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In the mid-20th century, William Sheldon developed the idea of somatotypes in explaining different types of criminal behavior. Sheldon defined three body types believed to be associated with criminality: mesomorphs, who are athletically fit; endomorphs, who are overweight, and ectomorphs, who are characterized by fragility and thinness. Sheldon's research implied that mesomorphic individuals were more prone to committing violent and aggressive acts. This research explores a new method of somatotyping using the Body Mass Index (BMI). What follows is an examination of prisoners from the State of Arkansas, using information provided by the Arkansas Department of Correction's database on inmates. In particular, this paper examined prisoners’ physical characteristics such as age, height, and weight in comparison to the types of crimes that these prisoners committed. The findings of this paper show that the BMI is a useful alternative to traditional somatotyping techniques; the findings also suggest that a prisoner's somatotype is associated with criminal patterns while being a meager predictor of criminality. Methodological and theoretical implications of this study are discussed.
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The Social Science Journal 46 (2009) 394–401
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The BMI as a somatotypic measure of physique:
A rejoinder to Jeremy E.C. Genovese
Sean Maddan a, Jeffery T. Walkerb,, J. Mitchell Miller c
aDepartment of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Tampa,
401 West Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33606, USA
bDepartment of Criminal Justice, University of Arkansas, Little Rock,
2801 South University, Little Rock, AR 72204, USA
cDepartment of Criminal Justice, University of Texas, San Antonio,
501 West Durango Boulevard, San Antonio, TX 78207, USA
In 2008, Maddan, Walker and Miller promoted the use of the Body Mass Index (BMI) as a viable
alternative to Sheldon’s technique of somatotyping. Utilizing the BMI, Maddan Walker and Miller re-
analyzed the original data from the Sheldon studies. This analysis indicated a statistically significant
relationship between the two measures of somatotyping. Genovese wrote a response to this work sug-
gesting the BMI is not a useful proxy for somatotyping individuals. We respond to Genovese’s critique
by providing a full explication of the Sheldon somatoype measure and an analysis of Sheldon’s original
data accounting for all of the different somatotypes identified. Analyses here indicate that the original
somatotype measure was very subjective. Although not without flaws, the BMI provides an objective
somatotype measure that is comparable, if not superior, to the measure promulgated by Sheldon.
© 2009 Western Social Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
In 2008, Maddan, Walker, and Miller proposed utilization of the Body Mass Index (BMI) as
an alternative strategy to somatotyping for measuring the physique of humans. Somatotyping
was introduced by Sheldon, Stevens, and Tucker (1940) as a refined technique of measuring the
human physique. While somatotyping was a key component of his research, Sheldon’s main
intent was to indicate how an individual’s physical dimensions could influence the behavior
Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 501 569 3083.
E-mail (J.T. Walker).
0362-3319/$ – see front matter © 2009 Western Social Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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S. Maddan et al. / The Social Science Journal 46 (2009) 394–401 395
of that individual. Based on Sheldon’s research, and later somatotype research utilizing the
Parnell (1958) method, this area of study indicated that physique is linked to individual behavior
generally, and criminality specifically. While no research specifically refuted these points, this
line of thought has been largely dismissed, relegated to snippets in introductory criminology
Maddan, Walker and Miller (2008) sought to examine some of Sheldon’s assertions on the
link between physique and crime utilizing the BMI as a proxy measure of an individual’s
somatotype. The Body Mass Index (BMI), often referred to as the Quetelet Index, utilizes a
person’s height and weight to gauge the total body fat in adults. It is an indicator of optimal
weight for health, and different from lean mass or percent body fat calculations because it
only considers height and weight (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 1998). In the
comparison of the BMI with the original data collected by Sheldon and presented in Hartl,
Monnelly, and Elderkin’s (1982) follow-up study, Maddan, Walker and Miller found that the
BMI produced moderate-to-high correlations with Sheldon’s somtatotype. They also found,
however, that it failed to correlate with crime.
Genovese (2009) took issue with the BMI approach. He contends that the BMI is not a
useful means to somatotype individuals. In his response to the original Maddan et al. (2008)
work, he reexamined Sheldon’s original data and came up with differing results on the link
between somatotype and BMI. The manner in which his analysis proceeded was much like our
original analysis, with the only difference being in his findings and conclusion. His analysis,
like ours, was truncated. All somatotypes examined in Sheldon’s work were not accounted
for in either study. While we omitted full categorization due to the original focus of our work
(i.e., the examination of new subjects, not a focus on Sheldon’s original work), we also did so
because of space constraints.
This rejoinder provides a more complete examination of the somatotype measure as devel-
oped by Sheldon et al. (1940) in The Varieties of Human Physique. We then examine the data
with regard to all somatotype categories delineated by Sheldon. This analysis provides a better
understanding of the somatotype as a measure than our initial, truncated analysis. Based on the
findings of this more complete analysis, we conclude by again arguing support for the BMI as
a more scientifically objective measure of human physique.
2. Sheldon’s measurement of somatotypes
Sheldon et al. (1940) outlined the measurement of somatotypes in The Varieties of Human
Physique. Naked subjects were photographed from three angles: front, side, and back. The
subject stood on a pedestal a certain distance away from the camera. From these photographs,
17 measurements were taken of the subject’s body. These measurements included data from five
bodily regions: facial breadth and neck thickness (first region), front trunk breadth/thickness
(second region), upper and lower arm thickness (third region), back trunk breath/thickness
(fourth region), and upper and lower leg thickness (fifth region). Each of these measurements
was divided by the height of the subject to convert it to a ratio.
From the picture measurements, a three number scale was derived to represent a person’s
somatotype. The first number in the score reflected the amount of endomorphy in an individual
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(relative predominance of soft roundness throughout the various regions of the body), the
second number represented the amount of mesomorphy in an individual (relative predominance
of muscle, bone, and connective tissue), and the third number represented the amount of
ectomorphy present in an individual (relative predominance of linearity and fragility). The three
numbers indicated the degree to which the subject conformed to each of the three components.
The number one represented the lowest observed amount of the component and the number
seven for the highest dominance by the component. A value of four represented the midpoint of
the scale. Using this categorization, an extreme endomorph would receive a score of 7–1–1, an
extreme mesomorph would receive a score of 1–7–1, and an extreme ectomorph would receive
a score of 1–1–7.
Sheldon stated that, like so many before him, he had identified three extreme types of human
physique (underweight, athletic, and overweight). In Sheldon’s view of his initial subjects’
somatotype measurements, he stated:
To those who wonder why three extremes were chosen, it should be pointed out that in a large
random sample it is precisely three extreme types which stand out. Repeated combing of the
population for a fourth basic type of extreme variation simply yielded nothing at all. We were
not committed to find three first-order variants (Sheldon et al., 1940, p. 31).
Sheldon was initially reluctant to accept the conclusion that only three fundamentally dif-
ferent extreme body types could be isolated. The final three extreme categories of somatotypes
fit in with Sheldon’s notion that a person’s somatotype was permanent across the life course.
For Sheldon, for a somatotype to change, the skeleton/bone structure of an individual would
have to change. The deposit or removal of fat would not change the somatotype; where the
fat is deposited is more important for the study of somatotyping according to Sheldon. For
Sheldon, the somatotype was permanent (unlike Parnell’s method that suggested somatotypes
could change over time, i.e., the bodily phenotype).
Though many subject physiques “showed a strongly predominant trend toward one of the
polar extremes, we could find no single individual who did not somewhere in his body also
exhibit minor local characteristics belonging to one of the other two polar types”(Sheldon et
al., 1940, p. 46). This combining of somatotyes was referred to as dysplasia. According to
Sheldon, Hartl, and McDermott (1949, p. 19) Sheldon (1949, p. 19), dysplasia is the “extent
to which a physique presents different somatotypes in different bodily regions.” In an effort to
reduce the influence of dysplasia, Sheldon only identified 76 somtatotypes out of potentially
343 possibilities. Sheldon also conceded, “It must not be forgotten that the creation of these 76
classes is essentially an arbitrary procedure. There is no magic to the number 76—it is merely
the number we obtain when we elect to use a 7-point scale and ignore fractional values on
this scale”(Sheldon et al., 1940, p. 64). Sheldon suggested that a 5-point scale could be used
or “neighboring somatotypes” could be collapsed into a single category. Sheldon et al. (1940,
p. 64) even indicated, “it would appear advisable to combine certain of the closely related
Sheldon further grouped the 76 different types into three categories of somatotypes. This
further recognized the blending of different somatotypes and that such blending was prevalent
enough to support generalized categories. These three categories are discussed below; two are
unbalanced categories and one balanced.
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Mesomorphic endomorphs; endomorphic mesomorphs; ectomorphic mesomorphs; meso-
morphic ectomorphs; endomorphic ectomorphs; ectomorphic endomorphs referred to
physiques in which all three of the primary morphological components were of different
strength. An endomorpic mesomorph was an individual in whom mesomorphy predominated,
with endomorphy second in order of strength, and ectomorphy third. This somatotype might
be coded as 4–5–2.
Balanced endomorphs;balanced mesomorphs;balanced ectomorphs were individuals in
whom one component was distinctly predominant, while the other two components were of
equal strength. Examples of this include a 1–1–7, a 2–6–2, and a 2–2–6.
Endomorph–mesomorphs;mesomorph–ectomorphs;ectomorph–endomorphs were individ-
uals in whom the two primary components named were clearly predominant over the other
component, and are equal. Examples of the type are 5–5–1, 4–4–2, and 4–3–4.
While these are the key categories of somatotypes outlined by Sheldon in Varieties of
Delinquent Youth, he identified even more categories in The Varieties of Human Physique.
Here, Sheldon et al. (1940) discussed extreme, strong, and moderate values for each type of
balanced somatotype (see above) as well as a completely balanced physique (4–4–4, 4–3–4,
3–4–4, 4–4–3) that indicated all somatotypes in one physique.
The words and work of Sheldon discussed above introduce the reader to the subjectivity
with which Sheldon regarded his own somatotyping procedure. Thus, a full examination of
somatotypes cannot relegate them to just three categories, but must take greater account of
all possible somatotype outcomes. We reanalyze Sheldon’s data in light of a more complete
structure of categories in the next section.
3. Sheldon’s data reanalyzed
Even in an attempt to conduct a more complete analysis, it is not reasonable to expect to
be able to place all of Sheldon’s subjects within the 343 possibilities—or even into the 76
categories. This would require access to all of Sheldon’s pictures and notes, which we do
not have. As such, our reanalysis placed Sheldon’s subjects within the three broad categories
outlined by Sheldon. Even with this, there are 19 categories within which a subject could
fall. Table 1 shows the breakdown of Sheldon’s subject according to the 19 categories of the
three groups. It also shows an initial analysis of BMI as it relates to the “pure” somatotypes
(endomorph, mesomorph, and ectomorph).
As indicated in this table, only 29.5% of Sheldon’s subjects were identifiable as a true
ectomorph, endomorph, or mesomorph (as indicated by adding together the extreme, strong,
or moderate categories of each). Over 70% are some kind of mix of two or more somatotypes
and represented by varying amounts of dysplasia.
Given there are only three of Sheldon’s categories that are addressed by BMI, Table 1 would
suggest that the BMI is a terrible proxy measure for somatotypes. This is misleading, however.
If we take the 29.5% of Sheldon’s subjects that can truly be termed mesomorph, endomorph,
ectomorph, and compare those to the BMI, a different picture emerges. Table 2 collapses
Sheldon’s extreme, strong, and moderate categories into a single category for each of the three
somatotypes and compares those to the BMI.
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Table 1
Sheldon full somatotypic classification and the BMI.
Somatotype Sheldon BMI
Balanced (ectomorph–endomorph–mesomorph) 33 (16.5%)
Ectomorph–endomorph 3 (1.5%)
Ectomorph–mesomorph 6 (3%)
Ectomorphic endomorph 4 (2%)
Ectomorphic mesomorph 21 (10.5%)
Endomorphic ectomorph 12 (6%)
Endomorphic mesomorph 26 (13%)
Extreme ectomorph 1 (0.5%) 27 (13.5%)
Extreme endomorph 2 (1%) 15 (7.5%)
Extreme mesomorph 2 (1%) 158(79%)
Mesomorph–endomorph 5 (2.5%)
Mesomorphic ectomorph 19 (9.5%)
Mesomorphic endomorph 12 (6%)
Moderate ectomorph 8 (4%)
Moderate endomorph 3 (1.5%)
Moderate mesomorph 8 (4%)
Strong ectomorph 13 (6.5%)
Strong endomorph 9 (4.5%)
Strong mesomorph 13 (6.5%)
Total 200 (100%) 200 (100%)
The Sheldon somatotype is more evenly distributed than the BMI measure according to
Table 2. These categories were examined, however, using ordinal bivariate correlation (Pear-
son rand Somer’s D). Both of these measures indicated a strong (.65 or greater) and statistically
significant relationship between the BMI and Sheldon’s measure when an individual is identi-
fied as a true ectomorph, endomorph, or mesomorph. This suggests support for the use of the
BMI as a proxy for at least the pure measures of somatotype.
To support an argument for using BMI over or in addition to Sheldon, the other 70% of
individuals with dyslasia must be addressed. This includes both the balanced physique and
unbalanced physique categories.
For those subjects who fell into Shledond’s balanced physique category (16% of the sub-
jects), the BMI corresponded to at least a third of the Sheldon measure in every instance.
Since balanced physiques, according to Sheldon, contained equal amounts of ectomorphy,
endomorphy, and mesomorphy, the BMI will correspond to one of these physical types every
time. Therefore, the BMI is partially effective at gauging the physique of individuals with a
balanced physique.
Table 2
Identifiable somatotypes and the BMI.
Somatotype Sheldon BMI
Ectomorph 22 (37%) 12 (20%)
Mesomorph 23 (39%) 43 (72%)
Endomorph 14 (24%) 4 (7%)
Total 59 (100%) 59 (100%)
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Table 3
Sheldon’s dual somatotypes and the BMI.
Sheldon somatotype BMI
Ectomorph–endomorph 3 Mesomorph 3
Ectomorph–mesomorph 6 Mesomorph 6
Mesomorph–endomorph 5 Mesomorph 5
Total 14 14
In terms of individuals who are ectomorph–endomorphs, ectomorph–mesomorphs, and
mesomorph–endomorphs (individuals who have enough dysplasia that their somatotype
indicates two strongly competing physical characteristics), BMI is able to pick up on the meso-
porphic part of their somatotype and correctly identify them in each instance in the Sheldon
data. Table 3 provides the original Sheldon somatotype and the BMI equivalent.
According to the results in Table 3, the BMI adequately predicts one of the two characteristics
of dual somatotypes 79% of the time. This suggests that the BMI is a relatively useful measure
of somatotype for these subjects.
Finally, in relation to those individuals who display high levels of ectomorphism, endo-
morphism, or mesomorphism, but have enough dysplasia that it must be addressed (see
the categories below), Table 4 presents Sheldon’s original findings with regard to the BMI
equivalent outcome.
While not as good in prediction as on the other 106 individuals, the BMI still correctly
identifies the primary morphology of Sheldon’s subjects 67% of the time. For the remaining
31 subjects, the BMI predicts the strongly present second somatotype 75% of the time (eight
In our initial analysis (Maddan et al., 2008), we considered the BMI a success as long as
it corresponded to one of the somatotype categories. This accounts for the strong association
we found between the two measures in our original work. Here, we consider the conceptual
Table 4
Sheldon’s partial somatotypes and the BMI.
Sheldon somatotype BMI
Ectomorphic endomorph 4 Endomorph 1
Mesomorph 3
Ectomorphic mesomorph 21 Mesomorph 21
Endomorphic ectomorph 12 Ectomorph 5
Mesomorph 7
Endomorphic mesomorph 26 Endomorph 5
Mesomorph 21
Mesomorphic ectomorph 19 Ectomorph 10
Mesomorph 9
Mesomorphic endomorph 12 Endomorph 5
Mesomorph 7
Total 94 94
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problems associated with variables containing categories that are not mutually exclusive, the
problem inherent with Sheldon’s somatotype measure. To have utility, a variable must vary,
the variable must do so over the total number of categories exclusive to that variable, and a
subject should only be able to fit in one category (mutual exclusivity). These are simple truisms
obtained from any introductory textbook on statistics or research methods. An example of this
is the variable associated with criminal history. First, a person cannot be classified as both
having no criminal record and having a criminal record. Second, even if a person could be
both, it would not help researchers in their efforts to determine if criminal history had an
influence on future offending, for example. This type of poor categorization in essence creates
a constant.
This problem is inherent in Sheldon’s work. Since the majority of subjects had some level
of dysplasia, individuals could be classified as containing multiple somatotype characteristics.
Thus, a person could be athletically built and overweight. A person could be underweight
and overweight at the same time. This non-mutual exclusivity does not help Sheldon’s cause
when the key finding from his research is that athletically built mesomorphs are more likely
to engage in crime. The majority of subjects in his sample can be considered a combination
of physical characteristics. Thus, Sheldon’s metric that incorporates the concept of dysplasia
largely renders the somatotype measure unusable.
Another issue associated with the somatotype is the scale structure. The fact that Sheldon
arbitrarily created a 7-point scale (which he also suggested could be a 5-point scale) introduces a
certain level of subjectivity into this type of research. One researcher could look at a 6–5–2 body
type and conclude that it was an endomorph, another individual could conclude this body type
as a mesomorphic endomorph, and another could conclude that it is a mesomorph–endomorph.
Analysis is a problem with any scale, but further compounded by the use of three scales in one
measure. The distance between ordinal level characteristics is more dynamic than interval level
data, and thus open to differing interpretations. This problem with the subjectivity of different
researchers adds greatly to the problems associated with the Sheldon somatotype.
While one solution to the problem of Sheldon’s measure is to simply create a list of dummy
variables, this does not fix the fact that a person can be categorized as overweight, athletic, and
underweight all in one. A better approach is to either re-conceptualize the research or to identify
a metric better capable of measuring the original concept. We chose the latter approach in our
article. While the BMI has its limitations, it does two things well. First, it matches up well with
the original Sheldon measure of somatotype. Second, it places individuals into one, and only
one, physical category. Thus, the BMI, with its problems (see Maddan et al., 2008 for a full
discussion of the practical problems associated with the BMI as a measure of somatotype), is
a better measure of somatotyping than the metrics utilized by Sheldon.
4. Conclusion
An argument can be made that somatotype research is now antiquated in criminology.
Sheldon’s original methodology for collecting somatotypes would not make it through an
institutional review board in the 21st Century. In addition to the impracticality of taking pho-
tographs of naked subjects, the original somatotype measure was also marred by a high degree
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S. Maddan et al. / The Social Science Journal 46 (2009) 394–401 401
of subjectivity. The somatotype was also marred by poor conceptualization, operationalization,
and the resulting metrics that produced non-mutually exclusive measurements. With these prob-
lems, the measure of the physical somatotype has little empirical utility. Evidence that these
were serious problems for this line of research can be found in the lack of current research
involving somatotyping and the amount of coverage afforded Sheldon’s work in criminology
Due to the inherent problems associated with Sheldon’s somatotyping technique, we
attempted to promulgate a hybrid somatotype procedure that took from the works of Sheldon
and Parnell. The Body Mass Index overcomes the problems associated with the mutual exclu-
sivity pervasive in Sheldon’s work while utilizing the phenotypic quality of Parnell’s study.
The BMI also addresses the problems associated with subjectivity by researchers conducting
the study.
Physique is not the cause of crime. This much is known from all of the studies related to
somatotyping. While physique may be an intervening explanatory variable, until criminologists
have determined what it is about mesomorphy that is linked to criminality, and how, crimi-
nologists in this area will continue the work of Sheldon on somatotypes. The BMI provides a
practical alternative to somatotyping in which to conduct this type of research.
Hartl, E. M., Monnelly, E. P., & Elderkin, R. D. (1982). Physique and delinquent behavior: A thirty-year follow-up
of William H. Sheldon’s varieties of delinquent youth. New York: Academic Press.
Maddan, S., Walker, J. T., & Miller, J. M. (2008). Does size really matter?: A reexamination of Sheldon’s somatotypes
and criminal behaviour. Social Science Journal,45(2), 330–344.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (1998). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment
of overweight, and obesity in adults: The evidence report. Washington D.C.: National Institute of Health.
Parnell, R. W. (1958). Behavior and physique: An introduction to practical and applied somatometry. London:
Edward Arnold Publishers, Inc.
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tutional psychology. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers.
Sheldon, W., Hartl, W. M., & McDermott, E. (1949). Varieties of delinquent youth: An introduction to constitutional
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... One participant was left-handed, all others were right-handed. Their body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing a person's weight (in kg) by height squared (in m 2 ), and is a measure of the total amount of body fat in adults [34]. Values between 19 and 25 are considered to be normal (mesomorph) [34]. ...
... Their body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing a person's weight (in kg) by height squared (in m 2 ), and is a measure of the total amount of body fat in adults [34]. Values between 19 and 25 are considered to be normal (mesomorph) [34]. Two participants had higher values (endomorph). ...
Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) refers to the feedthrough of vehicle accelerations through the human body, leading to involuntary control device inputs. BDFT impairs control performance in a large range of vehicles under various circumstances. Research shows that BDFT strongly depends on adaptations in the neuromuscular admittance dynamics of the human body. This paper proposes a model-based approach of BDFT mitigation that accounts for these neuromuscular adaptations. The method was tested, as proof-of-concept, in an experiment where participants inside a motion simulator controlled a simulated vehicle through a virtual tunnel. Through evaluating tracking performance and control effort with and without motion disturbance active and with and without cancellation active, the effectiveness of the cancellation was evaluated. Results show that the cancellation approach is successful: the detrimental effects of BDFT were largely removed.
... Typically, the height is better correlated with the body weight within various somatotypes than across the body types [34]. A person with common ectomorph characteristics has skinny appearance, low body fat, and low body mass index, whereas a person with endomorph body type has the body frame completely opposite of an ectomorph, and is usually larger in appearance with heavier fat accumulation, little muscle definition, and higher body mass index [34,35]. Furthermore, people typically gain weight with age while the height remains fairly constant [33]. ...
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Purpose: To determine reference values and tolerance limits of between-side differences for the calibers of the common femoral artery (CFA), superficial femoral artery (SFA), popliteal artery (PA), dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), and posterior tibial artery (PTA). Materials and methods: Calibers of arteries, defined as the largest distance between internal hyperechogenic lines of the intima-media complex of the arterial wall, were measured during the diastole phase determined from echo-tracking B mode ultrasound scanning and grey-scale ultrasound in 228 healthy volunteers aged 18-81 years (43.1 ± 16.7). Results: The mean, 95% confidence and tolerance limits covering 90% of population for left and right side of each artery were: CFA: 8.1 mm, 7.9-8.3 mm, 6.0-10.3 mm; 8.1 mm, 7.9-8.5 mm, 5.9-10.2 mm; SFA: 6.2 mm, 6.0-6.3 mm, 4.7-7.6 mm; 6.1 mm, 6.0-6.3 mm, 4.7-7.6 mm; PA: 6.1 mm, 6.0-6.2 mm, 4.6-7.6 mm; 6.1 mm, 5.9-6.2 mm, 4.5-7.6 mm; DPA: 2.0 mm, 1.9-2.0 mm, 1.2-2.7 mm; 2.0 mm, 1.9-2.0 mm, 1.2-2.8 mm; PTA: 2.1 mm, 2.0-2.1 mm, 1.4-2.8 mm; 2.1 mm, 2.1-2.2 mm, 1.4-2.8 mm, respectively. Tolerance limits for between-side differences and ratios were: CFA - 0.5-0.7 mm, 0.9-1.1; SFA - 0.5-0.6 mm, 0.9-1.1; PA - 0.5-0.5 mm, 0.9-1.1; DPA -0.4-0.4 mm, 0.8-1.2; PTA - 0.4-0.4 mm, 0.8-1.2. Regression analysis showed weight and age dependency of vessels diameters. There are no differences between men and woman in vessels size, except in DPA's, when body weight and age are taken into account in a regression analysis. Conclusions: We estimated normal reference tolerance limits of side-to-side differences in diameters of lower limb arteries. The limits can inform an investigator what differences in diameters occur in healthy individuals, and hence can serve as cut-offs in diagnostic and screening strategies.
... In the current study, we test the relationship between physical police intervention and both perceived size and BMI, as well as explore how suspects' race may be associated with these relationships. Apart from Masicampo et al. and Cullinane et al., no previous research has analyzed suspects' perceived body size and police practices, though past theories of biology and crime, such as Sheldon's somatotyping of criminal behavior [33] as well as several recent studies assess the relationship between individuals' body type, height, and weight and likelihood of committing crime and being arrested [34][35][36]. Here we used data from the NYPD Stop, Question, and Frisk (SQF) Database, 2006-2013 to test whether perceived height and weight are related to physical police intervention, including whether suspects were frisked or searched, whether force was used against suspects, and whether race affects the relationship. ...
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Social justice issues remain some of the most pressing problems in the United States. One aspect of social justice involves the differential treatment of demographic groups in the criminal justice system. While data consistently show that Blacks and Hispanics are often treated differently than Whites, one understudied aspect of these disparities is how police officers' assessments of suspects' size affects their decisions. Using over 3 million cases from the New York Police Department (NYPD) Stop, Question, and Frisk (SQF) Database, 2006–2013, this study is the first to explore suspects' race, perceived size, and police treatment. Results indicate that tall and heavy black and Hispanic men are at the greatest risk for frisk or search. Tall and heavy suspects are at increased risk for experiencing police force, with black and Hispanic men being more likely to experience force than white men across size categories.
Faces and bodies spontaneously elicit personality trait judgments (e.g., trustworthy, dominant, lazy). We examined how trait information from the face and body combine to form first impressions of the whole person and whether trait judgments from the face and body are affected by seeing the whole person. Consistent with the trait-dependence hypothesis, Experiment 1 showed that the relative contribution of the face and body to whole-person perception varied with the trait judged. Agreeableness traits (e.g., warm, aggressive, sympathetic, trustworthy) were inferred primarily from the face, conscientiousness traits (e.g., dependable, careless) from the body, and extraversion traits (e.g., dominant, quiet, confident) from the whole person. A control experiment showed that both clothing and body shape contributed to whole-person judgments. In Experiment 2, we found that a face (body) rated in the whole person elicited a different rating than when it was rated in isolation. Specifically, when trait ratings differed for an isolated face and body of the same identity, the whole-person context biased in-context ratings of the faces and bodies towards the ratings of the context. These results showed that face and body trait perception interact more than previously assumed. We combine current and established findings to propose a novel framework to account for face–body integration in trait perception. This framework incorporates basic elements such as perceptual determinants, nonperceptual determinants, trait formation, and integration, as well as predictive factors such as the rater, the person rated, and the situation.
This article examined the implications of resource allocation for weaponised poverty and deviant economies in Nigeria. It used a quantitative method to collect data from 600 respondents randomly selected from three of the existing six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Through purposive sampling, it selected 12 in-depth interview respondents to obtain complementary qualitative data that were content analysed. The logistic regression analysis indicated a significant relationship between resource allocation and weaponised poverty in Nigeria (β = 2.095 P value < .001). The article concludes that the presence of resources in each state of Nigeria undermines the politics of ethnic entitlement. To prevent more citizens from sliding into poverty, it suggests a paradigm shift from the political resource allocation formula (PRAF) to an equitable resource allocation formula (ERAF) alternative or an admixture of ERAF and concessional resources allocation formula (CRAF).
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Behavioral and social activity, being a component of the general human activity, depends on a number of individual combinations of genotype and phenotype, as well as on environmental conditions. With sufficient elaboration of the general aspects of the physiological mechanisms, systemic organization of the behavioral and social activity of an individual remains an open question of the objective conditionality of the expression and orientation of social activity by individual combination of actualized demands and the psycho-physiological preconditions for their formation. Aim. To identify regularities of physiological individualization of formation of demands, of behavioral and social human activity. Materials and Methods. The research was carried out with the participation of 78 men and women aged 18-22 years, students of the Crimean Federal University. Results. As a result of a complex of experimental studies, the systemic organization of functional, psychophysiological, psychological and social mechanisms of the individual organization of behavioral and social activity of an individual was confirmed. It is determined that anxiety, neuropsychological reactivity, extraversion and neuroticism, as the main preсonditions for behavioral and social activity, are most pronounced in individuals characterized by a high level of general nonspecific reactivity of an organism. The role of the functional and psychophysiological status of the organism in the individualization of demands is substantiated. At the same time, the minimal intensity of actualization of basic demands is characteristic of individuals with a low level of general nonspecific reactivity of an organism. Connections between individual vectors of social activity and basic human demands are specified. The most significant, universal impact on various types of social activity is produced by safety demands, which are the basic human biological demands. The demands for self-realization determine behavioral, social, professional and economic activity of a person. Social and cognitive demands positively affect behavioral and social activity. An insignificant negative relationship is revealed between reproductive demands and social destructiveness. Conclusion. The cumulative registration of physiological and psychological characteristics provides an opportunity to predict the extent and subject orientation of the individual social activity.
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Biological influence on conflict and its' violent escalation are significant complex that is more often mis-conceptualised. This paper discusses the behavioural deviations due to genetics, genetically influenced modifications or mutations, physiological, psychological and environmental interactions with human behaviour This paper elucidates that there is relationship between human behaviour and violence in extreme conflict situations considering that the foundational behavioural traits is accompanied by the progenitiveness in human beings. However, it is identified that biological factors manifests not in isolation but in tandem with the social environment inform of sociobiological complex as observed through the mixture of learned societal behaviour and the inherent behaviours which effects the stimulus and responses in the emergence of conflict and violent situations.
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Resumen En este trabajo se analiza el somatotipo de tres grupos universitarios de artes marciales y el proceso formativo de sus practicantes. Tras realizar una contextualización de la bioantropología del deporte, de la cineantropometría y del somatotipo, se muestran los resultados de una prueba piloto. Esta fue hecha sobre un grupo de control, justificando la estandarización internacional de la técnica por la ISAK. El somatotipo promedio fue Endomesomorfo para Capoeira (3,8 ± 1,4 – 4,9 ± 1,0 – 1,4 ± 1,1), Judo (4,1 ± 1,5 – 5,9 ± 1,1 – 0,9 ± 0,5) y MMA (3,2 ± 1,2 – 4,7 ± 1,1 – 1,7 ± 0,7) y estos fueron comparados con referencias internacionales. Sobre su proceso formativo, los integrantes de los tres grupos afirmaron sentirse mejor tanto física como psicológicamente y reportaron los beneficios y dificultades en la práctica de su arte marcial. Palabras clave: bioantropología, deporte, cineantropometría, somatotipo, artes marciales. Abstract This research analyzes the somatotype of three martial-arts groups of a university and the formative process of their practitioners. After talking about the context of bioanthropology of sport, kinanthropometry and somatotype, the results of a pilot test are presented. This one was performed on a control group, justifying the ISAK international standardization of the technique. The mean somatotype was Endomesomorph for Capoeira (3,8 ± 1,4 – 4,9 ± 1,0 – 1,4 ± 1,1), Judo (4,1 ± 1,5 – 5,9 ± 1,1 – 0,9 ± 0,5) and MMA (3,2 ± 1,2 – 4,7 ± 1,1 – 1,7 ± 0,7) and these ones were later compared with international references. About their formative process, the members of the three groups stated to feel physically and psychologically better and reported the benefits and difficulties of their martial art practice. Keywords: bioanthropology, sport, kinanthropometry, somatotype, martial arts.
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Nutrition is an integral part of the formation of fat and muscle and affects anthropometric parameters. Measurement of growth and weight gain can be used to characterise the physical development of human beings. Weight-to-height parameters can be used to determine body types (somatotypes). Somatotypes have recently been studied due to their link to various diseases, including diet-related ones. The study involved 154 female students of a university in of Warsaw, aged 21-25 years. The study was based on a questionnaire composed of two parts. The first contained information on weight, height, place of residence, supplementation, self-health assessment, and physical activity. The second part was based on three-day dietary food records. The subjects were divided into three groups according to somatotypes: ectomorphic, mesomorphic and endomorphic. The women of the ectomorphic somatotype consumed the greatest amount of energy, protein, fats, vitamins B1, B6, copper, and retinol. The women of the mesomorphic somatotype consumed more carbohydrates than women of other body types did. Endomorphic women had great difficulty in maintaining ideal body weight, even though the food they consumed supplied the least amount of energy, macronutrients, and selected vitamins and minerals. Somatotype, that is the type of human physique, affects the consumption of energy and some nutrients (protein, fat, vitamins B1 and B6, copper and retinol).
Conference Paper
It is well established that we carry stereotypes that impact on human perception and behaviour (e.g. G.W. Allport, "The nature of prejudice". Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1954). Here, we investigate the possibility that we hold a stereotype for a face indicating that its owner may have a mental illness. A three-stage face-perception experiment suggested the presence of such a stereotype. Participants first rated 200 synthetic male faces from the EvoFIT facial-composite system for perceived mental illness (PMI). These faces were used to create a computer-based rating scale that was used by a second sample of participants to make a set of faces appear mentally ill. There was evidence to suggest that the faces that participants identified using the PMI scale differed along this dimension (although not entirely as expected). In the final stage of the study, another set of synthetic faces were created by artificially increasing and decreasing levels along the scale. Participants were asked to rate these items for PMI and for six criminal types. It was found that participants assigned higher PMI ratings (cf. veridical) for items with inflated PMI (although there was no reliable difference in ratings between veridical faces and faces with decreased PMI). Implications of the findings are discussed.
1. Introduction.- 2. The Constitutional Theory of Criminality.- 3. Crime and Personality.- 4. Criminality, Heredity, and Environment.- 5. A Biological Theory of Criminality.- 6. The Function and Effectiveness of Sentencing.- 7. The Prevention and Treatment of Illegal Behavior.- 8. Sexual Deviations.- 9. Summary and Conclusions.- References.
About 97 million adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Obesity and overweight substantially increase the risk of morbidity from hypertension; dyslipidemia; type 2 diabetes; coronary heart disease; stroke; gallbladder disease; osteoarthritis; sleep apnea and respiratory problems; and endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Higher body weights are also associated with increases in all-cause mortality. The aim of this guideline is to provide useful advice on how to achieve weight reduction and maintenance of a lower body weight. It is also important to note that prevention of further weight gain can be a goal for some patients. Obesity is a chronic disease, and both the patient and the practitioner need to understand that successful treatment requires a life-long effort. Assessment of Weight and Body Fat Two measures important for assessing overweight and total body fat content are; determining body mass index (BMI) and measuring waist circumference. 1. Body Mass Index: The BMI, which describes relative weight for height, is significantly correlated with total body fat content. The BMI should be used to assess overweight and obesity and to monitor changes in body weight. Measurements of body weight alone can be used to determine efficacy of weight loss therapy. BMI is calculated as weight (kg)/height squared (m 2). To estimate BMI using pounds and inches, use: [weight (pounds)/height (inches) 2 ] x 703. Weight classifications by BMI, selected for use in this report, are shown in the table below. • Pregnant women who, on the basis of their pre-pregnant weight, would be classified as obese may encounter certain obstetrical risks. However, the inappropriateness of weight reduction during pregnancy is well recognized (Thomas, 1995). Hence, this guideline specifically excludes pregnant women. Source (adapted from): Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic of Obesity. Report of the World Health Organization Consultation of Obesity. WHO, Geneva, June 1997.
This book takes an uncompromising look at how we define psychopathology and makes the argument that criminal behavior can and perhaps should be considered a disorder. Presenting sociological, genetic, neurochemical, brain-imaging, and psychophysiological evidence, it discusses the basis for criminal behavior and suggests, contrary to popular belief, that such behavior may be more biologically determined than previously thought. Key Features Presents a new conceptual approach to understanding crime as a disorder Is the most extensive review of biological predispositions to criminal behavior to date Analyzes the familial and extra-familial causes of crime Reviews the predispositions to crime including evolution and genetics, and the neuropsychological, psychophysiological, brain-imaging, neurochemical, and cognitive factors Presents the practical implications of viewing crime as a psychopathology in the contexts of free will, punishment, treatment, and future biosocial research.
The application of constitutional methods to 200 delinquent boys studied over a period of years. Also presents a three-dimensional system of psychiatric classification. Harvard Book List (edited) 1955 #177 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Continued analysis of data collected in the authors' "Unraveling juvenile delinquency" (1950) has led to the investigation of body types in relation to the 500 delinquents matched with 500 non-delinquents. This volume presents the rationale, the goal, the design, the method, and the results from this specific analysis of the data. There are 16 chapters and 6 appendices, the first of which in the latter instance is entitled "Explanation of statistical method" and is authored by Jane Worcester. The final appendix deals with the Rorschach test as it related to psychiatric findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In accordance with the large collection of research findings on n Ach published by McClelland and his associates, it was hypothesized that mesomorphy would correlate positively with n Ach. Ss were 100 nondelinquent and 100 delinquent boys with a mean of 17½ yr. They were somatotyped following, not Sheldon's, but Parnell's more recent and objective method. They also took the test that McClelland has used in various countries for measuring n Ach as well as other kinds of motivation. A positive and significant correlation between mesomorphy and n Ach was obtained in both samples as well as a negative and significant correlation between ectomorphy and n Ach. Other types of motivation were also studied. (20 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)