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Evaluation of pigmented extracted annatto (Bixa orellana) seed by chemical in vitro and in sacco techniques in buffaloes

Authors:
  • Andhra Pradesh Cenetr for Advanced Research on Livestock

Abstract

Annatto (Bixa orellana) seed after extraction of dye and colour was evaluated by chemical, in vitro and in sacco techniques. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NFE contents were 86.81, 94.77, 14.35, 1.95, and 52.87 %, respectively. NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents were 58.5, 24.5, 34.0, 14.4, and 10.86 %, respectively. The Ca, P, Mg, K and S contents were 0.04, 0.7, 0.2, 1.1 and 0.35 %, and the Fe, Mn, Co, Zn and Mo contents were 142, 2125, 2.07, 132 and 203 ppm, respectively. The IVDMD was 61.4 %, when incubated with buffalo rumen liquor. In sacco studies with fistulated rumen buffaloes revealed that the effective degradable DM and protein of pigment extracted annatto seed was 62.4 and 23.2 %, respectively. It was concluded from the present study that annatto seed can be used as substitute for cereal grains in the rations of buffaloes as a source of energy and by-pass protein.
EVALUATION OF PIGMENT EXTRACTED ANNATTO SEED (BIXA OR...EMICAL, IN-VITRO AND IN-SACCO TECHNIQUES IN BUFFALOES
EVALUATION OF PIGMENT EXTRACTED ANNATTO SEED (BIXA ORELLANA) BY
CHEMICAL, IN-VITRO AND IN-SACCO TECHNIQUES IN BUFFALOES
P. Senthil Kumar, Y. Ramana Reddy, S. Ramesh, S. Gobinath and D.B.V. Ramana
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, India
ABSTRACT
Annatto (Bixa orellana) seed after extraction of dye and colour was evaluated by chemical, in vitro and in
sacco techniques. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NFE contents were 86.81, 94.77, 14.35, 1.95, and 52.87 %,
respectively. NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents were 58.5, 24.5, 34.0, 14.4, and
10.86 %, respectively. The Ca, P, Mg, K and S contents were 0.04, 0.7, 0.2, 1.1 and 0.35 %, and the Fe,
Mn, Co, Zn and Mo contents were 142, 2125, 2.07, 132 and 203 ppm, respectively. The IVDMD was 61.4
%, when incubated with buffalo rumen liquor. In sacco studies with fistulated rumen buffaloes revealed
that the effective degradable DM and protein of pigment extracted annatto seed was 62.4 and 23.2 %,
respectively. It was concluded from the present study that annatto seed can be used as substitute for cereal
grains in the rations of buffaloes as a source of energy and by-pass protein.
Key words: Annatto seed, Chemical composition, IVDMD, EDDM, ERDP, Buffalo
INTRODUCTION
The annatto (Bixa orellana) plant is a native of tropical America but is now distributed in most tropical
countries in both wild and cultivated forms (Anon, 1988).The main producers are Bolivia, Brazil,
Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru and Srilanka (Anand, 1983).
In India, it is found mainly in Orrisa, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra and to some extent in Kerala,
Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (Patnaik, 1971). The quantity of annatto seeds handled in markets during the
harvesting season is roughly estimated to be about 150-200 metric tons. The yield of annatto seed is
approximately 270 kg per tree. The seeds have a thin coating of highly coloured resin, which after
purification and processing provides the basic pigment used in colouring preparation. After this process
the pigment extracted annatto seed, constituting approximately 94.5-95.5% on weight basis becomes
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EVALUATION OF PIGMENT EXTRACTED ANNATTO SEED (BIXA OR...EMICAL, IN-VITRO AND IN-SACCO TECHNIQUES IN BUFFALOES
waste. Hence, in the present study on attempt was made to estimate nutritional quality and suitability of
pigment extracted annatto seed for feeding of ruminant livestock as an alternative to conventional feed
ingredients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The annatto seed meal used in this experiment was procured after pigment extraction from the Pramoneel
Agro-industries, Hyderabad, and analyzed for proximate constituents (AOAC, 1997) and cell wall
constituents (Van Soest et al., 1991) after grinding in a Wiley mill using a 2 mm mesh screen. Minerals
were estimated by AAS (Perkins Elmer model-2380).A two- stage in vitro fermentation technique (Tilley
and Terry, 1963) was used keeping the period of incubation during the first stage at 48 h for the
determination of in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) using rumen liquor from a permanently cannulated
graded Murrah buffalo steer maintained on a ration with a 50:50 roughage to concentrate ratio.
Dry matter disappearance and protein degradability were determined using a nylon bag technique
(Kempton, 1980). Nylon bags of 25-28 µ mesh size with a bag area of 70 cm2---/g DM were used to
incubate the samples. Nylon bags with a sample size of 5 g were incubated in duplicate simultaneously in
the rumen of four fistulated graded Murrah buffalo steers (279 ± 2 kg) for 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h for DM
disappearance and 3, 6, 9, 15 and 24 h for protein disappearance. The Murrah buffalo steers were adapted
to a ration comprising 4.5 kg each of sorghum straw and concentrate mixture containing pigment extracted
annatto seed. After each incubation interval, the bags were retrieved, washed under tap water, and dried at
70ºC till constant weight. From the percent DM and protein disappearance data, constants i.e., a (readily
soluble), b (insoluble but degradable with time) and c (rate constant) were derived (McDonald, 1981). The
effective degradable dry matter (EDDM) and effective rumen degradable proteins (ERDP) were
determined at an out flow rate of 0.05/h (Orskov and McDonald, 1979).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Proximate composition and fibre fractions of pigment extracted annatto seed are presented in Table 1. The
crude protein (CP) content was 14.35%, and this was similar to the reports of Wurts et al. (1983). Bressani
et al. (1983) reported that the protein content of annatto seed fluctuated between 13 – 16%. However, a
low protein value of 10.6% was reported by Glew et al. (1997). The crude fibre content in annatto seed
was 25.60%, which was higher than the value reported by Bressani et al. (1983). The variation in chemical
composition may be due to variation in soil and climatic conditions of the country where the crop is
grown. The DM, OM, NFE, TA and fibre fractions such as NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin,
silica values were similar to those reported by Jayawikrama (2006). The fibre fractions indicate the fibrous
nature of annatto seed, and this makes it more suitable for feeding ruminants than monogastric animals.
The mineral analysis (Table 2) revealed that annatto seeds have a high P content and a low Ca content, and
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EVALUATION OF PIGMENT EXTRACTED ANNATTO SEED (BIXA OR...EMICAL, IN-VITRO AND IN-SACCO TECHNIQUES IN BUFFALOES
this is in accordance with the findings of Bressani et al. (1983) and Glew et al. (1997). But the Ca and P
values of pigment extracted annatto seed were lower and higher than those reported by Glew et al. (1997),
respectively. The Mg value for annatto seed observed in the present study was similar to the value
reported (Glew et al., 1997). Similarly, among the trace minerals, the Fe and Mo were lower and Zn and
Mn were higher than the values of Glew et al. (1997). Further, the trace element Se was not present at
detectable levels (<1µg/g). The fluctuations in mineral content may be due to the soil profile and the agro-
climatic conditions in addition to the fertilizers used. However, Wurts et al. (1983) opined that the mineral
content as well as the fibre fractions were very similar to those determined in cereals.
The IVDMD value of pigment extracted annatto seed was 61.4% and was similar to that of barley (58.8%)
and soybean meal (63.6%) as reported by Mehta and Srivastava (1998). The DM disappearance of annatto
seed meal increased linearly as its incubation period in the rumen increased. The average DM
disappearance increased by 10.25, 16.85, 31.94 and 35.04 percentage units, by extending the incubation
period in the rumen of buffalo from 12 to 24, 36, 48 and 72 h, respectively (Table 3). The instantly soluble
DM fraction (a) and insoluble but degradable with time fraction (b) were almost equal in annatto seed
meal with an effective degradable DM (EDDM) value of 62.40% (Table 3). The EDDM value of annatto
seed was higher than that of green gram (Vigna radiata) husk (Radhakrishna et al., 2002), salseed (Shorea
robusta) meal, and mahua seed (Madhuca indica) cake (Barman and Rai, 2004). Wurts et al. (1983)
reported a satisfactory dry matter degradation index for pigment extracted annatto seed in ruminants.
A linear increase in the protein disappearance of annatto seed meal was also observed with increase in the
period of incubation in the rumen. Only 28.54 % of protein disappeared by the end of 24 h incubation
(Table 3) indicating its resistance to microbial action. The a and b fractions of annatto seed meal were
10.48 and 21.76 % (Table 3) and comparable with degradation characteristics of bajra (Pennisetum
americanum) grain and salseed meal (Gangadhar et al., 1992). The effective rumen degradable protein
(ERDP) was 23.20 % and was much lower than the ERDPs of maize (Zea mays) and jowar (Sorghum
bicolor) grain, wheat bran, and deoiled rice bran (Gangadhar et al., 1992). Of the total CP present, nearly
76.8% (10.92 g) was undegradable in the rumen, indicating that annatto seed meal is a good source of by-
pass protein for high yielding ruminants. Though the protein contents of annatto seed and other cereal
grains were similar, differences exist in the protein degradability and this could be attributed to feed
characteristics including protein structure and amino acid sequence (Leng and Nolan, 1984), type of
binding between protein and other components mainly ADIN content of feeds (Orskov, 1982) and animal
factors like rumen environment (type of microbes, ruminal pH), retention time and out flow rate (Van
Soest and Mason, 1997). The RDP and UDP content of annatto seed meal were 23.2 and 76.8 g per 100 g
of protein and 34.3 and 109.2 g/kg DM, respectively; it falls thus under group D (<30% degradability)
based on protein degradability in the rumen.
The results of the present study revealed that pigment extracted annatto seed meal is a potential alternate
unconventional basal feed with high by –pass protein content and can replace cereal grains in the rations
of buffaloes.
Table 1. Chemical composition (% DM) of pigment extracted annatto seed.
Parameter %
Proximate composition
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EVALUATION OF PIGMENT EXTRACTED ANNATTO SEED (BIXA OR...EMICAL, IN-VITRO AND IN-SACCO TECHNIQUES IN BUFFALOES
Dry matter 86.81
Organic matter 94.77
Crude protein 14.35
Ether extract 1.95
Crude fibre 25.60
Total ash 5.23
Nitrogen free extract 52.87
Fibre fractions
NDF 58.50
ADF 24.50
Hemicellulose 34.00
Cellulose 14.40
ADL 10.86
Silica 0.30
On DM basis except for DM
Table 2. Mineral profile of pigment extracted annatto seed.
Minerals %
Macro minerals
Ca 0.04
P 0.70
Mg 0.21
K 1.10
S 0.35
Trace minerals ppm
Fe 141.60
Mn 57.86
Co 2.07
Zn 131.60
Mo 203.30
Table 3. In sacco DM and protein degradability (%) of pigment extracted annatto seed in Murrah buffalo
steers.
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EVALUATION OF PIGMENT EXTRACTED ANNATTO SEED (BIXA OR...EMICAL, IN-VITRO AND IN-SACCO TECHNIQUES IN BUFFALOES
Incubation period DM disappearance Incubation period Protein disappearance
12 59.67 3 14.35
24 69.92 6 17.91
36 76.52 9 21.39
48 81.01 15 22.96
72 84.71 24 28.54
Degradation kinetics
a 42.40 10.48
b 45.20 21.76
c 0.0397 0.097
a + b 87.60 32.24
ED (%) 62.40 23.20
Each value is the mean of four observations
REFERENCES
Anonymous. 1988. The Wealth of India, Raw Materials, Vol.2B (Rev.) PID of CSIR, New Delhi. pp.
157-160.
Anand, N. 1983. The Market for Annatto and Other Natural Colouring Materials with Special
Reference to the UK. Report of the Trop. Dev. Res. Institute. G 174.
AOAC. 1997. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists,
Arlington, USA.
Barman, K. and S.N. Rai. 2004. In sacco degradability of few agro-industrial by-products. Indian J.
Anim. Nutr., 21:26-29.
Bressani, R., F.Porta-Espana de Barneon, J.E. Braham, L.G. Elias, and R. Gomez-Brenes. 1983.
Chemical composition, amino acid content and nutritive value of the protein of the annatto seed (Bixa
orallena L). Arch. Latinoam Nutr., 33(2): 356-376.
Gangadhar, M.A., J. Rama Prasad and N. Krishna. 1992. Rumen degradable nitrogen (RDN) content
of some conventional and unconventional energy feeds in cross bred steers by nylon bag technique.
Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 9:197-202.
Glew, H.R., J. Dorthy, Vanglerajagu, L. Cassius, E.L. Griuetti, G.C. Smith, A. Pastuszyn, and Mark
Millson. 1997. Amino acid and mineral composition of 24 indigenous plants of Burkano Faso. J.
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Food Comp. Anal., 10: 205-217.
Jayawikrama, G.G.I.A. 2006. Utilizations of pigment extracted annatto seed (Bixa orallena) in broiler
diet. M.V.Sc. thesis submitted to ANGRAU, Hyderabad, India.
Kempton, T.J. 1980. The use of nylon bag to characterize the potential degradabilities of feed for
ruminants. Trop. Anim. Prod., 5: 109-116.
Leng, P.A. and J.V. Nolan. 1984. Protein nutrition of lactating dairy cow; Nitrogen metabolism in
rumen. J. Dairy Sci., 67: 1022.
McDonald, I. 1981. A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. J.
Agric. Sci., 96: 251-252.
Mehta, M.K. and A. Srivastava. 1998. In vitro evaluation of formaldehyde treated barely grain. Indian
J. Anim. Nutr., 15:163-170.
Orskov, E.R. 1982. Protein Nutrition in Ruminants. Academic Press, London.
Orskov, E.R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from
incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci., 92: 499-503.
Patnaik, B.R. 1971. Annatto can fetch foreign exchange. In Indian Farming. pp: 28-30.
Radhakrishna, G., D. Srinivasa Rao and P. Eswara Prasad. 2002. In sacco dry matter and protein
degradability of green gram (Vigna radiata) chuni in buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 19: 386-389.
Tilley, J.M.A. and R.A. Terry. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops.
J. Br. Grassland Soc., 18: 104-111.
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fibrous feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 32: 45.
Van Soest, P.J., J.D. Robertson and B.A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent
fibre non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3583-3597.
Wurts, M.L. and R.A. Torreblanca. 1983. Analysis of the seed, L. (annatto) and the waste generated in
the extraction of its pigments. Arch. Latinoam Nutr., 33:606-619.
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... Les graines de Bixa orellana sont utilisées dans diverses préparations alimentaires par les populations des pays en développement (de Araújo Vilar et al., 2014). Par ailleurs, les graines de Bixa orellana constituent une importante source de nutriments qui, incorporées à divers aliments pourraient contribuer à leur enrichissement en substances nutritives et réduire les risques de maladies liées à la consommation d'aliments carencés surtout dans plusieurs pays en développement (Senthil et al., 2007;del Prado et al., 2009). ...
... Protéines brutes (g/100g MS) 10,6 % 13,69% 17,6% Kapoor et al., (1975) ; Senthil et al., (2007);Wurtset al., (1983);Bressaniet al., (1983);Glewetal., (1997) ; da Silva et al., (2009 Senthil et al., (2007). Kapoor et al., (1975 ...
... Protéines brutes (g/100g MS) 10,6 % 13,69% 17,6% Kapoor et al., (1975) ; Senthil et al., (2007);Wurtset al., (1983);Bressaniet al., (1983);Glewetal., (1997) ; da Silva et al., (2009 Senthil et al., (2007). Kapoor et al., (1975 ...
Article
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RESUME: Bixa orellana est une espèce végétale pourvoyeuse de biocolorant utilisé traditionnellement aussi bien en Asie, en Amérique qu'en Afrique. Cette revue vise à faire un récapitulatif des travaux antérieurs sur le colorant des graines de Bixa orellana afin de définir de nouveaux objectifs de recherche pour sa valorisation. La méthodologie adoptée est basée sur une documentation axée sur la pertinence et la qualité des articles. Une centaine d'articles scientifiques ont été exploités et les informations capitalisées font état de ce que Bixa orellana a une grande importance socioéconomique et alimentaire. Ses graines, fournissent un colorant ayant deux fractions; la norbixine (hydrosoluble) et la bixine (liposoluble), stables surtout aux températures inférieures à 180 °C et, constituent ainsi, la seule source naturelle de bixine, un caroténoïde très utilisé dans l'industrie alimentaire comme colorant. Les potentialités nutritionnelles et thérapeutiques des graines font de l'espèce, un important patrimoine agricole capable de faire face aux défis de substitution de certains colorants de synthèse par ceux de ces graines. Son exploitation permettrait de pallier aux pathologies liées à l'utilisation des colorants de synthèse, d'améliorer le revenu agricole des populations pratiquant sa culture et d'offrir à l'espèce, une visibilité pour sa valorisation en Afrique et principalement au Bénin. ABSTRACT: Bixa orellana is a vegetable species provider of biocolorant used traditionally as well in Asia, in America as in Africa. This review mainly aims at summarizing the works done about Bixa orellana seeds dye in order to define research perspectives for the species valorization. The methodology is carried out starting from a documentation centered on the relevance of the articles. In total, some 100 scientific articles have been exploited. Capitalized informations show that Bixa orellana is of great socioeconomic and nutritional importance. Its seeds provide a dye with two fractions; norbixin (water-soluble) and bixin (fat-soluble), stable especially at temperatures below 180 °C and thus constitute the only natural source of bixin, a carotenoid widely used in the food industry as a dye. The nutritional and therapeutic potentialities of seeds make the species an important agricultural holding capable to face the challenges of substitution of certain synthetic dyes with those of these seeds. Its exploitation would make it possible to palliate the pathologies related to the use of the synthetic dyes, to improve the agricultural income of the populations practicing its culture and to offer to the species, a visibility for its valorization in Africa, particularly in Benin.
... Les graines de Bixa orellana sont utilisées dans diverses préparations alimentaires par les populations des pays en développement (de Araújo Vilar et al., 2014). Par ailleurs, les graines de Bixa orellana constituent une importante source de nutriments qui, incorporées à divers aliments pourraient contribuer à leur enrichissement en substances nutritives et réduire les risques de maladies liées à la consommation d'aliments carencés surtout dans plusieurs pays en développement (Senthil et al., 2007;del Prado et al., 2009). ...
... Protéines brutes (g/100g MS) 10,6 % 13,69% 17,6% Kapoor et al., (1975) ; Senthil et al., (2007);Wurtset al., (1983);Bressaniet al., (1983);Glewetal., (1997) ; da Silva et al., (2009 Senthil et al., (2007). Kapoor et al., (1975 ...
... Protéines brutes (g/100g MS) 10,6 % 13,69% 17,6% Kapoor et al., (1975) ; Senthil et al., (2007);Wurtset al., (1983);Bressaniet al., (1983);Glewetal., (1997) ; da Silva et al., (2009 Senthil et al., (2007). Kapoor et al., (1975 ...
Preprint
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Bixa orellana is a vegetable species provider of biocolorant used traditionally as well in Asia, in America as in Africa. This review mainly aims at summarizing the works done about Bixa orellana seeds dye in order to define research perspectives for the species valorization. The methodology is carried out starting from a documentation centered on the relevance of the articles. In total, some 100 scientific articles have been exploited. Capitalized informations show that Bixa orellana is of great socioeconomic and nutritional importance. Its seeds provide a dye with two fractions; norbixin (water-soluble) and bixin (fat-soluble), stable especially at temperatures below 180 °C and thus constitute the only natural source of bixin, a carotenoid E. AKAKPO et al. / Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 13(4): 2332-2351, 2019 2333 widely used in the food industry as a dye. The nutritional and therapeutic potentialities of seeds make the species an important agricultural holding capable to face the challenges of substitution of certain synthetic dyes with those of these seeds. Its exploitation would make it possible to palliate the pathologies related to the use of the synthetic dyes, to improve the agricultural income of the populations practicing its culture and to offer to the species, a visibility for its valorization in Africa, particularly in Benin.
... The high percentage of carbohydrates makes the annatto seed a good alternative as a feed for livestocks. A study was made by Senthil Kumar et al. (2007) to estimate nutritional quality and suitability of pigment extracted annatto seed for feeding of ruminant livestock as an alternative to conventional feed ingredients and it was found that pigment extracted annatto seed meal can be used as substitute for cereal grains in the rations of buffaloes as a source of energy and by-pass protein. ...
... Direct shoot organogenesis was attained in Bixa orellana by inoculating nodal shoot-tip explants on MS medium containing BA and Indole -3-butyric acid (IBA), and supplemented with either putrescine or silver nitrate (Parimalan et al., 2011a). The standardization of somatic embryogenesis helps to maintain and enhance the multiplication of elite clones of interest for higher productivity and economic benefits, and also for the establishment and utility of a transformation protocol for genetic engineering studies to regulate the biosynthetic pathway (Kumar et al., 2006(Kumar et al., , 2007. Direct somatic embryogenesis of Bixa was first established by Paiva Neto et al., (2003b) wherein high frequency of embryogenesis was obtained on medium containing 2,4-D, kinetin, and activated charcoal. ...
... Les graines de Bixa orellana sont utilisées dans diverses préparations alimentaires par les populations des pays en développement (de Araújo Vilar et al., 2014). Par ailleurs, les graines de Bixa orellana constituent une importante source de nutriments qui, incorporées à divers aliments pourraient contribuer à leur enrichissement en substances nutritives et réduire les risques de maladies liées à la consommation d'aliments carencés surtout dans plusieurs pays en développement (Senthil et al., 2007;del Prado et al., 2009). ...
Preprint
RESUME Bixa orellana est une espèce végétale pourvoyeuse de biocolorant utilisé traditionnellement aussi bien en Asie, en Amérique qu'en Afrique. Cette revue vise à faire un récapitulatif des travaux antérieurs sur le colorant des graines de Bixa orellana afin de définir de nouveaux objectifs de recherche pour sa valorisation. La méthodologie adoptée est basée sur une documentation axée sur la pertinence et la qualité des articles. Une centaine d'articles scientifiques ont été exploités et les informations capitalisées font état de ce que Bixa orellana a une grande importance socioéconomique et alimentaire. Ses graines, fournissent un colorant ayant deux fractions; la norbixine (hydrosoluble) et la bixine (liposoluble), stables surtout aux températures inférieures à 180 °C et, constituent ainsi, la seule source naturelle de bixine, un caroténoïde très utilisé dans l'industrie alimentaire comme colorant. Les potentialités nutritionnelles et thérapeutiques des graines font de l'espèce, un important patrimoine agricole capable de faire face aux défis de substitution de certains colorants de synthèse par ceux de ces graines. Son exploitation permettrait de pallier aux pathologies liées à l'utilisation des colorants de synthèse, d'améliorer le revenu agricole des populations pratiquant sa culture et d'offrir à l'espèce, une visibilité pour sa valorisation en Afrique et principalement au Bénin.. ABSTRACT Bixa orellana is a vegetable species provider of biocolorant used traditionally as well in Asia, in America as in Africa. This review mainly aims at summarizing the works done about Bixa orellana seeds dye in order to define research perspectives for the species valorization. The methodology is carried out starting from a documentation centered on the relevance of the articles. In total, some 100 scientific articles have been exploited. Capitalized informations show that Bixa orellana is of great socioeconomic and nutritional importance. Its seeds provide a dye with two fractions; norbixin (water-soluble) and bixin (fat-soluble), stable especially at temperatures below 180 °C and thus constitute the only natural source of bixin, a carotenoid widely used in the food industry as a dye. The nutritional and therapeutic potentialities of seeds make the species an important agricultural holding capable to face the challenges of substitution of certain synthetic dyes with those of these seeds. Its exploitation would make it possible to palliate the pathologies related to the use of the synthetic dyes, to improve the agricultural income of the populations practicing its culture and to offer to the species, a visibility for its valorization in Africa, particularly in Benin.
... Furthermore, mixing of annatto dye to various food products can serve as a source of mycotoxins in general low concentration and challenging to detect. Apart from this, seed waste (after dye extraction) is used in some places as feed in view of its high (Senthil Kumar et al., 2007) in such cases the mould infected seeds are of concern to the health of animals. Upon storing of these mold infested seeds, t possibility of continuous growth in some of the fungi and increase in the moisture content (Chakrabarty, 1987), this leads to predominance of certain storage fungi such as A. niger and A. flavus and Mucor losses to the annatto seed quality as in case of Jatropha seeds (Jayaraman et al., 2011). ...
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Commercially important natural food grade annatto dye is obtained from seeds of tropical plant Bixa orellana. Fungal contaminations of seeds adversely affect the quality of seeds. We have investigated seed mycoflora of annatto seeds obtained from standing crop of B. orellana. Significant fungal contamination was detected in analyzed seed samples. Fungi most frequently isolated and identified were Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Rhizopus sp., Stachybotrys atra, and Syncephalastrum racemosum. This is the first report of mycoflora of annatto seeds. This study will provide knowledge of fungal incidence on annatto seeds and in future to find suitable remedy to avert the storage loss by fungi.
... The calculated ME content was 2745 kcal/kg. Chemical composition of ASM reported in this study was in agreement with other reports (Senthil Kumar et al., 2007;Jayawikrama, 2006;Wurts and Torreblanca, 1983). However, a vide variation in chemical composition of annatto seed has been reported (Bressani et al., 1983;Glew et al., 1997). ...
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The effect of quantitatively replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent of dietary maize with pigment extracted annatto (Bixa orellana) seed meal (ASM) was investigated for broiler. Each one of the 5 diets was offered as mash ad libitum to 4 replicates (8 per replicate) of 32 chicks each, during 0-42 days of age. Replacement of maize with ASM up to 25 per cent level did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and visceral organs weight while pigmentation of shank and skin colour was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to control. There was no mortality in any of the dietary treatment throughout the experiment. Replacing the maize with ASM more than 25% in the diet decreased the growth performance, dressing percentage and increased the visceral organ and intestine weights and intestine length. Results indicated that ASM can replace 25 per cent level of maize without affecting the performance and return over feed cost in broiler starter and finisher rations.
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Heating forages and feeds will generate Maillard products of low digestibility which are signalled by a rise in the nitrogen (N) content of acid-detergent fibre (ADIN). Two sets of data from digestion trials with sheep were mathematically examined by the methods of Lucas. The first set, taken from studies of distillers grains, exhibited some digestibility of ADIN, but showed a high positive correlation between fecal N and ADIN and a negative one with nitrogen digestibility and ADIN. Earlier conclusions as to the ineffectiveness of ADIN as a method of evaluation are refuted. The second set of data referred to ammoniated forages with their untreated controls. The treated forages are shown to contain soluble indigestible organic matter and nitrogen in the ratio of 8.83:1 ± 0.11, agreeing with the expected composition of Maillard polymers. With these forages the fecal N loss considerably exceeds the ADIN estimate, in contrast to the distillers grains. The excess is due in part to the presence of indigestible soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) that is associated with a soluble indigestible organic fraction. The existence of indigestible soluble N and organic matter constitutes the basis for severe criticism of gravimetric laboratory procedures, including nylon bags, used in evaluating treated forages and feeds, as these procedures will fail to recover the soluble indigestible components and thus over-value treated forages. The use of ADIN as a marker for heat damage and the Maillard reaction is validated, but in treated forages an additional examination for absorbances at 280 and 320 nm, and SNAN is recommended.
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A method is proposed for estimating the percentage of dietary protein that is degraded by microbial action in the rumen when protein supplement is added to a specified ration. The potential degradability, p , is measured by incubating the supplement in artificial-fibre bags in the rumen and is related to incubation time, t , by the equation p = a+b (1 – e -ct ). The rate constant k , measuring the passage of the supplement from the rumen to the abomasum, is obtained in a separate experiment in which the supplement is combined with a chromium marker which renders it completely indigestible. The effective percentage degradation, p , of the supplement, allowing for rate of passage, is shown to be p = a +[ bc/(c+k) ] (1- e -(e+k)t ) by time, t , after feeding. As t increases, this tends to the asymptotic value a+bc /( c+k ), which therefore provides an estimate of the degradability of the protein supplement under the specified feeding conditions. The method is illustrated by results obtained with soya-bean meal fed as a supplement to a dried-grass diet for sheep. The incubation measurements showed that 89% of the soya-bean protein disappeared within 24 h and indicated that it was all ultimately degradable with this diet. When the dried grass was given at a restricted level of feeding the allowance for time of retention in the rumen reduced the estimate of final degradability to 71% (69% within 24 h). With ad libitum feeding there was a faster rate of passage and the final degradability was estimated to be 66% (65% within 24 h).
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Estimates of the degradability of protein in the rumen are essential for the application of new systems which have been suggested for the evaluation of the protein requirements of ruminants (Agricultural Research Council, 1980). The effective percentage degradability (P) of protein supplements in the rumen is dependent not only on the course of degradation of the protein particles in the rumen, but also on the time distribution of their stay in the rumen, and will decrease if there is an increase in the rate of passage of the particles. It was shown by Ørskov & McDonald (1979) that if the percentage protein disappearance (p) from samples incubated for time t is described by the equation
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A simple technique for the determination in vitro of the dry- or organic-matter digestibility of small (0·5 g) samples of dried forages is described. It involves incubation first with rumen liquor and then with acid pepsin. Using 146 samples of grass, clover and lucerne of known in vivo digestibility (Y), the regression equation Y= 0·99 X– 1·01 (S.E. ± 2·31) has been calculated, where X=in vitro dry-matter digestibility. This technique has been used for the study of the digestibilities of plant breeder's material, of the leaf and stem fractions of herbage and of herbage consumed by animals.
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The leaves, seeds, flowers, and fruit of many indigenous plants are staples of populations who inhabit the Sahel region of Africa. They serve to supplement the nutrients provided by cereals such as millet and sorghum. However, there is a lack of comprehensive compositional data regarding the nutrient content of these indigenous plants. In this report, we present nutritional data for 24 plant materials collected in Burkina Faso, including their content of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Three plants contained 20 to 37% protein (on a dry weight basis):Vigna sp., Hibiscus esculentus,andParkiia biglobosa.Relative to a WHO protein standard, three plants scored relatively high:Voadzeiia subterranea, Pennisetum americanum,andBixa orellana.Plants which contained large amounts of the essential fatty acids linoleic or α-linolenic acid wereVigna sp., Hibiscus esculentusseeds,Parkiia biglobosaseeds, andVitex donianafruit. Three plants were rich in iron:Adansonia digitata, Bixa orellana,andXylopia sp.The fruit and seeds ofHibiscus esculentuswere an excellent source of zinc. The plant foods with the highest calcium content wereAdansonia digitataleaves,Hibiscus sp.,andBombax costatum.These data show that in terms of both quality and quantity there are numerous spontaneous desert plants that can serve as significant sources of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids and trace minerals for populations living in the western Sahel.
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There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition.
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On several occasions, many Latin American countries have shown interest in the economic potential of industrializing the exploitation of the pigment in Annatto seed (Bixa orellana, L) used as a natural coloring agent in the food industry. Production of the pigment leaves the seed as a by-product, which once characterized chemically and nutritionally, could contribute to a more profitable exploitation of Annatto seed. The main objective of the present study was to obtain information in regard to this matter. The results of chemical analyses of the seed showed a relatively high amount of protein, which fluctuated between 13 and 17%. Crude fiber levels were also high, about 16%; however, more than 50% of this fiber can be eliminated through sifting of the seed flour. This operation also increases protein content. Annatto seeds have a high phosphorus and a low calcium content. Its protein contains adequate levels of tryptophan and lysine, but is low in methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and threonine. The protein quality of Annatto seed flour was about 65% that of casein, which was used as reference protein. Partly responsible for this low biological value are the amino acid deficiencies, mainly that of methionine, and the low digestibility of the protein. The latter was 57% as compared to 94% for casein, a finding which can be attributed to the crude fiber content of Annatto seed flour, since partial elimination of the fiber resulted in an increase in digestibility up to a value of 65%. In order to utilize more effectively this potential feedstuff in combination with other feeds, further studies should confirm the amino acid deficiencies and digestibility of the Annatto seed protein.
Article
Annatto seed (Bixa orellana, L.) contains colored pigments (bixin and orelline) on its outer surface which at present are currently used as coloring agents in the food industry. This seed was analyzed, with and without the pigment--which was extracted by the vegetable oil method--so as to establish the possible use of the extracted seed which nowadays is considered as waste. Different dehulling and defatting treatments were applied to the annatto seed in order to obtain a flour with a greater protein content, and to diminish its crude fiber level. The different flours were then subjected to proximate analysis; protein quality was determined by amino acid analysis, and toxicological factors, mineral and vitamin contents, fatty acid profile, breakdown potential by measurement of feed digestion in the rumen of fistulated goats, fiber fractions, and bacteriological determinations were also performed. A protein content of 13.7% was determined in the seed without pigment, which increased to 14.8% with the dehulling and defatting procedures, thus reducing the crude fiber level from 14.4% to 6.5%. The results showed that the limiting amino acid is tryptophan. The toxicity level was found to be of no importance, and the vitamin and mineral content as well as the fiber fractions were very similar to those determined in cereals, but with a higher level of carotenoids. A satisfactory dry matter degradation index was obtained in the digestibility test done in ruminants. According to the above-mentioned results, it is possible to use this resource as a feed and, when mixed with other materials, as a food in human nutrition.
The Market for Annatto and Other Natural Colouring Materials with Special Reference to the UK. Report of the Trop
  • N Anand
Anand, N. 1983. The Market for Annatto and Other Natural Colouring Materials with Special Reference to the UK. Report of the Trop. Dev. Res. Institute. G 174.