Article

Association between fruits and vegetables intake and frequency of breakfast and snacks consumption: A cross-sectional study

Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.6). 08/2013; 12(1):123. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-123
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

There are very few studies on the frequency of breakfast and snack consumption and its relation to fruit and vegetable intake. This study aims to fill that gap by exploring the relation between irregular breakfast habits and snack consumption and fruit and vegetable intake in Tuscan adolescents. Separate analyses were conducted with an emphasis on the potentially modifying factors of sex and age.
Data was obtained from the 2010 Tuscan sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The HBSC study is a cross-sectional survey of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students (n = 3291), selected from a random sample of schools. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analyzing the food-frequency questionnaire.
A significant relation was found between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption, whereas vegetable intake did not prove to be directly related to irregular snack consumption. Different patterns emerged when gender and age were considered as modifying factors in the analyses. A statistically significant relation emerged only among female students for irregular breakfast habits and fruit and vegetable intake. Generally, older female participants with irregular breakfast habits demonstrated a higher risk of low fruit and vegetable intake. Age pattern varied between genders, and between fruit and vegetable consumption.
Results suggest that for those adolescents who have an irregular consumption of breakfast and snacks, fruit intake occurs with a lower frequency. Lower vegetable consumption was associated with irregular breakfast consumption. Gender and age were shown to be moderators and this indicated the importance of analyzing fruit and vegetable intake and meal types separately.This study also confirmed that health-promotion campaigns that aim to promote regular meal consumption and consumption of fruits and vegetables need to take into account gender and age differences in designing promotional strategies. Future research should identify evidence-based interventions to facilitate the achievement of the Italian guidelines for a healthy diet for fruit, vegetables and meals intake.

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Available from: Giacomo Lazzeri
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    • "These findings suggest that provision of FV as snacks could potentially increase overall FV intake among children. While it may seem most impactful to simply promote general FV provision in the home, research has shown that among elementary school children, FV are most frequently consumed during weekday lunch and dinner and few FV are consumed as a snack, supporting recommendations for interventions to increase FV intake as snacks (Baranowski et al., 1997; Lazzeri et al., 2013). This study shows that when parents provide FV as snacks there may be higher consumption among older children. "
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Eating Behaviors
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    • "Conversely, eating breakfast may prevent energy dense snacking and the consumption of energy-rich foods[36]. Moreover, regular breakfast consumption has been associated with improved cognitive performance and with overall dietary quality and nutritional profiles in school-aged children and adolescents[9,10]., Angela Spinelli, Giulia Cairella et al. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To describe dietary habits and related geographic and socio-demographic characteristics among children aged 8-9 years in Italy. Materials and methods. Data from the 2012 national nutritional surveillance system collected from children, parents and teachers, have been linked to determine the children's eating habits. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between incorrect dietary habits and their potential predictors. Results. Of the 46 307 children, 8,6% skipped breakfast, 48.8% did not eat vegetables and 28.7% did not eat fruit daily, 64.8% ate an abundant mid-morning snack, 41.4% drank sugary beverages and 12.5% drank carbonated beverages at least once a day; Three or more incorrect habits were found in 43.9% of the children. Incorrect dietary habits were more common among children with lower socio-economic conditions, who were resident in the South of the country and who spent more time watching TV Conclusion. In Italy. unhealthy dietary habits are common among children, The deliciencies identified may well be a harbinger of future public health problems.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    • "Lazzeri et al. (2013) showed significant relation between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption [43]. "
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