículo explora tres ejes en relación con la medicina tradicional china a nivel local y global. En un primer momento, se realiza una genealogía de este saber milenario, desde sus orígenes (registrados) hasta la actualidad, con énfasis en los encuentros con la llamada “medicina occidental” y en cómo su llegada terminó por fortalecer el saber nativo y crear una “nueva geografía”. En segundo lugar, se exploran las diversas formas como los ciudadanos chinos se apropian de ambos sistemas médicos en la China contemporánea. Por último, se hace un acercamiento a la expansión global de este saber, por medio de su comoditización o como recurso potencial de soft power. De esta forma, se pretende colaborar en un campo poco explorado desde las ciencias sociales, sobre este corpus de prácticas y conocimientos, su dinamismo y su constante modificación.
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Health is a necessary condition for humankind development. People’s Republic of China (PRC) has a huge responsibility towards global health. Indeed, PRC is committed to global health aligning its strategy with the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The plan adopted by the Chinese government for the health sector is ‘Healthy China 2030’, a medium to long-term initiative to promote health and well-being. Thus, this paper will be based on a theoretical framework, resulting from a literature review on these three main fields: (i) concept of innovation, (ii) Chinese capabilities of innovation and development; and (iii) ‘Healthy China 2030’ initiative and Chinese health policies. It will then analyse the way the strategic goals of ‘Healthy China 2030’ ref lect Chinese broader purposes of ‘health for all’ and ‘sustainable development based on innovative and scientific development’.
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Clinical trials have demonstrated that pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is highly curable. Small-scale studies have reported on the treatment of APL using one or two treatment regimes. Here, we report a multiple center-based study of 119 cases of pediatric APL treated with four regimes based on all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, laboratorial test results and treatment outcome of the pediatric APL patients. Regime 1 used an in-house developed protocol, regime 2 was modified from the PETHEMA LPA99 protocol, regime 3 was modified from the European-APL93 protocol, and regime 4 used a protocol suggested by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology. The overall complete remission rates for the four regimes were 88.9, 87.5, 97.1 and 87.5%, respectively, which exhibited no statistical difference. However, more favorable results were observed for regimes 2 and 3 than regimes 1 and 4, in terms of the estimated 3.5-year disease-free survivals, relapse rates, drug toxicity (including hepatotoxicity, cardiac arrhythmia, and differentiation syndrome) and sepsis. In conclusion, the overall outcomes were more favorable after treatment with regimes 2 and 3 than with regimes 1 and 4, and this may have been due to the specific compositions of regimes 2 and 3.
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With the hope to provide an effective approach for personalized diagnosis and treatment clinically, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is being paid increasing attention as a complementary and alternative medicine. It performs treatment based on ZHENG (TCM syndrome) differentiation, which could be identified as clinical special phenotypes by symptoms and signs of patients. However, it caused skepticism and criticism because ZHENG classification only depends on observation, knowledge, and clinical experience of TCM practitioners, which is lack of objectivity and repeatability. Scientists have done fruitful researches for its objectivity and standardization. Compared with traditional four diagnostic methods (looking, listening and smelling, asking, and touching), in this paper, the applications of new technologies and new methods on the ZHENG differentiation were systemically reviewed, including acquisition, analysis, and integration of clinical data or information. Furthermore, the characteristics and application range of these technologies and methods were summarized. It will provide reference for further researches.
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Since the founding of People's Republic of China, the country, made some therapeutic progress in the field of cardiovascular diseases by traditional Chinese medicine. Here the author introduces some of the major progress made in recent years.
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In spite of great advances in target-oriented Western medicine for treating myocardial infarction (MI), it is still a leading cause of death in a worldwide epidemic. In contrast to Western medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) uses a holistic and synergistic approach to restore the balance of Yin-Yang of body energy so the body's normal function can be restored. Sini decoction (SND) is a well-known formula of TCM which has been used to treat MI for many years. However, its holistic activity evaluation and mechanistic understanding are still lacking due to its complex components. A urinary metabonomic method based on nuclear magnetic resonance and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed to characterize MI-related metabolic profiles and delineate the effect of SND on MI. With Elastic Net for classification and selection of biomarkers, nineteen potential biomarkers in rat urine were screened out, primarily related to myocardial energy metabolism, including the glycolysis, citrate cycle, amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. With the altered metabolism pathways as possible drug targets, we systematically analyze the therapeutic effect of SND, which demonstrated that SND administration could provide satisfactory effect on MI through partially regulating the perturbed myocardial energy metabolism. Our results showed that metabonomic approach offers a useful tool to identify MI-related biomarkers and provides a new methodological cue for systematically dissecting the underlying efficacies and mechanisms of TCM in treating MI.
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Syndrome differentiation (Bian Zheng) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the comprehensive analysis of clinical information gained by the four main diagnostic TCM procedures: observation, listening, questioning, and pulse analysis, and it is used to guide the choice of treatment either by acupuncture and/or TCM herbal formulae, that is, Fufang. TCM syndrome differentiation can be used for further stratification of the patients' conditions with certain disease, identified by orthodox medical diagnosis, which could help the improvement of efficacy of the selected intervention. In modern TCM research it is possible to integrate syndrome differentiation with orthodox medical diagnosis leading to new scientific findings in overall medical diagnosis and treatment. In this review, the focus is to screen published evidence on the role of syndrome differentiation in modern TCM research with particular emphasis on basic and clinical research as well as, pharmacological evaluation of TCM herbal formulary for drug discovery.
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Extract: Misunderstanding usually stems from ignorance. This is the case for comments directed at each other by western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Modern biomedical scientists insist that herbal remedies need quality control, rigorous clinical trials, and illumination of active ingredients and their action mechanisms. In fact, almost all ever-increasing number of research projects on herbal medicine are being conducted based on this belief. Researchers often disrespect those so-called unique, seemingly inaccessible and ridiculous theories in traditional medicine. While, in the eyes of TCM doctors, most published articles about TCM in Western medicine journals haven't felt TCM's "pulse" yet. They thought that such studies are also ridiculous to focus only on herbal drugs instead of the thinking which guides drug's usage. This is like studying Vincent van Gogh's paintbrush instead of his thoughts about art expression. TCM experts are disgruntled with the demand and rebuke from western medicine. They believe the real efficacy and toxicity of herbal agents will not be adequately demonstrated using the present evaluation paradigm for single chemical compounds, since TCM does not focus solely on the disease defined by specific pathological changes (e.g., the level of blood pressure or sugar, the identifying of tumor cells or microorganisms, etc.) but instead concentrates on the overall functional state of the patient. However, because of TCM's classic naming systems, they can not convey their notions effectively to the field of the mainstream medicine.
Ginseng is a highly valued herb in the Far East and has gained popularity in the West during the last decade. There is extensive literature on the beneficial effects of ginseng and its constituents. The major active components of ginseng are ginsenosides, a diverse group of steroidal saponins, which demonstrate the ability to target a myriad of tissues, producing an array of pharmacological responses. However, many mechanisms of ginsenoside activity still remain unknown. Since ginsenosides and other constituents of ginseng produce effects that are different from one another, and a single ginsenoside initiates multiple actions in the same tissue, the overall pharmacology of ginseng is complex. The ability of ginsenosides to independently target multireceptor systems at the plasma membrane, as well as to activate intracellular steroid receptors, may explain some pharmacological effects. This commentary aims to review selected effects of ginseng and ginsenosides and describe their possible modes of action. Structural variability of ginsenosides, structural and functional relationship to steroids, and potential targets of action are discussed.
Chinese arsenic drugs have been applied in Chinese medicine for several centuries. Beginning from 1970s, arsenic containing drugs have been generally used for the treatment of malignant hematologic diseases including acute promyelocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and multiple myeloma. No matter what ingredients of arsenic drugs were applied, either arsenic trioxide, arsenic disulfide, or arsenic containing Chinese herbal compositions including Qinghuang Powder and Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula, they all provided the distinct approaches for the management of malignant hematologic diseases, and good clinical efficacy was obtained with mild adverse reactions. Moreover, the mechanisms of action have been continually elucidated.