Association between fruits and vegetables intake and frequency of breakfast and snacks consumption: A cross-sectional study

Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.6). 08/2013; 12(1):123. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-123
Source: PubMed


There are very few studies on the frequency of breakfast and snack consumption and its relation to fruit and vegetable intake. This study aims to fill that gap by exploring the relation between irregular breakfast habits and snack consumption and fruit and vegetable intake in Tuscan adolescents. Separate analyses were conducted with an emphasis on the potentially modifying factors of sex and age.
Data was obtained from the 2010 Tuscan sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The HBSC study is a cross-sectional survey of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students (n = 3291), selected from a random sample of schools. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analyzing the food-frequency questionnaire.
A significant relation was found between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption, whereas vegetable intake did not prove to be directly related to irregular snack consumption. Different patterns emerged when gender and age were considered as modifying factors in the analyses. A statistically significant relation emerged only among female students for irregular breakfast habits and fruit and vegetable intake. Generally, older female participants with irregular breakfast habits demonstrated a higher risk of low fruit and vegetable intake. Age pattern varied between genders, and between fruit and vegetable consumption.
Results suggest that for those adolescents who have an irregular consumption of breakfast and snacks, fruit intake occurs with a lower frequency. Lower vegetable consumption was associated with irregular breakfast consumption. Gender and age were shown to be moderators and this indicated the importance of analyzing fruit and vegetable intake and meal types separately.This study also confirmed that health-promotion campaigns that aim to promote regular meal consumption and consumption of fruits and vegetables need to take into account gender and age differences in designing promotional strategies. Future research should identify evidence-based interventions to facilitate the achievement of the Italian guidelines for a healthy diet for fruit, vegetables and meals intake.

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Available from: Giacomo Lazzeri
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    • "These findings suggest that provision of FV as snacks could potentially increase overall FV intake among children. While it may seem most impactful to simply promote general FV provision in the home, research has shown that among elementary school children, FV are most frequently consumed during weekday lunch and dinner and few FV are consumed as a snack, supporting recommendations for interventions to increase FV intake as snacks (Baranowski et al., 1997; Lazzeri et al., 2013). This study shows that when parents provide FV as snacks there may be higher consumption among older children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Most U.S. youth fail to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (FV) however many consume too many calories as added sugars and solid fats, often as snacks. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with serving FV as snacks and with meals using parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional sample of U.S. children aged 9 to 18, and their caregiver/parent (n=1522) were part of a Consumer Panel of households for the 2008 YouthStyles mail survey. Chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between serving patterns of FV as snacks with variations in serving patterns, and covariates including dietary habits. Most parents (72%) reported serving FV at meals and as snacks. Fruit was most frequently served as a snack during the day (52%) and vegetables were most frequently served as a snack during the day (22%) but rarely in the morning. Significant differences in child FV intake existed among FV as a snack serving patterns by parents. Compared to children whose parents served FV only at meals, children whose parents reported serving FV as snacks in addition to meals were significantly more likely to have consumed FV the day before (using a previous day screener), P<0.05. Contributing to the growing collection of literature describing parent-child dyad dietary behaviors, these findings suggest promoting FV access and intake throughout the day, not only at meals, by including serving as snacks, may increase FV intake among older children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Eating Behaviors
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    • "Conversely, eating breakfast may prevent energy dense snacking and the consumption of energy-rich foods[36]. Moreover, regular breakfast consumption has been associated with improved cognitive performance and with overall dietary quality and nutritional profiles in school-aged children and adolescents[9,10]., Angela Spinelli, Giulia Cairella et al. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To describe dietary habits and related geographic and socio-demographic characteristics among children aged 8-9 years in Italy. Materials and methods. Data from the 2012 national nutritional surveillance system collected from children, parents and teachers, have been linked to determine the children's eating habits. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between incorrect dietary habits and their potential predictors. Results. Of the 46 307 children, 8,6% skipped breakfast, 48.8% did not eat vegetables and 28.7% did not eat fruit daily, 64.8% ate an abundant mid-morning snack, 41.4% drank sugary beverages and 12.5% drank carbonated beverages at least once a day; Three or more incorrect habits were found in 43.9% of the children. Incorrect dietary habits were more common among children with lower socio-economic conditions, who were resident in the South of the country and who spent more time watching TV Conclusion. In Italy. unhealthy dietary habits are common among children, The deliciencies identified may well be a harbinger of future public health problems.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    • "Lazzeri et al. (2013) showed significant relation between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption [43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective . To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods . Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results . Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion . This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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