ArticlePDF Available


Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as perception, attention, memory, and thinking. An important and core cognitive process is memory, which is commonly associated with the storing and remembering of environmental information. An interesting issue in memory research is on ways to enhance memory performance, and thus, remembering of information. Can colour result in improved memory abilities? The present paper highlights the relationship between colours, attention, and memory performance. The significance of colour in different settings is presented first, followed by a description on the nature of human memory. The role of attention and emotional arousal on memory performance is discussed next. The review of several studies on colours and memory are meant to explain some empirical works done in the area and related issues that arise from such studies. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2013
For permission, please
Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as
which is commonly associated with the storing and remembering of environmental information.
An interesting issue in memoryresearchis on ways to enhance memory performance, and thus,
memory.The role of attention and emotional arousal on memory performance is discussed next.
Keywords: attention, colour, long term, mental recall, short term
Memory refers to the mental process of
One of the most interesting and challenging
questions in contemporary memory research is
is colour, which will be discussed thoroughly in
visual experience to human beings (2). It
functions as a powerful information channel to
to play a signicant role in enhancing memory
performance (3). Colour can be very effective
in learning and educational setting, marketing,
communication, or even sport. For instance,
a marketing study has found that colour can
increase brand recognition by up to 80% (4).
Most advertisements use colour as one of the
important element in inuencing people’s
attention, attitude towards the product, and
pressuring decision making (5). According to
White (6), coloured advertisements can attract
people to read the advertisement up to 42%
This shows the importance of colour in making
the information or message more attractive to
In the educational setting, higher demand
is put on excellent academic achievement. The
extent to which students utilize their cognitive
better academic achievement (7). The cognitive
abilities of the students refer to the way the
students perceive, pay attention, remember,
think, and understand the lessons. There need
to be strategies to facilitate the learning process
to learn and prot from their educational
In addition, in the clinical setting, specic
to deal with memory-related problems such as
learning difculty, autism, dyslexia, and others.
With the use of colour in the intervention, it
can help patients to follow and understand the
learning program better. Clinical intervention
for patients with dyslexia using colour have
been proven to be effective in reducing patient
difcultiesin reading (8). The sameapproach is
of reading speed up to 35% was reported for
compared to autistic patients reading without
using a coloured overlay (9). Colour is also
used to treat patients with Alzheimer Disease.
Alzheimer Disease is a neurodegenerative form
Review Article
The Inuence of Colour on Memory
Performance: A Review
Mariam Adawiah Dzulkifli, Muhammad Faiz Mustafar
Department of Psychology, International Islamic University Malaysia,
Jalan Gombak, 53100 Selangor, Malaysia
Accepted: 11Feb2013
Malays J Med Sci. Mar-May 2013; 20(2): 3-9
Malays J Med Sci. Mar-May 2013; 20(2): 3-9
(10). Recently, there is a growing interest in
the role of the non-biological or environmental
factors associated with Alzheimer Disease (11).
performance of Alzheimer Disease patients can
be practised. In fact, research has shown that
vividcolourcuescan helptoenhance the short-
A plethora of studies have been conducted
to understand the role of colour in enhancing
memory performance. Back in 1976, Farley and
Grant conducted experiments on the inuence
of colour on attention and found that coloured
multimedia presentations resulted in better
attention and memory performance (13). More
experimental works exploring the inuence of
colour on the human cognitive processes were
Models of Human Memory
storage. This dualistic nature of memory was
proposed by the early investigators of memory,
memory originally proposed by William James.
of primary memory (17). The earlier work on
memorywaswellextended toleadtoone ofthe
proposed Atkinson and Shiffrin (18). In their
model, memory is made up of three structures;
sensory register store, short-term store, and
long-termstore. Environmental stimuli will rst
reach the sensory register store. This memory
attentionis then movedto the short-term store.
Informationwillbetransferred tothelong-term
store for more permanent storage as a result of
and elaborative rehearsal, heuristic, or other
memorization strategies are important to allow
An alternative to the model of memory
proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin is the model
important than the structures of the memory
memory processes involve a basic and surface
analysisoftheinformation, such asthephysical
and sensory characteristic of the information.
Intermediate memory processing requires some
linkto the existing memory trace. It is assumed
that deeper level of analyses contributes to a
Therefore, it is important for the stimuli
to activate the attention and to be involved in
control processes or deeper level of processing
is one of the variables that has those potential.
Colours can inuence the level of attention
and also give rise to emotional arousal which
contributes to control processes that will later
Attention and memory
Attention refers to the cognitive process
of selecting information that is available in the
environment. When we pay attention to certain
information, we are actually selecting and
focusing certain amount of information to be
processed in our cognitive system. The degree
of attention attached to certain stimuli increase
the probability of the information to be stored
in memory (14,15,23,24). In other words, the
Attention, memory, and colour
Colour helps us in memorizing certain
information by increasing our attentional level.
The role played by colour in enhancing our
attention focused on certain stimuli, the more
Review Article |Colourandmemory 5
colours have the potential to attract attention.
Farley and Grant (13), were among the earliest
who came out with a theory suggesting that
colours have a greater effect on attention. This
and cognition. They compared colour and non-
colour multimedia presentations on memory
performance. It was reported that the coloured
multimedia presentation resulted in better
attention than the non-coloured presentation.
Greene, Bell, and Boyer (21), further explained
that warm types of colours such as yellow, red
and orange have been found to have a greater
effect on attention compared to the cool type
on working memory and visual attention. In
his study, participants were asked to identify
whether the colour or the shape of the two
objects that were presented were the same.
In the rst experiment, the colours of the two
objects were the same but the shapes were
different, while in the second experiment the
conditions were reversed. The result showed
that the participants’ response times were
faster in identifying the differences in colours
compared to differences in the shapes of the
objects in both experimental conditions (23).
This nding can be interpreted to show that
colours have a better and greater ability to
Pan (14) extended his previous study by
shapes with various colours. The participants
and shape of the items. In the memory test,
the participants were asked to recognize the
colours and the shapes of the items that were
presented earlier on. He found that participants
performed better in recognizing the colour of
the items than the shapes. The result supported
can produce a higher level of attention and
is effective to increase memory performance.
Therefore,it can beconcluded thatcolourshave
the tendency to capture better attention level,
Arousal and memory
Arousal refers to the state of being alert
physically and internally. Various body system
and hormones may contribute to alertness (20).
psychological, physiological, and emotional
arousal. In the study of memory, emotional
arousal is focused on more than the other types
of arousal. MacKay and Ahmetzanov (25)
conducted a study on the relationship between
emotional arousal and memory by using taboo
stroopparadigm. They predicted better memory
for taboo words (which were more emotionally
arousing) than neutral words. It was found
that the participants performed better in
experimental conditions that were associated
with emotionally arousing words (taboo words)
than the conditions with neutral words (26).
Reisberg (27), that found better retention in
long-term recall with a high level of emotional
arousal. Similarly, a high level of arousal leads
(cited in 27), which used aurally presented
words, it was reported that higher recall was
found after 20 minutes and two week delays.
The same result was reported in an experiment
which used a single arousing word. Recall
performance was found to be better with words
that have arousal effect than non-arousal
words. However, there was also evidence on
the detrimental effects of arousal especially on
short-term retention. For instance in learning,
the participants who have high arousal effect
remembered better in the delayed recall rather
than shortly after learning process. According
to Kleinsmith and Kaplan (28), words that
can produce greater arousal effect were better
remembered after one week than two minutes
mentioned above, the level of arousal evoked
by environmental stimuli can have a signicant
effect on memory performance in whether the
Arousal, memory and colour
Arousal, especially emotional arousal, can
inthememorysystem. Colourscanenhance the
relationshipbetweenarousal and memory.Kaya
and Epps (22), asked their 98 college student
volunteers in public institutions to associate
colours with emotion. It was found that the
majority of participants associated green colour
peace, hope, and excitement. Black colour was
emotional arousing effect. However, the degree
Malays J Med Sci. Mar-May 2013; 20(2): 3-9
of emotion or feeling being attached to it (29).
(29),some types of emotion mayhave a greater
effect on arousal than the others. For instance,
angerwasfoundto haveagreater arousal effect
compared to the other type of colours. Based
on the studies mentioned, it shows that colour
can produce an emotional arousing effect but
the degree or rangeof arousal variesdepending
on the emotional element that is attached with
Colour and Memory Performance
performance by increasing our attentional level
and arousal. There exist robust evidences from
several studies that have been conducted to
explore the relationship between colour and
Spence, Wong, Rusan, and Rastegar (16)
examined the ability to recognise coloured
and gray-scale images of neutral scenes
with 120 participants. They reported that
participants’ recognition of the neutral scenes
were approximately 5% higher in the coloured
condition compared to the grey scale condition,
F (1, 112) = 47.0, P < 0.0001. The same
comparison was signicant at the 0.05 level
or better for different exposure durations. A
similar nding was reached in a recall test
Dixon, and Merikle (15), carried out a study to
investigate the inuence of colour on memory
different conditions; black, white, congruent,
theundergraduatestudentsas their participants
in the study. Three minutes were given to the
participants to study the stimuli and another
a computer screen. Signicant differences were
found between recall conditions. The memory
performance of the participants was found to
be better in the congruent colour condition
Wichmann, Sharpe, and Gegenfurtner
(3), found a clear advantage of colour on visual
memory. In their rst experiment, they tested
the colour recognition of the participants on
the 50 milisecond to one second duration.
The participants reported 5% to 10% better
performance on colours over black-and-white
condition. In their second experiment, the
same images were used but with the exposure
These contrasts were applied in colour and
black-and-white images. Colour images were
reported to have better memory recognition
over black-and-white, but the differences were
small. However, there were no signicant
differences found at the lower contrast level
(5% and 10%). According to the authors, the
images in the low contrast level were hardly
visible and seen. In their third experiment, the
sameprocedure was used,but participantswere
tested in different conditions. Those images
that were presented in colour were tested in
black-and-white and vice versa. A signicant
interaction was found between study mode
and test mode, F (1, 30) = 8.209, P < 0.01.
However, the performance of the images that
white was deteriorated. The same goes for the
images that were presented in black-and-white
and tested in colour. However,the performance
F (1, 30) = 4.576, P < 0.05. A similar nding
was reported in the fth experiment, where the
improvement (77.0% to 80.0%) in memory
recognition than images with the black frame,
Vernon and Lloyd-Jones (30) conducted
astudy to furtherexplore the effect ofcolour in
implicit and explicit memory performance. In
oneof their hypotheses, they expected a shorter
to non-coloured/black and white stimuli.
30 coloured and 30 non-coloured objects
were used in the study. In the study phase, the
those 60 experimental objects. While in the test
phase, the participants were asked to recognize
differentconditions;samecolour,change colour
10 non-coloured) were added in the test phase.
Responsetime, percentage ofthe score,hit, and
correct rejection rate were observed. The result
revealed a signicant effect on coloured object
F(1,29)=7.02, P <0.05.Thismeansparticipants
took faster time to recognise objects in the
The above studies indicated that colour
can have a positive inuence on memory
Review Article |Colourandmemory 7
performance. A few studies have however
found contradictory ndings. Lloyd-Jones
and Nakabayashi (31), carried out a study on
the effects of colour on object identication
and memorization, and found out that there
were differences in memory performance in
object-colour spatial integration and object
spatial separation. Two hundred and thirteen
undergraduate students from the University of
were non colour-blind. 75 coloured common
objects were used as stimuli in the study. There
were three conditions; correctly coloured (the
(the object not with its original colour) and
conditions; object-colour spatial integrationand
object-colour spatial separation. In the object-
colour spatial integration, the colour object
was placed on the grey background while in the
object-colour spatial separation, the grey object
phase,participants ratedobject-colour typicality
on 7-point scale. In the test phase, participants
The speed of the response was measured. The
result showed that there was a signicant effect
ratings were found for the spatially integrated
condition (M = 3.84) than for spatial separated
condition (M = 3.13). In terms of the reaction
times, it was reported that shorter reaction
times were found for correctly coloured than
forincorrectly coloured in the spatial integrated
condition, t (83) = –2.58, P < 0.05 but not for
spatially separated, t (83) = 0.70, P > 0.05.
Therefore, coloured object with non-coloured
background have better memory retention
and yielded faster respond time compared to
Another study by McConnohie (32) used
alphanumeric characters and showed them to
the participants through slideshow with three
background colour conditions; white, blue and
green. All the gure characters were in black.
If the colours have positive effect on memory,
performance was expected to be equal in these
conditions. The result however showed that the
slides with the white background resulted in
higher retention rates both in immediate and
delayed recall tasks than those with blue and
green background. This result contradicts the
to better memory. Nevertheless, in this study,
the colours chosen and the manipulation in the
gure and background colours may explain the
to memory retention. One hundred and thirty
They used two different types of websites; an
regarding a neuroscience subject and a website
which was more commercial that had an
four different types of ground and gure colour
combinations for each of the websites; black on
white background, white on black background,
light blue on dark blue background and teal on
that, they were required to answer 10 multiple-
retention, aesthetics, and behavioural intention
level. It was expected that the condition with
a higher contrast level of colour will result in a
The result obtained show signicant differences
in the four conditions and the post-hoc tests
showed that the readability performance was
highest on the black on white background
andthiscontributestoabetterreadability level.
The signicant result found for readability was
Factors That Inuence the
Effectiveness of Colour on Memory
The studies reviewed above showed that
colourscanleadtobetter memory performance.
There are however studies that indicate an
opposing effect of colour on memory. On the
basis of the studies reviewed previously, it can
be summarized that the effectiveness of colour
on memory performance is based on a few
factors. First is the consistency of the colours
used during encoding and retrieval phases. This
means the colour used or presented during the
time when participants are asked to memorize
at the time of retrieval. This rule is in line with
the encoding specicity principle that highlights
Malays J Med Sci. Mar-May 2013; 20(2): 3-9
the memory performance. The greater match of
conditions in these two processes, the better is
Another factor that needs to be taken into
account is when few colours or combination
of colours are involved (as in background and
foreground conditions). The right combination
of colours is important because it can produce
higher level of contrast, and this can inuence
memory retention. Higher level of contrast may
refer to the colour hue (the wavelength) and
the luminance (brightness of the colour) of the
colour(33).Itwaspredicted that higherlevelof
contrast will attract more attention and better
white foreground on red background can have
ahigher level ofcontrast compared to the other
hasa bettercontrast levelfor memoryretention
be the reason for the top fast-food restaurants
in the world to be associated and branded with
vivid colour. For example, McDonalds used
colour combinations. Colour therefore played
a very important role in inuencing consumers
psychologically, which is characterized by
emotional attachment, attention, memory, and
attitude that later increase the likelihood of
An important aspect in successful and
efcient cognitive functioning is the abilities
to utilize the system to the fullest. Research on
memory has provided a vast strategy that can
be used to ensure successful retrieval. There
appears to be a basis for associating colour and
its signicant effect on memory abilities. In
stored, and retrieved successfully. The choice
of colours and the manipulative aspects can,
however, inuence the extent to which colours
The authors thanked the International
Islamic University (IIUM) undergraduate
students majoring in Psychology who have
thanked the reviewers of this article for their
The results of this study have not been
Conict of interest
Thiswork was supported by the IIUM Research
Authors’ Contributions
Critical revision of the article for the important
Final approval of the article and obtaining of
Dr Mariam Adawiah Dzulkii
1. Radvansky G. Human memory. Boston (MA):
2. Adams FM, Osgood CE. A cross-cultural study of
theaffectivemeaningofcolor.J Cross Cult Psychol.
3. Wichmann FA, Sharpe LT, Gegenfurtner
KR. The contributions of color to recognition
memory for natural scenes. J Exp Psychol Learn.
4. Morton,J.Whycolormatters;2010[cited2010Dec
20]. Available from:
5. Moore RS, Stammerjohan CA, Coulter RA. Banner
advertiser-web site context congruity and color
effects on attention and attitude. J Advertising.
6. White,JV.Color for impact. Ohio(US):Strathmoor
Review Article |Colourandmemory 9
7. MariamAdawiahD,IntanAiduraA.Studentsoflow
academic achievement – their personality, mental
canhelp?Int J Hum Soc Scie. 2012;2(23):220–225.
8. Wilkins AJ. Reading through colour. Chichester
9. Ludlow AK, Wilkins AJ. Colour as a therapeutic
intervention:The caseof J.G. J Autism Dev Disord.
10. ZillmerEA,SpiersMV,CulbertsonWC.Principles of
Neuropsychology. Belmont (BE): Thomson Higher
11. MariamAdawiahD.Memory,ageingandAlzheimer’s
MA,editors. Psychology in Malaysia.KualaLumpur
12. Cernin P, Keller B, Stoner J. Color vision in
Alzhermer’s patients: Can we improve object
recognitionwithcolorcues? Aging Neuropsychol C.
13. Farley FH, Grant AP. Arousal and cognition:
presentation. J Psychol.1976;94(1):147–150.
14. Pan Y. Attentional capture by working memory
contents.Can J Exp Psychol.2012;64(2):124–128.
15. SmilekD,DixonMJ,CudahyC,MeriklePM.Research
Report: Synesthetic color experiences inuence
memory.Psychol Sci.2002:13(6);548–552.
16. SpenceI,WongP,Rusan,M,RastegarN.Howcolor
enhancesvisual memoryfornatural scenes.Psychol
17. Atkinson RC, Shiffrin RM. Human memory: A
Spence KW, Spence JT. editors. The psychology of
learning and motivation. London (UK): Academic
18. Sternberg RJ. Cognitive Psychology. 5th Ed.
Belmont(BE):Wadsworth Cengage Learning.2009.
19. Greene TC, Bell PA, Boyer WN. Coloring the
environment:Hue,arousal,andboredom.Bull Psych
20. Kaya N, Epps HH. Proceeding of Interim Meeting
of The International Color Association, AIC 2004
Colors and Paints [Internet]. Colour-emotion
2004 [cited 2010 Aug 28]. Available from: http://
21. Pan Y. Research on the content-based working
memory-driven capture of visual attention and
its automaticity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation:
22. Eysenck MW. Fundamental of psychology. London
23. MacKay DG, Ahmetzanov MV. Motion, memory,
Sci. 2005:16(1);25–32.
24. HeuerF,ReisbergD.Emotion,arousalandmemory
for detail. In: Christianson, S. A. Handbook of
Emotion and Memory: Research and Theory
[Internet]. New Jersey (US): Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates; 1992 [cited 2010 May 15]. Available
25.Kleinsmith, LJ, Kaplan S. Paired-associate learning
as a function of arousal and interpolated interval.
J Exp Psychol.1963:65(2);190–193.
26. Jackson MC, Wu CY, Linden DEJ, Raymond JE.
J Exp Psychol Human.2009:35(2);363–374.
27. Vernon D, Lloyd-Jones TJ. The role of colour in
implicit and explicit memory performance. Q J Exp
Psychol A. 2003:56(5);779–802.
28. Lloyd-JonesTJ,NakabayashiK.Independenteffects
ofcoloronobjectidenticationandmemory.Q J Exp
Psychol. 2009:62(2);310–322.
29. McConnohie BV. A study of the effect of color in
memory retention when used in presentation
software. Unpublished doctoral dissertation:
30. HallRH,HannaP.Theimpactofwebtext-background
color combination on readability, retention,
aestheticsandbehavioural intention. Behav Inform.
... This model explains that human memory system consists of sensory store, short-term store and long-term store (Sternberg, 2009). It explains that the information that we receive from our senses; either visual or auditory, flow to the sensory store, but it only keeps the huge amount of information for a short period of time (Faiz, 2013). ...
... The information that can capture attention will have higher chances to be transferred from sensory store to short-term store. Otherwise, there is high probability that the information would be lost (Faiz, 2013). Several techniques or control processes are needed to transfer and maintain the information in the short-term store or in the long-term store (deepest level of memory system), such as maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal (Faiz, 2013). ...
... Otherwise, there is high probability that the information would be lost (Faiz, 2013). Several techniques or control processes are needed to transfer and maintain the information in the short-term store or in the long-term store (deepest level of memory system), such as maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal (Faiz, 2013). It all depends on the level or depth of processing of a stimulus used. ...
Full-text available
This study was conducted to examine whether warm colour had effects on memorization of Arabic words. Participants involved were 90 students from a private religious secondary school in Perak. They were each given a set of paper consisting of one Surah; with six words been highlighted with warm colour (red and yellow), cool colour (green and blue) or white colour background. The paper also contained the meaning of each word in Arabic, which were extracted from exegesis book Tafsir al-Jalalain. The participants were given fifteen minutes to memorize the list of words and their meaning in Arabic language. The percentage of words recalled correctly were the dependent variable. It was hypothesized that participants who received warm-coloured set could recall more Arabic words than participants who received either the cool-coloured set or the white set. A paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon test were conducted and the results indicated that there was not a statistically significant difference in percentage of words recalled based on paper set. Possible explanations were examined. Keywords: Warm Colour, Arabic Words, Colour, Memorization
... The problems of using color for retaining the learning content and for increasing the level of attention have been studied as well (Pan, 2010). Various factors of positive influence on human memory enhancement and increased in-memory storage and recognition levels were analyzed (Dzulkifli and Mustafar, 2013;Elliot, 2015;Lu et al., 2016). ...
... As results of the survey show, the method of color-coding the information for memory retention is widespread among medical students (EG1 -66%; EG2 -47%), and the method of revision proved to be effective (EG1-56%; EG2 -60%), whereas the method of learning by heart was the least effective method (Figure 3). The exploratory paradigm focuses on the study of the cognitive abilities of students (Dzulkifli and Mustafar, 2013) and the processes of memory retention, the concentration of attention, thinking, etc. Just as Castro-Alonso et al. (2018), Mogas-Recalde and Palau (2021) show the effects of lighting on concentration and memory processes, the use of colors must be justified. ...
... This speaks for the importance of color-based methodology in a modern academic process, which shall promote the use of all possible means for easier and more effective learning free from stressors conditions. Methods of activating and improving memory based on the color system, incorporated into the educational process and focused on the development of cognitive and communication skills of the individual, have been proposed for consideration and analyzed in the study of Dzulkifli and Mustafar (2013). Using color for memory stimulation could increase the capacity of coding, storage, and recognition of environmental stimuli, whereas colors and respective manipulations may influence human memory performance (Zavaruieva et al., 2022). ...
Full-text available
This study examines the mechanisms and expertise of color-based method implementation in a present-day academic process and different forms of learning. This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of color education in the study of the humanities (history of Ukraine) for medical students. The research methodology included structural and logical methods, questionnaire methods, observations, and descriptive and statistical methods. The research results include an identified system of effective parameters, forms, and techniques of color education used in the academic process as well as its impact on the quality of education services provided under blended learning conditions. The color-coding culture parameter color-coding culture of important text segments ranked first among the seven techniques to activate mental activity and memory retention intensification. Color coding has become medical students' most effective method of remembering information. Color-based methods in the teaching of humanities are an effective method for improving the quality of students' learning and allow for better memorization of learning materials, especially in distance learning environments. Prospects for introducing pedagogical innovations in higher education include improving and developing educational materials using color effects to improve student perceptions. The research can be applied to the educational process for students of various specialties and the study of different disciplines.
... Monotone environments in classrooms have shown to be restless and irritated for the students, while colour has a positive impact on productivity as it improves academic performance [57]. Coloured information has also been shown that can improve chances of staying in short-term and long-term memory [58]. Also, based on a recent survey on the impact of colours in learning [59], colour helps learners retrieve information and compared to monochromatic information, the colour-coded visualisations support better knowledge acquisition. ...
Full-text available
Currently, the search history in search engines is presented in a list view of some combination of enumerated results by title, url or search query. However, this classical list view is not ideal in collaborative search environments as it does not always assist users in understanding collaborators' search history results and the project's status. We present CollabGraph, a system for graph-based summary visualisation in collaborative search learning environments. Our system differentiates from existing solutions by visualising the summary of the collaboration results in a graph and having its core Personal Knowledge Graphs (PKGs) for each user. Our research questions concentrate around the CollabGraph's usefulness, preference, and enhancement of participation of student's and teacher's feedback compared to the list view of search history results. We evaluate our approach with an online questionnaire in 6 different project-based Search as Learning (SaL) scenarios. The evaluation of users' experience indicates that the CollabGraph is useful, highly likeable and could benefit users' participation and teacher's feedback by providing more precise insights into the project status. Our approach helps users better perceive about everyone's work, and it is a highly preferable feature alongside the list view. Also, the results demonstrate that graph summary visualisations, such as the CollabGraph, are more suitable for closed-end scenarios and collaborative projects with many participants.
... Furthermore, colorful modules can aid learners in focusing their attention on specific information, which aids in transferring that information to short-and long-term memories, hence increasing their chances of remembering it. [19] Moreover, infographics are used in education to present complex information clearly and concisely. [20] Infographics are effective in educational settings because they employ images to highlight, explain, or enhance text-based content. ...
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is essential for schoolchildren to reach their full potential psychologically and cognitively. Malnutrition, which is prevalent among aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia, can interfere their learning and academic performance. Developing a module to be used during a school-based nutritional intervention program is essential to ensuring that students develop healthy eating habits and lifestyles. Thus, this study aims to develop and validate nutrition education module focusing on aboriginal schoolchildren for the eat right future bright (ERFB) nutrition education program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three steps: Step 1: development of module based on literature reviews, Step 2: content and face validation of the module by the expert panels, and Step 3: face validation of the module by target users. This study has used the validation form proposed by de Castro. This form consists of seven aspects, two aspects related to content validity and another four aspects related to face validity. A content validity index (CVI) was used to analyze the content validity. Two formulas were used to calculate CVI, which were I-CVI and S-CVI. Meanwhile, the data for module's face used the level of agreement. RESULTS: Both I-CVI and S-CVI obtained more than 0.78 and 0.80, respectively, which indicate that the module has good content validity. Moreover, for face validity, the total of agreement from expert panels and target users was more than 75%, which is considered face validated. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the module that has been developed has good content validity and can be used by teachers in teaching appropriate nutrition knowledge to aboriginal primary schoolchildren.
... There is a strong link between learners and colours as it influences their behavior, mood, and activation of cognitive responses. Colour helps to convey essential information from short memory to long memory and functions as a clue in remembrance by increasing the learner's attention to specific data (Dzulkifli & Mustafar, 2013). Farhat (2017), with a group of Architecture students, confirmed that out of blue, green, and white, blue has given the most active, attentive, and comfortable experience, while green colour induced the least positive effects and white interior had the most negative effects. ...
Full-text available
Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms are alarmingly increasing among university student populations and may have a major impact on achieving their academic and life goals. It is seen that in most cases the student’s academic performance, health, and quality of life is negatively impacted as a result. Research suggests that Architectural elements have an impact on mental distresses and individual wellbeing. This research attempted to address the above concern by focusing on the impact of colour, as an Architectural element, on psychiatric imbalances among Undergraduates with special consideration on depression, anxiety, and stress levels. The study was conducted with 36 participants from the Department of Architecture of the University of Moratuwa. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic's travel limitations, the study was conducted remotely through Zoom online conferencing platform and non-immersive virtual mode under three selected colour conditions (tints of green, blue, and red) with the aid of DASS-21 scale to evaluate stress, anxiety, and depression levels. Colour red was found to induce the most adverse impacts on stress, anxiety, and depression levels, whereas green indicated a comparatively low adverse impact. Blue had the slightest adverse impact on depression and anxiety with a slightly favourable impact on reducing stress. The findings of this study suggests that the incorporation of appropriate colours in design interventions could facilitate the creation of better classroom interiors in order to address depression, anxiety and stress related disorders of undergraduates. Further investigations in physical mode, incorporating a larger sample and other subject streams is recommended. Keywords: Undergraduates, Colour, Anxiety, Stress, Depression
... There is a strong link between learners and colours as it influences their behavior, mood, and activation of cognitive responses. Colour helps to convey essential information from short memory to long memory and functions as a clue in remembrance by increasing the learner's attention to specific data (Dzulkifli & Mustafar, 2013). Farhat (2017), with a group of Architecture students, confirmed that out of blue, green, and white, blue has given the most active, attentive, and comfortable experience, while green colour induced the least positive effects and white interior had the most negative effects. ...
Full-text available
Eğitim-öğretim süreci içerisinde öğrencilerin ve öğretmenlerin en çok kullandığı, ihtiyaç halinde hemen ulaşabildiği ve materyaller içerisinde güvendiği görsel araçlardan biri ders kitaplarıdır. Bu bakımdan ders kitapları öğrencilere ve öğretmenlere yol gösterecek, öğrencilere bazı bilgi ve beceriler kazandırarak onları günlük hayata hazırlayacak ve görsel tasarım açısından tüm bireylere hitap edecek niteliklere sahip olmalıdır. Bu özelliklere sahip bir ders kitabı başta güdüleyici olması yanında, öğrencilerin başarısını artırması, derse yönelik tutumlarını olumlu yönde etkilemesi ve görsel okuryazar bireyler olarak yetişmesine olanak sağlamaktadır. Ders kitaplarının tüm bu olumlu etkileri ortaya çıkarabilmesi için görsel tasarımın temel öge ve ilkeleri açısından uygunluğunun detaylı bir biçimde ele alınması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, 2020-2021 eğitim-öğretim yılı içerisinde Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı'nın tüm ortaokul öğrencilerine dağıtmış olduğu 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıf Fen Bilimleri ders kitaplarının görsel tasarım ilkeleri açısından değerlendirilmesidir. Belirlenen bu amaç doğrultusunda çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden biri olan doküman incelemesi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada ortaokul Fen Bilimleri ders kitaplarının görsel tasarım ilkelerine uygunluğunun belirlenmesi amacıyla Alpan (2004) tarafından geliştirilen "Ders Kitaplarına Yönelik Görsel Tasarım İlkelerine İlişkin Uzman Değerlendirme Formu" kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada ders kitaplarının değerlendirilmesinde, araştırmacı ve Güzel Sanatlar Eğitimi alanında uzman iki bağımsız araştırmacıdan veriler elde edilerek uzman görüşleri değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmada ders kitaplarının değerlendirilmesinden sonra uzmanlar arasındaki ölçüm güvenirliğini saptamak için Uyuşum yüzdesi ve Cohen kappa değeri hesaplanmıştır. Hesaplamalar sonucunda Cohen kappa değeri .66 olarak belirlenirken uyuşum yüzdesi %81,24 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Çalışmadan elde edilen veriler, nitel araştırma ve doküman incelemede kullanılan betimsel analiz ile çözümlenmiştir. Bunlara ek olarak çalışmada bulgular, frekans ve yüzdelerle ifade edilerek tablo ve grafiklerle ortaya konulmuştur. Çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlara bakıldığında, Ortaokul Fen Bilimleri ders kitapları görsel tasarım ilkelerine uygunluğu açısından incelendiğinde en iyi hazırlanan ders kitabı 5. sınıf seviyesine ait iken bu sınıf seviyesini sırasıyla 7 ve 8. sınıf Fen Bilimleri ders kitapları takip etmektedir. Ders kitapları içerisinde görsel tasarım ilkelerine en az uyulan sınıf seviyesi ise 6. sınıf Fen Bilimleri ders kitabı olarak tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmada kitapların genel durumuna bakıldığında tüm sınıf seviyelerinde 48 görsel tasarım ilkesinin yarıdan çoğuna uygun olarak hazırlandığı bulunmuştur. Buradan yola çıkarak ders kitaplarının görsel tasarım ilkeleri açısından uygun olduğunu söylemek mümkündür. Fakat ders kitaplarının görsel tasarım ilkeleri açısından hala eksik noktalarının bulunduğu ve iyileştirmelerin yapılması gerektiği sonucu ortaya çıkmıştır. Çalışmadan elde edilen diğer bir sonuç ise Ortaokul Fen Bilimleri ders kitaplarının görsel tasarımı sınıf seviyesi artıkça öğrencilerin yaşları göz önünde bulundurularak tasarlanmadığı, tüm bunlara ek olarak ortaokul Fen Bilimleri ders kitaplarının ortak bir tasarım altında hazırlanmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Her sınıf seviyesine ait Fen Bilimleri ders kitapları kendi içerisinde görsel tasarım ilkeleri açısından uygun bulunmuştur. Fakat tüm sınıf seviyelerine ait ortaokul ders kitaplarının bir bütün olarak ortak bir tasarım altında hazırlanmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Tüm sınıf seviyelerine ait Fen Bilimleri ders kitapları 48 ilke açısından tek tek tartışılmış ve elde edilen sonuçlar doğrultusunda gelecek uygulamalara ve ilerideki araştırmacılara yönelik önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Araştırma sonucunda ders kitaplarının içerisinde yer alan görsel ögelerin niteliğinin artırılması ve öğrencilerin görsel okuryazarlıklarını geliştirmeye yönelik iyileştirmelerin yapılması gerektiği önerilmektedir.
The numeric colour codes used by the natural history painter Ferdinand Bauer (1760–1826) have remained resistant to interpretation. However, a practical approach, and an appreciation of historical painting methods and materials, have led to a solution to the code he devised for the Flora and Fauna Graeca . It is suggested that Bauer related the process of viewing, identifying, and conceptualising qualities of colours to the intrinsic properties of his pigments, and their sequence in his paintbox; also that his codes provided directions as to their moderation and mode of use. This study proposes that rather than being a mechanical reference system, Bauer’s code was a flexible mnemonic, reaching into the heart of artistic process.
This e-book brings together 13 chapters written by aviation English researchers and practitioners settled in six different countries, representing institutions and universities from around the globe. The idea of having this publication was conceived during the 8th GEIA Seminar, an event held online, in November 2021, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the next lines, we introduce GEIA research group, based in Brazil, followed by a brief explanation of the topics addressed in each chapter. GEIA1 is the “Aeronautical English Research Group”, accredited by Brazil’s National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq2 ) and maintained by ICEA3 , the Airspace Control Institute: a military organization of the Brazilian Air Force. It gathers researchers from different aviation authorities in Brazil, such as the Department of Airspace Control (DECEA)4 , ICEA and the National Civil Aviation Agency (ANAC5 ), and from prestigious universities spread throughout different parts of our country. This group aggregates research studies whose objective is to investigate different aspects of aeronautical English in the Brazilian context, divided into three areas of investigation: aviation language description and analysis; aeronautical English teaching and learning; aeronautical English testing and assessment. The group aims at studying topics such as: • the description of the language used in pilot-ATCO radiotelephony communications that go beyond standard phraseology in non-routine and emergency situations, as well as the analysis of the impacts of this communication as a safety component in accidents and incidents, concerning human factors; • the analysis of the content, syllabus, instructional material, and other elements of English courses/training offered to pilots and ATCOs, as well as of aviation English teacher training courses; • the description and analysis of assessment tools used to evaluate pilots’ and air traffic controllers’ language proficiency for their jobs, test development and delivery, washback effect and rater’s training; • other related topics in the interface of aviation English, such English teaching for other aviation professionals, compilation of glossaries and 1 GEIA stands for Grupo de Estudos em Inglês Aeronáutico, an acronym in Portuguese. Available at: ICEA - Subdiretoria de Ensino - GEIA - Grupo de Estudos em Inglês Aeronáutico ( br) 2 CNPq stands for Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, an acronym in Portuguese. 3 ICEA stands for Instituto de Controle do Espaço Aéreo, an acronym in Portuguese. 4 DECEA stands for Departamento de Controle do Espaço Aéreo, an acronym in Portuguese. 5 ANAC stands for Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil, an acronym in Portuguese. INTRODUCTION other terminology tools, translation, contrastive analysis with other languages, etc. It is important to emphasize that, for us, aviation English is an umbrella term that refers to the use of the English language by any aviation-related professionals, including not only pilots and ATCOs, but also mechanics, meteorologists, flight attendants, and others. Aeronautical English, by its turn, is the language used solely by air traffic controllers and pilots while controlling international traffic, and the object of the language proficiency requirements addressed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) on Doc 98356 (2010). Other researchers from the international community have adopted this distinction in order to avoid misunderstanding7 . This is why sometimes we use the term aviation English, to refer to research about aircrafct mechanicals or meteorology, for example; and sometimes we prefer the term aeronautical English to emphasize pilot-ATC communications. The results from those studies have highlighted the development and improvement of English language teaching, learning, and assessment resources targeted at Brazilian air traffic control professionals, so as to ensure they are able to use English as a tool for safety in operations. Aviation English reflections in the pandemic Since its inception, in 2013, every year GEIA promotes seminars in which group members discuss and share research results. These events are addressed to pilots, air traffic controllers, teachers, examiners, and all the community interested in teaching, learning and assessing aviation and aeronautical English. Over the past couple years, humanity has faced a huge challenge. The COVID-19 pandemic scenario, which imposed lockdowns and social isolation, forcing people all over the world to change their ways of living, studying, working and connecting to others. It has dramatically affected aviation and, as a consequence, its training and testing devices worldwide. On-site courses and exams were canceled, postponed or adapted to the online format. New ways of training and testing had to be developed, using the tools and resources available, which have also been constantly improved too, to meet these new demands. Likewise, research groups have held their meetings online, and even events had to be adapted to rely on technology to survive. This pandemic context has affected GEIA and its seminars too. In 2020, for the first time in six years we offered the seminar as a virtual event, 6 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION/ICAO. 2010. Doc. 9835 AN/453: Manual on the implementation of ICAO language proficiency requirements. 2. ed. Montreal. 7 Fore more information about it, see Tosqui-Lucks, P., & Silva, A. L. B. de C. e. (2020). Aeronautical English: Investigating the nature of this specific language in search of new heights. The ESPecialist, 41(3). the 7th GEIA Seminar8 . On one hand, we had to get used to recording and watching videos and interacting asynchronously by written messages instead of attending on site presentations. On the other hand, space, time and money were no longer constraints. So, we decided to extend the enrollment, completely free of charge, to the international community. This change came in handy for some GEIA members who were living, working and studying overseas. Besides that, some of us are also members of the International Civil Aviation English Association (ICAEA)9 , which enabled other researchers to take part in our project involving the seminar itself and the publication of an Aviation English edition of a journal. The 7th GEIA Seminar focused on the launching of a special edition of the ESPecialist, a very important scientific journal in Brazil in the ESP (English for Specific Purposes) field. That special edition comprised 18 papers written by GEIA members and guest researchers, organized in two volumes (TOSQUI-LUCKS & PRADO, 202010). The authors from ten different countries recorded videos about their papers for the 7th GEIA seminar, which had 242 attendees from 26 countries. We were delighted with the opportunity of gathering so many international participants who offered us valuable contributions, which would have been impossible otherwise. In 2021, building on the success of the 7th GEIA Seminar, we decided to promote the 8th GEIA Seminar11 completely online. The event brought together 18 lectures and presentations conducted by 25 speakers from eight different countries, as well as 404 attendees from 32 countries. That was such an accomplishment! Besides consolidating the audience we already had we were able to attract more people from other countries. After all, in spite of all its horrible outcomes, the COVID-19 pandemic hasn’t stopped us; on the contrary, it has strengthened our group, by motivating us to go beyond our borders and innovating the way we had been used to carrying out our events. This e-book is an offshoot of the 8th GEIA Seminar, that counts on the collaboration of GEIA and ICAEA researchers, as well as guest speakers. It brings together thirteen chapters focused on aviation language description, teaching, and assessment, written by practitioners from several institutions around the globe. One of our guests and a keynote speaker, Prof. Eric Friginal, added the excellent contribution of his graduate students from Georgia State University, in the USA, and kindly wrote the Preface. Regarding its content, this e-book has been divided into three parts, according to GEIA’s areas of research: language description and analysis; aeornautical English teaching; and assessment practices. In fact, this distinction is not to be taken in absolute terms, for most of the chapters address teaching and/or testing to some extent. It is meant to help the reader find the 8 Available at: VII Seminário do GEIA ( 9 ICAEA – Supporting the use of English for aviation safety 10 Tosqui-Lucks, P., & Prado, M. C. de A. 2020. New routes in the study of Aviation and Aeronautical English. The ESPecialist, 41(3); 41(4). 11 Avialable at: VIII Seminário do GEIA ( topics that would be of their most interest, but we can assure that all chapters present high quality insights, are pleasant to read and thought provoking. The first part of the book “Aviation English Language Description and Analysis” is composed of four chapters. The first one, “Replacing phraseology and plain language with technical vocabulary to inform language training in aviation”, by Jennifer Drayton, examines the Tower Aviation Radiotelephony Technical Vocabulary List (TARTVL) which provides a technical vocabulary lens for lexical analysis of radiotelephony transmissions. The analysis shows that standard phraseology and plain language are situational constructs. A matrix of language used in radiotelephony communication is presented and identifies standard, non-standard and relational language. Both: the matrix and the TARTVL are useful for language training to reduce variation in language use, especially in multilingual workplaces. Such training relies on the skills and knowledge of content and language instructors to provide practices that help reduce miscommunication in the workplace, therefore, contributing to safety in aviation. The second chapter, called “Terminology of Aeronautical Meteorology Codes: a systematization by using corpus”, by Rafaela Rigaud Peixoto, offers a contribution to avoid misunderstandings regarding the criticality level of meteorological situations being communicated during air traffic operations. Her work is based on terminology and corpora theoretical foundations, and it aims at discussing definitions and translation to Portuguese of expressions and terms contained in Table 4678, concerning the main meteorology codes, as prescribed by the World Meteorological Organization (2011). The study by Aline Pacheco, “Reported speech in Aviation English: an analysis through two specific corpora”, addresses the use of Reported Speech in aeronautical communications by analyzing the occurrences of this structure in two specialized corpora – CORPAC, the Corpus of Pilot and ATC Communications and RTPEC, the Radiotelephony and Plain English Corpus. The main findings reveal the most used reporting verbs and suggest that around 50% of the indirect reported clauses in aviation maintain the original tense. It seems to be evidence that pilots and ATCOs choose to report no changes in the scenario, when relaying information in a similar proportion to choosing to backshift. Such findings are quite important for aeronautical English teaching and learning, especially when developing resources and materials that depict real communication features and work-related activities. Malila Prado and Adriana Mendes Porcellato’s chapter, entitled “When I land - if I ever land”: exploring if-clauses in Aeronautical English”, closes the first part of the book. The authors investigate if-clauses in a corpus of radio communications in abnormal situations in order to identify the functions they perform in plain aviation English and how they can affect aeronautical English teaching and assessment. A corpus-based analysis revealed that 60% of if occurrences in the corpus were employed in requests and orders, 22% in indirect questions, and only 18% expressed conditionality such as “When I touch down / if I ever touch down / do I just kill the throttle or what?” For each of these three functions, they examined the structures in which if was used and compared them with traditionally taught conditional structures, without losing sight of aeronautical English pedagogical materials and resources from a real language use perspective. The second part of the book presents four chapters with more empahasis on “Aviation English Teaching”. The study called “A corpus-driven approach to Aviation English in pilot flight training”, by Andrew Schneider, covers 53 hours of transcribed audio and video recordings of one-on-one, instructional communication in Aviation English between flight instructors and student pilots. Authentic linguistic data were collected in three key contexts of flight training operations: oral instructional activities, Flight Training Devices, and in-air flight. This paper shares the results of a quantitative, exploratory multi-dimensional analysis (MDA) comparing preliminary Corpus of Flight Training (CFT) data to other spoken and written registers of English. Preliminary findings suggest a strong overlap of flight training activities with the English registers related to involved persuasion and information interaction. These results can help improve target language usage for Aviation English assessments and inform curricula for ab initio pilots. The second chapter, by Neil Bullock – “From the microphone to the classroom - ensuring that real-life communication is an integral part of teaching English to pilots and air traffic controllers” - highlights the need for teachers to carefully consider and identify students’ real-life communicative needs when teaching English to pilots and ATCOs. It advocates for a more inclusive approach to understanding and using the broad range of communicative skills that both sets of students need for effective and efficient communication. This research offers tips and guidance to teachers by integrating real-life and scripted examples of communication in the classroom based on that used in real-life operational communication. The author concludes that a greater critical awareness of students’ real-life professional communication can actually help in curriculum planning, material development and classroom practice. The following chapter, “Games, corpus and medals – challenging and innovating experiences in Aeronautical English hybrid learning”, by Patrícia Tosqui-Lucks, Juliana Santana and Patrícia Palhares Tupinambá de Sá, presents and describes an innovative training program developed during the COVID-19 pandemic, combining the hybrid mode and gamification. The authors discuss the conception, elaboration and implementation processes of five trainings, designed for Brazilian Air Traffic Controllers, and based on the ICAO Rating Scale (Pronunciation; Structure; Vocabulary; Comprehension; Fluency-and-Interaction). The synchronous part of the training was developed to offer a better understanding of the rating scale descriptors, whereas the elaboration of the game-like activities for the second part was data-driven. The data were composed of frequent mistakes compiled in corpora with authentic oral productions. The gamification of aeronautical English for Specific Purposes has shown to be an engaging and more appealing environment for proficiency level elevation. In the last chapter of the second part – “Microlearning on the fly: Aviation English via Instagram”, the authors - the language expert Natalia Guerreiro and the air traffic controllers Stephanie Faria, Thalita Diniz and Thiago Silva - go over the creation of an aeronautical English online learning initiative called ‘An eye on you’, regularly displayed on the Instagram profile @ The Brazilian Air Force organization responsible for approach and tower controls in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro has increased the use of online education modes during the COVID-19 pandemic context to explore aeronautical English microlearning opportunities. The lessons learned from the experience of making Instagram posts and managing continuous online learning are thoroughly presented. The third part of the book gathers five chapters more focused on “Aviation English Testing”. The First one, entitled “Test preparation issues in the aeronautical context in Brazil”, by Ana Lígia Barbosa de Carvalho e Silva and Natalia de Andrade Raymundo aims at discussing the potential positive and negative aspects of Aeronautical English test preparation for ATCOs and civil pilots on both teachers and students, in the Brazilian scenario. The discussion is based on the premise that test preparation can play a positive role if learning-oriented and leading to meaningful test scores. The study pointed out that safety is the main aim of aeronautical English Training rather than simply passing a test. The chapter called “Creating a rubric for placement tests for Aviation English programs”, by Ashleigh Cox and Mehrnoush Karimi addresses the need for assessment tools that are designed to be placement tests for programs training English learners who are not yet at operational level 4. In order to do so, a speaking placement test rubric was developed using qualitative case study data. Recordings of four aviation students learning English as a second language were analyzed. Their ability to carry out pilot-ATCO dialogues, as well as their mistakes and miscommunication repairs were observed in light of communicative ability, aviation safety, and the ICAO proficiency descriptors. Based on these observations, the authors present some exploratory findings, implications for pedagogy and assessment, and some directions for placing aviation students into different levels of ESL classes. The study by Angela Garcia, entitled “The listening construct: theories and implications to the assessment of pilots and ATCOs”, discusses the main theories that have informed the definition of the listening construct in language testing, as well as some implications for the testing of pilots’ listening comprehension, as required by the ICAO policy. Some characteristics of the listening construct on a theoretical level and features of the language used by pilots and ATCOs that are useful for listening test developers are also presented. “The assessment of English in aeronautical radiotelephony communications: a mixed methods study”, written by Ana Lúcia Tavares Monteiro, reports on a multiphase mixed methods study that investigated the proficiency construct (awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes) in pilot-ATCO intercultural RT, following Fulcher and Davidson’s (2007) test development framework. The communicative demands of intercultural RT communications and how they are specified within a construct framework and operationalized as test tasks were explored. The author’s findings emphasize the importance of a broader view of professional communicative competence for intercultural RT communication and for the test development process. The last chapter of the book, “The ICAO scale and language testing for ab initio cadets: is there a fit?”, by Maria Treadway, proposes a language assessment aligned with the ICAO rating scale and contextualized to the specific needs of NNES ab initio pilots entering English-medium flight training. The methods used to investigate the reliability of the ICAO scale within a training context and for a diagnostic testing purpose are examined, as well as the procedures undertaken to articulate and define threshold levels of performance within the target languase use domain. Findings suggest that the ICAO scale is not enough to distinguish levels of linguistic readiness among ab initio pilots, nor does it adequately reflect the knowledge, skills and abilities valued by subject matter experts (SMEs) within this domain, suggesting that a specific scale may be needed. Last but not least, in the end of the book we reproduce an interview given by the GEIA Leader, Prof Patricia Tosqui-Lucks, to Natalia Guerreiro, responsible for the Aeronautical English Section of the Regional Center of Airspace Control Southeast (CRCEA-SE), in Sao Paulo. The interview was broadcast live for the Instagram site An Eye On You12, in November 2021, right after the 8th GEIA Seminar. The studies collected in this e-book offer us enriching and enlightening discussions that support and promote a better understanding of some key features underlying aviation English language, teaching and assessment practices. We are very pleased to make part of this work. It goes without saying the importance of this e-book for the aviation English field and community. This international publication, besides collecting the studies and work experiences of renowned researches, has also contributed to strengthen the enriching partnership between GEIA members and other researchers. The fact of having been published as an e-book will certainly benefit its circulation and the spreading awareness of aviation English challenges, updates and findings. One of our goals is to spread the news, by making this ESP e-book free for download by as many people and institutions as possible worldwide. Those who place great weight on aeronautical English teaching and assessment practices are aware of the interwoven relation among operational issues, communication and safety. That’s why we believe 12 See more about it in the chapter “Microlearning on the fly: Aviation English via Instagram”. the discussions and analysis carried out throughout this book are so relevant and should reach international communities and organizations in all parts of the globe. Enjoy your reading! Patrícia Tosqui-Lucks Juliana de Castro Santana
The authors used a recognition memory paradigm to assess the influence of color information on visual memory for images of natural scenes. Subjects performed 5%-10% better for colored than for black-and-white images independent of exposure duration. Experiment 2 indicated little influence of contrast once the images were suprathreshold, and Experiment 3 revealed that performance worsened when images were presented in color and tested in black and white, or vice versa, leading to the conclusion that the surface property color is part of the memory representation. Experiments 4 and 5 exclude the possibility that the superior recognition memory for colored images results solely from attentional factors or saliency. Finally, the recognition memory advantage disappears for falsely colored images of natural scenes: The improvement in recognition memory depends on the color congruence of presented images with learned knowledge about the color gamut found within natural scenes. The results can be accounted for within a multiple memory systems framework.
One hundred and forty undergraduate subjects, sitting in carrels having side panels painted either light blue, blue, pink, red, orange, white, brown, green, yellow, or gray were exposed to procedures designed to induce boredom. Subjects listened to a tape that repeated one of two words every 2 sec for 10 min. The results showed that self-reported arousal and evaluations of the environment were higher in the yellow condition than in the other color conditions. Response to boredom-induction procedures did not vary with color or saturation.
Gaining consumers' attention and generating favorable attitudes are two key advertising objectives. Using two experiments in an on-line environment, we consider the effects of the congruity between the product foci of the advertiser and the Web site, as well as banner color and banner color-text color contrast on measures of attention (i.e., recall and recognition) and attitudes toward the ad and the Web site. Experiment 1 results indicate that incongruity has a more favorable effect on recall and recognition, whereas congruity has more favorable effects on attitudes. Experiment 2 results suggest that when ads generate sufficient attention to gain recall or recognition, moderate congruity offers the most favorable attitudes toward the ad. Managerial implications for the use of these ad execution cues are discussed and future research avenues are proposed.
Color data from the Osgood et al. 23-culture semantic differential study of affective meanings reveal cross-cultural similarities in feelings about colors. The concept RED is affectively quite salient. BLACK and GREY are bad, and WHITE, BLUE, and GREEN are good. YELLOW, WHITE, and GREY are weak; RED and BLACK are strong. BLACK and GREY are passive; RED is active. The color component Brightness, as determined by comparing data on WHITE, GREY, and BLACK, is strongly associated with positive Evaluation, but also with negative Potency. Eighty-nine previous studies of color and affect were analyzed. They generally support these findings, and, together with the fact that there are very few exceptions in our data or the literature, lead one to believe that there are strong universal trends in the attribution of affect in the color domain.
Sixty-three frail, elderly patients seen in a university-based outpatient geriatric assessment clinic were divided into three dementia diagnosis categories (Alzheimer’s disease, “other” dementias, cognitively intact) to investigate the use of color cues as memory aids. Recognition time was measured for three cues: (1) same color/different form; (2) same form/different color; and (3) different color/different form. Log transformed response times were longer for form cues (same color/different form) compared to color cues (different color/same form, p =.001; different color/different form, p <.001). No differences in log transformed response time were noted among dementia categories for each test condition. Color cues make a significant difference in short-term memory recall ability compared to form cues. Vivid color-coding the environment of a frail, elderly population may enhance short-term memory and improve functional ability. This may prove to be especially useful in long-term care settings, which provide services to a variety of people with differing cognitive abilities.
A study of the effects of color as used in presentation software on short-range (immediately following treatment) and long-range (one hour following treatment) memory retention was conducted. Previous studies have concentrated on color as cueing or coding mechanisms primarily in print media and have not explored the effect of individual colors as presented on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) computer screens. Twenty-eight subjects were selected from 6th and 7th grade students enrolled in a public school. Subjects were shown a series of alphanumeric characters (three per slide times three slides, equaling nine total per color) using black text upon white, blue, and green backgrounds. The slides were prepared using presentation software. Slides were automatically timed for 10 seconds each. Subjects were given answer sheets and asked immediately (time 0) following treatment to write down what they remembered from the series. One hour later (time 1), the subjects were given another answer sheet and asked to write what they remembered. The white, blue, and green slides were presented at one week intervals using a different set of randomly selected alphanumeric characters upon each subsequent background. The answers were scored for number correct in order and sequence from all colors and time references and t-tests were conducted on the data. Results show a statistically significant memory loss from time 0 to time 1 at the .05 level in the trial using blue and in the trial using green. Additionally, in a comparison between mean number of correct responses, a trend may have been discovered which shows black text upon a white background to rank higher than both colors in both time 0 and time 1. Blue may rank second in time 0 and third (worst) in time 1 while green may rank third in time 0 and second in time 1. Recommendations for additional research are given. Several appendices provide information on specifics of the study. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/AEF)