Phenotypic and Genotypic Profiling of MDM2, Respective to the TP53 Genetic Status, in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Patients Treated With Rituximab-CHOP Immunochemotherapy: A Report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program
Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States Blood
(Impact Factor: 10.45).
08/2013; 122(15). DOI: 10.1182/blood-2012-12-473702
MDM2 is a key negative regulator of the tumor suppressor p53, however, the prognostic significance of MDM2 overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has not been defined convincingly. In a p53-genetically defined large cohort of de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy, we assessed MDM2 and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry (n=478), MDM2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (n=364), and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter, SNP309, by SNP genotyping assay (n=108). Our results show that MDM2 overexpression, unlike p53 overexpression, is not a significant prognostic factor in overall DLBCL. Both MDM2 and p53 overexpression does not predict for an adverse clinical outcome in patients with wild-type p53, but predicts for significantly poorer survival in patients with mutated p53. Variable p53 activities may ultimately determine the survival differences as suggested by the gene expression profiling analysis. MDM2 amplification was observed in 3 of 364 (0.8%) patients with high MDM2 expression. Presence of SNP309 did not correlate with MDM2 expression and survival. This study indicates that evaluation of MDM2 and p53 expression correlating with TP53 genetic status is essential to assess their prognostic significance, and important for designing therapeutic strategies that target the MDM2-p53 interaction.
Available from: Norafiza Zainuddin
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene encodes a regulatory protein of the p53 pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (T to G change) at position 309 (SNP309) in the promotor region of MDM2 affects the transcription activity of MDM2 and has been found to be a negative prognostic marker in several cancers.Patients and Methods
In this study, the MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism was analysed in 201 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and analysed in relation to clinical characteristics and prognosis.ResultsPatients homozygous for SNP309T had a significantly longer overall survival, lymphoma specific survival and disease-free survival (P = 0.002; 0.004 and 0.006 respectively) compared to patients carrying a G allele. The longer overall survival was seen in the subgroup of patients not treated with Rituximab however not for Rituximab-treated patients (P = 0.01 and 0.2 respectively). The group homozygous for the T allele also had lower age at diagnosis, a tendency towards lower aaIPI and a significantly lower proportion of patients with p53 aberrations compared to the group including at least one G allele. However, the survival differences persisted even after removal of cases with known p53 aberrations from the analysis.Conclusion
Polymorphism in MDM2 SNP309 could be correlated to some clinical characteristics and for patients not treated with immunotherapy a G allele was correlated to poor survival, whereas no survival differences was found for patients treated with Rituximab. Herewith we provide additional information about DLBCL biology and highlight the importance of evaluation of molecular markers in relation to treatment.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Available from: sciencedirect.com
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ABSTRACT: The tumour suppressor p53 is a master sensor of stress and it controls the expression of hundreds to thousands of genes with diverse biological functions including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. Consequently p53 is the most mutated gene found in human cancer and p53 mutation rate varies from 5% to 95%. Importantly p53 activity is often inactivated in tumours expressing structurally wild type p53. Thus one of the major challenges in cancer research is to restore the tumour suppressive function of p53. Intensive studies in the past decade have demonstrated that in addition to mutation, p53 activities are largely regulated by cellular factors that control the expression level and/or transcriptional activities of p53. MDM2, MDM4, p14(ARF) and the ASPP family of proteins are among the most studied regulators of p53. With increased understanding of the complexity of p53 regulation, various p53 reactivating approaches are being developed. This review will focus on the recent understanding of p53 inactivation in melanoma and the approaches to reactivate p53 in preclinical studies. Recent success in the therapeutic targeting of the BRAFV600E oncogenic protein was accompanied with subsequent relapse caused by acquired drug resistance. Restoration of the tumour suppressive function of p53 presents a parallel cancer therapeutic opportunity alongside BRAFV600E inhibition. Thus targeted therapy and concurrent reactivation of p53 may be a fertile ground to achieve synergistic killing of the 50% of cancer cells that express structurally wild type p53.
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Activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates tumor growth, invasion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune response, and survival. Data regarding expression of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) on prognosis are limited.
We evaluated expression of pSTAT3 in de novo DLBCL using immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling (GEP), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Results were analyzed in correlation with cell-of-origin (COO), critical lymphoma biomarkers, and genetic translocations.
pSTAT3 expression was observed in 16% of DLBCL and was associated with advanced stage, multiple extranodal sites of involvement, activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype, MYC expression, and MYC/BCL2 expression. Expression of pSTAT3 predicted inferior overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with de novo DLBCL. When DLBCL cases were stratified according to COO or MYC expression, pSTAT3 expression did not predict inferior outcome, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic predictability of pSTAT3 expression was due to its association with the ABC subtype, MYC expression, and adverse clinical features. GEP demonstrated upregulation of genes, which can potentiate function of STAT3. GSEA showed the JAK-STAT pathway to be enriched in pSTAT3(+) DLBCL.
The results of this study provide a rationale for the ongoing successful clinical trials targeting the JAK-STAT pathway in DLBCL.
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