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Abstract

Even today, it is a fairly common argument in business-to-business companies, especially in traditional industrial companies, that social media is only useful in the business-to-consumer sector. The perceived challenges, opportunities and social media use cases in business-to-business sector have received little attention in the literature. Therefore, this paper focuses on bridging this gap with a survey of social media use cases, opportunities and challenges in industrial business-to-business companies. The study also examines the essential differences between business-to-consumer and business-to-business in these respects. The paper starts by defining social media and Web 2.0, and then characterizes social media in business, and social media in business-to-business. Finally, we present and analyze the results of our empirical survey of 125 business-to-business companies in the Finnish technology industry sector. This paper suggests that there is a significant gap between the perceived potential of social media and social media use with customers and partners in business-to-business companies, and identifies potentially effective ways to reduce the gap.

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... Until now, research on Finnish B2B selling in the emerging digital era has been scarce (for exceptions, see Ammirato et al. 2019;Jussila, Kärkkäinen, and Aramo-Immonen 2014). Thus, albeit Finland has rather long been considered one of the "digital forerunners," the digital transformation within B2B selling has not yet reached an operational or strategic level among Finnish enterprises. ...
... As sales can be seen as a tool for growth, these activities need sales professionals. However, SMEs lack competencies and managerial support to organize sales operations effectively with the help of digital tools (Ammirato et al. 2019;Jussila, Kärkkäinen, and Aramo-Immonen 2014). Also, automation tools are often expensive, and owners, who are dedicated to their substantive area, may not understand the value in utilizing digital technologies for growth. ...
... Fourth, as previously discussed, social media have been given only limited attention in previous sales research among SMEs (see, e.g., Agnihotri et al. 2012;Bocconcelli, Cioppi, and Pagano 2017;Jussila, Kärkkäinen, and Aramo-Immonen 2014). In the B2B sales research context, attention has also been focused on social media as a tool in the sales process (see, e.g., Andzulis, Panagopoulos, and Rapp 2012;Marshall et al. 2012b;Moncrief, Marshall, and Rudd 2015), limiting the understanding of how to increase the organizational commitment and use of social media tools in sales (Guesalaga 2016). ...
Book
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This theme issue of the Journal of Finnish Studies, edited by Tiina Brandt, includes cutting-edge research on entrepreneurship in Finland.
... In addition, there are cultural and behavioral barriers to solve before the use of social media starts to become a new norm (Ammirato et al. 2019). In practice, there is a need for managerial activities among Finnish companies to better support the adoption of digital tools to business operations (Jussila, Kärkkäinen, and Aramo-Immonen 2014) and a need for "AI leadership" capabilities (Ernst and Young LLP 2018, 9). ...
... Until now, research on Finnish B2B selling in the emerging digital era has been scarce (for exceptions, see Ammirato et al. 2019;Jussila, Kärkkäinen, and Aramo-Immonen 2014). Thus, albeit Finland has rather long been considered one of the "digital forerunners," the digital transformation within B2B selling has not yet reached an operational or strategic level among Finnish enterprises. ...
... As sales can be seen as a tool for growth, these activities need sales professionals. However, SMEs lack competencies and managerial support to organize sales operations effectively with the help of digital tools (Ammirato et al. 2019;Jussila, Kärkkäinen, and Aramo-Immonen 2014). Also, automation tools are often expensive, and owners, who are dedicated to their substantive area, may not understand the value in utilizing digital technologies for growth. ...
Article
Despite an increased understanding of changing customer behavior and requirements for more digitalized selling opportunities, the use of new advanced technologies (such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and robotic process automation) in business-to-business (B2B) selling is still in an early stage among Finnish small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Furthermore, the increased complexity of expanding relationships and rapidly evolving technologies to be managed in the ecosystem era challenges many SMEs. In order to assist managers in these enterprises to enact a digital transformation and to survive in the ecosystem era, this article draws analytical insights from various streams of literature (B2B selling and sales management, dynamic managerial capabilities, digital transformation, and ecosystems) and establishes a new understanding of the dynamic capabilities of managers in relation to the digital transformation occurring around B2B-selling processes. The article contributes to the sales management literature by developing: 1) a framework of digital dynamic managerial capabilities as a means to address the current digital transformation in B2B selling, and 2) a research agenda for further study in the field of B2B selling. With regard to managerial implications, the article offers insights for managers on how to identify and develop their dynamic capabilities needed for strategic digital transformation. Citation Mattila, Malla, Pia Hautamäki, Mika Yrjölä, and Leena Aarikka-Stenroos. 2020. “Business-to-Business Selling in Transition: A Digital Dynamic Managerial Capability Framework.” In Enhancing Entrepreneurship in Finland, guest-edited by Tiina Brandt. Special issue of Journal of Finnish Studies 23 (2): 156–192.
... This is clearly not enough because they have to create a social media plan as part of a business strategy to keep up with the pace of changing consumer trends. Ignoring this can backfire, resulting in the company failing to achieve the desired performance (Jussila et al., 2014). This point of view is aligned with Ejupi's study (2017) that identifies social media as a very different business platform that differs from the conventional business. ...
... This point of view is aligned with Ejupi's study (2017) that identifies social media as a very different business platform that differs from the conventional business. An examination conducted by Jussila et al. (2014) explains that there is still a lack of expertise for such business activities involving social media. Social media knowledge is still scarce among business owners. ...
Article
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Social media is currently not only used to communicate with friends but as a platform for business. This trend has been increasing since the Covid-19 pandemic, where more and more people are using it to buy and sell. However, there are doubts in running a business through social media, i.e., the absence of the right business strategy, understanding of business competition, and the personal characteristics of the people it needs. Therefore, this study aims to determine the ideal personal characteristics needed in running a social media-based business. Using qualitative research methods, data analysis from 20 interviews identifies twelve characters, six of which are critical to someone who has good potential to do business on social media and who can make the most of it. The suitability of an entrepreneur’s character and the demands of doing business on social media will lead to positive attitudes that are key to business success.
... In physical product selling markets the relationship between sellers and buyers is characterised as closer [53]. Furthermore, the focus is more on long-lasting relationships to reduce the risk [54]. ...
... Thus, relationship value leads to trust, satisfaction, and commitment, which result in loyalty [55]. Product companies need to provide more detailed information, as usually, buyers compare products in more detail [53]. Therefore, Habibi et al. [56] conclude that for products, a greater variety of communication channels and messages are needed. ...
Chapter
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The chapter presents two smart concepts of creating a new business without or with only low budget. Thus, it applies particularly e.g., for either students, refugees and/or people from developing countries. "Bricolage" stands for a behaviour in which the actor solves problems using only available resources. Contrary to the resource-creating mentality, only the resources of the repertoire at hand are used. "Growth Hacking" as a new method, using digital approaches in particular, can achieve high sales in a short time. The relevance of data-driven marketing within the framework of a growth strategy. Working primarily with data is a promising strategy for companies that can effectively, efficiently and cost effectively using online tools or online-offline combinations to achieve their growth objectives. Thus, the two concepts are complementing each other by dedication to two different stages of a start-up process. Bricolage for creating the start-up and Growth Hacking for getting it successfully to the market and make it grow sustainably. The Chapter is describing the two concepts and their interdependence by offering a conceptual framework.
... B2B firms are businesses that market their products or services to other businesses (American Marketing Association, 2015). Fewer organisations are involved in B2B transactions, and the nature of transactions is more direct and intense in B2B than in B2C settings (Jussila et al., 2014). Brennan and Croft (2012) document a rise in the use of online marketing platforms in B2B settings, however predominantly one-way communications (e.g. ...
... Simula et al., 2013), as well as drive innovation and product management, thereby enabling innovative offerings that improve the competitive advantage of a firm (e.g. Bughin et al., 2009;Jussila et al., 2014). Enhancing that innovation perspective, McKinsey (2013) suggests that only B2B firms that endorse SMM can increase sales innovation and reduce time to market. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand marketing–sales–service (M-S-S) interface from the point of how social media marketing (SMM) platforms are prioritized and associated business-to-business (B2B) sales process influence. This study also seeks to understand whether effective triadic alignment is achieved between marketing, sales and service. Design/methodology/approach This study combines literature review and the analytical hierarchy process model. In total, 30 M-S-S managers of a multinational electronics firm situated in Africa and the Middle East participated in this study. The authors collected data from M-S-S managers during training sessions on marketing, sales, service alignment and SMM role in sales process. Findings In their drive for customer orientation and improved organizational performance, marketing, sales and service managers view understanding the customer as the most important sales process attribute. Considered second most significant sales process attribute is needs discovery, whereas approaching the customer is ranked the least important. From the ratings of sales process attributes evaluation and rankings of SMM platform alternatives, the results show a significant hierarchical influence of Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter on sales process. The results also show an enabling influence of SMM activity on M-S-S interface alignment. Research limitations/implications This study has a twofold limitation. First, it explored only one major B2B firm in the electronics industry. Second, only the African and Middle East settings are considered in this study. These limitations could be addressed in future research. Practical implications This paper provides practical insights into how M-S-S managers may leverage social media to enhance customer orientation and boost organizational performance. The use of SMM can help M-S-S managers of the focal firm to predict purchase behavior of customers more accurately and as a result effectively manage and improve sales performance. In that drive of using SMM-based competitive intelligence to deliver superior customer experience and enhance sales performance, B2B marketing-oriented firms can also leverage the interdependence (information sharing and involvement) in the M-S-S interface during the SMM activity to enhance triadic alignment. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature by developing a framework for modeling SMM influence on M-S-S and B2B sales process to deliver superior customer experience and drive business performance.
... Instructors can more easily enhance these students' absorptive capacities by exploiting Web 2.0 technologies (Huang and Lucas 2015). These are technologies centered around a user's ability to create their own multimedia content, connect with other users to share content, customize personal profiles (Greenhow et al. 2009), and interface with other Web services (Jussila et al. 2014). They are defined as "technologies that enable users to communicate, create content and share it with each other via communities, social networks and virtual worlds more easily than before" (Jussila et al. 2014, p. 607). ...
... Drawing on the approaches of previous studies (Suh et al. 2011;Kärkkäinen et al. 2013;Choudhury and Harrigan 2014;Jussila et al. 2014;Harrigan et al. 2015), we applied a 7-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 "Totally disagree" to 7 "Totally agree") to nine questionnaire items to analyze if the university has Web 2.0 technologies to facilitate decisionmaking, contact between users, provide answers, attract future students, obtain feedback from students, outsource tasks to students, establish networks, create new forms of communication, or identify the information needs of users (see Appendix). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate the scale to measure Web 2.0 strategic support in the ...
Article
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There is an increasing demand for ethical and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices by companies. This competence has to be introduced in students’ training in business degree programs, and a check must then be done to determine if the students have come to appreciate the importance of CSR commitments. Using the framework of Stakeholders Theory, this work aims to examine students’ perceptions of ethical and CSR practices and commitment to different stakeholders, as well as the factors that lead students to act in a socially responsible way. Furthermore, we hope to identify how the perception of CSR can be improved when Web 2.0 and social media tools that have proven effective in transmitting emotions and values are used in classrooms to teach these ideas. To this end, a survey was carried out in the year 2019 with 1,030 first-year students; it was administered at the beginning of the semester and also at the end of the semester after the training activities had been carried out. The main finding of the research is that students start with the belief that ethics and CSR are developed for reasons of image and legitimacy; however, after receiving training on these topics through tools that take into account emotions and values, they start to value the importance of the company as an agent of social change. The main practical and managerial implication is that methods based on Web 2.0 and social media tools are useful to teach ethics and CSR; the theoretical contribution is that students take into account the welfare of others. This finding contributes to Stakeholder Theory in a higher education context.
... The study also identified a lack of resources as a critical barrier in social media adoption. On the contrary, Jussila et al. (2014) identified knowledge and understanding as key barriers to social media utilization. They called for more empirical researches to bridge the literature gap in the field of usage and other drivers influencing social media adoption. ...
Article
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Purpose: Social media marketing has expanded drastically over the years; despite that, B2B organizations have been unable to use, adapt, and utilize social media marketing, in comparison to B2C (Business to Consumer) organizations. The study intends to examine the antecedents of social media marketing in Business to Business organizations. Methodology: The hypotheses were tested through a survey conducted with 375 employees, belonging to 16 different B2B industries in Pakistan. Reliability analysis, convergent validity, discriminate validity, regression analysis, and mediation tests were carried out to measure the reliability of the measures and examine the proposed hypotheses. Findings: Findings supported the research model and proposed hypotheses. Results suggested a significant influence of learnability, memorability, perceived barriers, perceived usability, and perceived usefulness on actual use in B2B organizations. Findings also confirm the mediating roles of perceived usability and usefulness in the framework. Practical Implications: Usage and adoption of social media marketing in B2B organizations can be improved if they invest in training programs that facilitate learning and memorability of social media tools. Perceived barriers can be eliminated if companies can reassure employees of the relevance and efficiency of social media marketing in their business environment. Keywords: B2B, Business to Business, Industrial Marketing, Social media, TAM
... Unfortunately, most brands use social media to spray their promotional messages instead of connecting with their prospects or customer. A suitable strategy is needed for the successful implementation of social media in complex structures [27,42,70]. Franchises are complex structures. ...
Article
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The appearance of social media has fostered consumers chatting with each other, comparing and recommending products and services. In the case of franchising, social media take on a yet greater importance due to brands having to achieve the expansion of their chains selecting new franchisees. The aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to analyze the activity of franchise chains in social media -Facebook and Twitter- and, on the other hand, to measure the engagement which social media users show with franchise brands or chains. Quantitative data from Spanish franchisors (N = 53 and N = 46) was collected by means of the Fanpage Karma and Twitonomy tools. The PRGS model and statistical tests were used for the analysis of the data. The results show that the activity of the chains in social media is different according to the sector in which the chain is operating. Conclusions are also drawn regarding the characteristics of franchising chains.
... Moreover, hypothesis 2 is that the COVID-19 pandemic is a significant cause in the adoption of advanced technology is not accepted. This means that COVID-19 is not the prime factor related to the adoption of advanced technology as firms have already intricate to adopt new technology, and this argument is consistent with the argument of Jussila et al. (2014) that firms have been adopting the paradigms of different technological facets to improve their productivity. ...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of COVID-19 has drastically transformed the way people are working along with that the productivity of firms is also affected due to this catastrophic event that happened at the end of the year 2019. The teleworking aspect has gained momentum during COVID-19 and it has been used extensively by the firms to maintain their operations. This study aims to examine the impact of COVID-19 policies, adoption of advanced technology, and teleworking on firm productivity in Romania with a sample of 328 including the Vice President, Operation Manager, General manager, Logistics Manager, Procurement Manager, and Information system manager while the collected data was analyzed using the CB SEM technique. After analyzing the collected data, we have found that the COVID-19 pandemic plays an imperative role in increasing teleworking practices in Romania, while the COVID-19 pandemic is not viewed as a significant factor in the adoption of advanced technology in Romania. On the other side, this pandemic negatively affects Romania's firm productivity, whereas teleworking and the adoption of advanced technology positively affect the Romanian firms' productivity. Lastly, the adoption of advanced technology helps in increasing the pattern of teleworking in Romania. The increased use of teleworking practices has been regarded as an important practice in Romania to follow the COVID-19 policies imposed by the government on one side, yet to keep the business operation in the smooth run by working from home through employing the technology to maintain the firm productivity
... The study results have indicated that social media expert power has a positive influence on the social satisfaction of the consumers. These results are in line with the past study of Jussila, Kärkkäinen & Aramo-Immonen (2014), which indicates that the social commerce consumers' perception of companies online representative's expertise, knowledge, and experience in the particular social community creates a strong sense in the consumers of social cooperation in shopping from the companies online representative. The study results have also indicated that the social media referent power has a positive association with the consumers' social satisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, social media has become a comprehensive source for attracting customers and has gained recent studies and policymakers' attention. Therefore, the current research also investigates the impact of social media expert power, social media referent power, and social media reciprocity power on the customers' economic and social satisfaction of the textile industry in the UAE. The goal of the study also includes the examination of the economic and social satisfaction impact on the social commerce intention of the textile industry in the UAE. The analysis of mediating impact of the customers' economic and social satisfaction among the nexus of social media powers and social commerce intention of the textile industry in UAE is also part of the present study objectives. This study has adopted the questionnaires to collect the data from the marketing department of the textile industry and analyze it by smart-PLS. The results exposed that social media expert power, social media referent power, and social media reciprocity power have a positive association with customers' economic and social satisfaction. The results also revealed that the customers' economic and social satisfaction has a positive impact on the social commerce intention. The results also revealed that customers' economic and social satisfaction positively mediates the links between the social media powers and social commerce intention of the textile industry in the UAE. This study is suitable for policymakers who want to develop regulations related to social media and customer satisfaction.
... Digital media technology can ease and accelerate collaborative relationship-building processes (Jussila, Kärkkäinen, & Aramo-Immonen, 2014). It should, however, not be overlooked that deepreaching, lasting relationships evolve only gradually over time (Quinton & Wilson, 2016), and it remains unclear which digital media are pivotal in B2B relationships to optimize organizational purchase behavior (Guesalaga, 2016). ...
Article
The role of digital media in B2B marketing has gained traction with academics and practitioners in recent years. However, a comprehensive framework about the use and value of these media has not been developed, leaving B2B experts uncertain about their effectiveness. In fact, whether or not digital media can impact the business development and marketing processes to achieve higher performance remains vague. Additionally, there is a paucity of research related to the impact of different media towards the enhancement of processes and outcome of marketing to generate opportunities. To provide guidance for practitioners, we consider marketing processes in the global software industry by researching practitioner experiences. We develop an assessment tool to identify and align marketing processes and digital media. This research attempts to explore and explain how digital media impacts the B2B business development process cycle at the conjunction of marketing and sales. The research tests a conceptual model by means of a cross-sectional survey of more than 530 practitioners. Our novel framework provides several contributions to knowledge and practice, defining marketing-related processes, and determining a set of digital platforms. By acknowledging the perspectives of vendors, third-parties, and buyers in a simultaneous study, we ensure optimal alignment.
... Dahnil et al. (2014) examined the factors that had an impact on the adoption of social media marketing by SMEs and organisations in Malaysia, which provided them with an opportunity to establish a balanced image of the current state of global social media marketing adoption research. In a related development, Berthon et al. (2012), Kusera (2012) and Jussila et al. (2014) explored both the tangible and intangible benefits of social media in achieving effective marketing and their impact on the consumer decision-making process. According to Parveen et al. (2016), many of the research on the use of social media centred on individual perceptions, whereas only few were based on the organisational perspective. ...
Article
Purpose Many construction businesses are currently building and keeping social media pages for their enterprises to be visible to the public to improve their social interaction, promote business interest, build trust and relationships with their targeted audience on social media. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social mediausage on performance of construction businesses (CBs) in Abuja, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach This study used a quantitative research approach by identifying constructs that reveal three aspects of organisation’s physiognomies that impact the process of espousing, implementing and using technological innovations in conducting businesses. Well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 113 purposively sampled building materials’ merchant operating in Dei-Dei Market, Abuja, Nigeria. This study used partial least squares structural equation modelling technique to establish the relationship among the constructs. Findings The results of this study indicated that technology has significant relationship with social media adoption, whereas social media adoption has a very strong positive impact on organisation’s performance ( P < 0.001) with respect to improved customer relations and services and enhanced information accessibility. Research limitations/implications This study has implications for CBs that wish to adopt social media to promote their businesses by presenting to them the opportunity to understand the impact of technology, environment and organisational potential in improving business performance. This study is cross-sectional in nature, and this calls for caution in interpreting the results. Originality/value This paper developed and tested a conceptual framework presented to understand the interrelationships amongst the constructs, which would be of great significance to business owners in developing their social interaction and promote business interest via social media. The outcome of this research is beneficial to researchers to further study how the different social media tools could help in influencing business decisions.
... • Allows stakeholder engagement Jussila et al. (2014) Studied online social network usage in the business-to-business sector compared to business-to-consumer sector. Survey analysis showed a significant gap in actual use and perceived DSN potential. ...
Chapter
Digital social networking (DSN) sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, WhatsApp, Instagram, Pinterest, among many others have garnered millions of users worldwide. It is an instance of information and communication technology that has brought about changes in the way people communicate, interact, and affected human lifestyle and psyche across the world. Some people have become addicted; some see this as beneficial, while others are skeptical about its consequences. This risk-benefit paradox of DSN flummoxes academicians and practitioners alike. This chapter discusses the social and organizational and business risks and benefits of DSN. It goes on to provide a timeline of the evolution of DSN sites, enumeration of typical characteristics of DSN sites, and a systematic comparison of offline and digital social networking. The chapter intends to serve as a cornerstone towards developing a framework for organizational strategy formulation for DSN.
... SMEs can also use social media as promotional or advertising media so that customers can reach SMEs more easily. Besides, social media plays a role in the process of building relationships with consumers (Michaelidou et al., 2011;Jussila et al., 2014). Such an assertion confirms the importance of social media in marketing (McCann and Barlow, 2015;Appel et al., 2020). ...
Article
Purpose Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are an important contributor to emerging countries’ economic growth. However, SMEs have been struggling to sustain their performance in a highly competitive environment. Thus, this study aims to re-examine the effect of SMEs’ entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firms’ performance during the COVID-19. This study has also studied the moderating role of social media usage and the mediating role of marketing capabilities and social media usage. Design/methodology/approach This study used a structured questionnaire for data collection, where the unit of analysis was the manager or owner of SMEs. The data were analyzed using partial least square-structural equation modeling. Findings The findings show that an EO has a significant and positive effect on an SME’s performance, but the outcomes are conditional on the role of social media and marketing capabilities. The empirical results reveal that marketing capabilities significantly mediate the relationship between EO and SME performance. In addition, social media usage moderates the relationship between EO and SME performance and it also partially mediates the EO-performance nexus of SMEs. Finally, this study discovers that the EO-Performance nexus of SMEs is serially mediated by social media usage and marketing capabilities. Research limitations/implications This study has important implications for SMEs that are seeking to gain a competitive advantage. For example, an SME should deploy market activities through social media channels. In situations such as a pandemic and uncertainty, this could be the most effective tool. Originality/value This study builds a theory-based mediation-moderation model to explain the link between EO and SME performance. In explaining mediation-moderation effects, the current study provides insight into EO-performance relationships. Moreover, the current model facilitates exploring whether serial mediation passes through social media usage and market capabilities. Therefore, with new findings, the study extends the literature on serial mediation in the EO-performance of SMEs. Additionally, this study extends the literature on the moderating role of social media on SMEs in Indonesia, which has not been investigated. Besides, the current study adds new insight into the EO-performance of SME in COVID-19 condition.
... Nevertheless, even if the delay of the B2B SMEs is glaring (Michaelidou et al., 2011) (Jussila et al., 2014, the application of digital technologies by enterprises in the B2B is a growing trend. ...
Thesis
Although digital transformation is a widely discussed theme, the topic of digital transformation within SMEs in the B2B sector has not received yet the necessary attention from the literature. Therefore, this thesis provides a detailed examination of the subject of the digital transformation of EU SMEs operating in the B2B context. The theoretical part of this master’s thesis dispenses an inclusive definition of the notion of digital transformation and lays the foundation for the empirical section of this paper. The second part of this project is built on five interviews with exponents of Italian and Danish SMEs working in the B2B sector, which are familiar with both internal and external digital transformation. The outcomes of this multiple-case study are firstly the empirical analysis of topics such as the digital transformation barriers, benefits, areas of impact in the company, digital transformation process and the elements that spur digital transformation and secondly a framework of digital transformation best practices empirically validated and tested by five SMEs in the B2B context. The theory produced with this master’s thesis will be useful for researchers, students, SME entrepreneurs, and people working for SMEs.
... Thus, during this period, businesses were using the internet to inform their customers about products and services. However, with social media platforms, customers can give feedback to businesses about products and services whenever they want (Jussila et al., 2014;Atzori et al., 2020;Kingsnorth, 2017). This provided plenty of benefits to businesses and accordingly, they have advanced and updated their products and services according to the feedback from customers (Miller et al., 2016;Atzori et al., 2020;Kingsnorth, 2017). ...
Chapter
In a family business, which is managed by kinship relations, the private and business lives of family members are combined and not considered separately. Accordingly, the family business is carefully investigated by researchers as it has different administrative dynamics and an important share in social and economic life. Especially large family businesses have complex family structures that cause them to remain small. Nowadays, technological advancements are increasing and spreading, and the most effective way to grow and reach new customers is the usage of social media. In this context, the family business must use social media platforms which enable users to share experiences, information and thoughts in an online environment such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, etc., to gain awareness and reach new markets. Due to the effects of developments in internet technologies, customers spend more time on social media platforms and buy online. Therefore, the usage and management of social media in family business are examined in this study.
... Articles such as Ahmad et al. (2021), Kim and Johnson (2016), and Jussila et al. (2014) identified new concepts and developed theory through non-experimental methods. Demek et al. (2018) described how the organization uses risk management processes to deal with social media risks. ...
Article
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Considering the organizations' increasing use of social media, many studies are being conducted in this area. Researchers are faced with a variety of research strategies depending on the nature of the research problem and data. If the right research strategy is not employed, the researcher will lose focus, and the time and effort spent will not necessarily serve the research objectives. When choosing a research strategy, the organization's characteristics should be taken into consideration; otherwise, it may lead to confounding interpretations of the findings. In this regard, the present study aims to introduce an appropriate research strategy for each maturity stage of the organization under study. To this end, using systematic mapping methodology, about 256 articles published within 2011-2021 were investigated, and the relationship between the types of research strategy used and the different stages of an organization's maturity in using social media was reported. Specifically, by synthesizing the social sciences research methodology framework and the social media stage of the growth model, a mapping was developed between the research strategies and maturity stages. Based on this mapping, it is expected that the appropriate strategy for research at the first maturity stage is exploratory, and for the second and third stages are observational and descriptive, respectively. When the organization moves to the fourth and fifth levels, archival and causal strategies are recommended for research. Using the results of this research, researchers will be able to identify the right research strategy for the maturity stage of the organization under study and develop the appropriate research design accordingly.
... Low social media "knowhow" creates a negative attitude among marketers toward the usefulness of social media platforms and hinders their adoption (Michaelidou, Siamagka, & Christodoulides, 2011). An additional concern is the likelihood of confidential or sensitive information leakage, which discourages B2B marketers from adopting social media (Jussila, Kärkkäinen, & Aramo-Immonen, 2014). Another interesting aspect for B2B SMEs is associated with the customer's social media adoption. ...
Article
In business-to-business (B2B) settings, social media provide a novel context for investigating customer engagement. While B2B firms are increasingly investing in social media, there is limited understanding about the type of content to be published and how customers may react to their posts. The authors address these research gaps by developing a conceptual framework that relates posts’ brand personality dimensions (sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness) to customer engagement. Using data from a small-sized Chilean-Swiss consultancy firm accounting for 114 weeks of LinkedIn activity, the authors specify a VAR model with exogenous variables (VARX). Focusing on the cumulative elasticities, the study uncovers the engagement mechanisms of customers. The results show that an increase in impressions (exposure) leads to an increase in likes, clicks, and shares (perceptions), an increase in clicks leads to an increase in new followers (actions), and an increase in new followers leads to an increase in impressions. Furthermore, the results indicate that an increase in posts’ excitement leads to an increase in impressions and likes, an increase in posts’ competence leads to an increase in clicks, and an increase in posts’ ruggedness leads to an increase in new followers.
... Social media are used by customers and entrepreneurs for the purpose of image building, networking and strengthening the relationships of individuals and companies (Kahar et al., 2012). Even though there are many reasons behind adopting social media by companies, strengthening brand remains the major reason behind its adoption (Jussila et al., 2014), coupled with another reason, which is getting new customers (Michaelidou et al., 2011). Firms and companies tend to adopt social media because of the relative advantage and wider identity that they provide the organisations. ...
Article
Moving towards digitalisation in business relies on identifying specific purpose, strategy and plans. With continuous advancement in technology, SMEs are induced to adopt such technological advancements to attain and sustain competitive edge over their competitors. Using social media to promote their business goals (to the market) is a primary objective in addition to their activities, products and services offered by the enterprises. This study explores the extent of social media adoption among enterprises in 2 cities in Yemen (Sanaa & Aden); and the primary data (drawn from owners/managers) unveils that WhatsApp and Facebook are the most used social platforms for marketing; while the least used are YouTube and Snapchat. Further, it is also obvious that, where social media is mostly used to facilitate advertising (Mean = 2.54), which has reduced their advertising cost, (Mean = 2.17), at the same time, it has failed to change customer behavior (Mean =-0.66) and serve their recruitment needs (Mean = 0.42). A significant differences has also been observed in terms of their appraisal [when respondents are categorised according to the scope of operations, education level of owner/managers, and age of the enterprise]; and the study concludes that there is an earnest need to train and guide the entrepreneurs of SMEs to adopt social media for innovative purposes that could contribute/ enhance the chances of growth and development of business in Yemen, which could help them in creating new business prospects.
... While much of this activity is merely about communication among peer consumers, with no business or supply input elements, the studies in question also show that consumer activities flowing from their attachment or engagement with the social media or with the virtual brand community therein can provide firms with valuable customer feedback and peer promotion activity. Note that there is also ample research available on social media engagement of consumers as well as industrial firms (e.g., Jussila et al., 2014;Salo, 2017), which does not utilize acronyms 'C2B', 'C2C', or 'B2B2C' (and are therefore not covered in Table 1). ...
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... Given the potential advantages and rising prominence, notably for marketing reasons, SME Corporation Malaysia (2018) observed poor adoption of social media by Malaysian SMEs at only 19.7%. Globally, social media adoption was reported by a tiny percentage (less than 30%) of SMEs at the start of this decade (Jussila et al., 2014). Additionally, studies on the factors impacting the adoption of social media among SMEs is still in the infancy phases (Ahmad et al., 2019;Ainin et al 2015a;Chatterjee & Kar, 2020;Qalati et al., 2021;Razak & Latip, 2016;Salo, 2017) particularly from the perspective of a developing country like Malaysia. ...
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WhatsApp é um dos aplicativos mais populares no mundo e possibilita a criação de grupos para diferentes propósitos. Assim, investigar as motivações intrínsecas do indivíduo para o uso dessa mídia social pode colaborar no entendimento do comportamento online. Nesse sentido, este artigo tem por objetivo verificar a influência da participação em grupos na aceitação e na intenção de usar o WhatsApp. Para tanto, foi realizada uma survey com discentes de uma instituição de ensino superior. Foram utilizados dois modelos teóricos: o da teoria unificada de aceitação e uso da tecnologia II – UTAUT II (Venkatesh, Thong, & Xu, 2012) e o nível de participação em grupos (Bronstein et al., 2016). Os resultados demonstraram que a participação em grupos influencia positivamente a expectativa de desempenho, a influência social, a motivação hedônica e o hábito. A intenção de uso do WhatsApp é impactada, de forma positiva, pela expectativa de desempenho, expectativa de esforço, motivação hedônica e hábito.
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This paper provides an investigation into how social media can be used to promote disruptive innovation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from a capability perspective. Based on the strategic capability literature, this study examines the influence of social media strategic capability (SMSC) on disruptive innovation, the mediation role of organizational unlearning, and the moderating effects of top management team (TMT) heterogeneity and environmental dynamism. The empirical results from a sample of 198 Chinese manufacturing firms, each with paired respondents, show a significant association between SMSC and disruptive innovation, which is mediated by organizational unlearning. Furthermore, the effect of SMSC on unlearning is enhanced when SMEs have heterogeneous TMTs, and the influence of unlearning on disruptive innovation is strengthened in dynamic market and regulatory environments but weakened in dynamic technological environments. These findings contribute new knowledge to the literature on both social media and disruptive innovation.
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This study aims to identify the consequence of social media usage on firm performance. To this end, it proposes a conceptual map that shows promising linkages between the maturity level realization of an organization in social media usage and its corresponding performance consequences. The conceptual map was developed by combining two theories: performance theory and theory of growth and maturity in social media, and then through systematic mapping. This map can predict what performance consequences will emerge in the organization for each stage of maturity in social media usage. According to this conceptual map, the organization is expected to benefit from accessing and sharing knowledge by realizing the first stage of maturity. The realization of the second stage is expected to establish more relationships with the customers, and the third stage will be followed by product and new processes development. By promoting the organization to the fourth stage, it is expected that communication with the organization's stakeholders emerges via social media. In the fifth stage, social media will help with value creation. Thus, managers and professionals can predict what performance consequences they will benefit from if each stage of maturity is realized.
Chapter
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Chapter
High level of informality in the relationship between brand managers and advertising account representatives has been described as factor affecting positive work dynamic and long – term success. Although means of informal communications such as emails are still used, social networks have been gaining increasing popularity in the business landscape. This paper examines the effects of social media on client – agency relationships with focus on Facebook as an example of personal network. The methodology combines primary and secondary research. The paper reviews literature on client – agency relationships and social media, which provide the foundation for primary research. The paper concludes that connecting on Facebook with a client or agency representative is a way of showing the relationship has moved beyond strictly a working one. However, connecting with a work contact on Facebook should not be done in order to make the work relationship stronger. The study offers recommendations for practitioners and direction for future research.
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Social media are increasingly becoming a valuable tool for Business-to-Business (B2B) organizations. However, social media research in B2B lacks a comprehensive overview from a strategic perspective, with most research to date having been focused on the tactical use of social media platforms, that is to say, in describing specific tools to implement a strategy. In the present systematic literature review we address this deficiency. Our findings reveal that prior B2B research predominately investigated social media as short-term tactics with context-specific limitations. Our thematic analysis extends beyond these boundaries and extracts from the literature three relationship-orientated themes in social media, namely their use as a tool for: 1) sales-facilitation, 2) integrated communication, and 3) employee engagement. These three themes are distinct yet interdependent and are each necessary if organizations are to develop a competitive advantage within the social media environment. The descriptive statistics and thematic analysis in the study present a set of five key findings that reflect the research gaps presently in the literature and thus highlight significant future research directions. The study also highlights the utility for organizations to employ social media in a strategic manner rather than simply as a tactical tool.
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This study mainly focuses on how social media influences the Saudi restaurant business. Undoubtedly, the modern generation is primarily influenced by social media. Several human activities are associated with and influenced by social media. Internet, specifically social media greatly influences the behavioral patterns of millions of registered Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter users. However, there is inadequate information related to the social media’s impact on the restaurant business. Fashion, entertainment, and eating patterns are some of the forms that are highly vulnerable to social media. This research specifically analyzed the success of restaurant businesses in Saudi Arabia due to social media. The data was collected through an online search where social media profiles for five restaurants in Saudi Arabia were analyzed. The findings from these social media profiles were associated to the evidence in the literature review. Relevant recommendations and limitations of the study project are provided. It concluded that when used correctly, social media positively impacts the performance and profitability of the restaurant business in Saudi Arabia.
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Social media is becoming more and more attractive to Web users. However, the majority of social media services do not have a clear business model. Typically an innovative idea gives birth to a service, which people can use free of charge. The most common way to create revenue is via advertisements: Google ads appear in many services. In the long run, however, social media has to adopt alternative means for making money. At the moment there are a few alternative business models, of which four larger themes are reported: Crowd-sourcing, revenue sharing between services and users, developing and selling underlying technologies, and adopting social media tools and approaches for professional use. Some examples of these approaches already exist. The report also identifies and defines some core concepts of social media, as well as investigates various phenomena co-occurring with social media, namely user activeness, identity, copyrights, mobility, trust, and side-effects. These phenomena should be kept in mind when designing and launching social media products and services.
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Market Research is often accused of failing to provide the insights sought by our clients, and in an increasingly complex society we are challenged to embrace a different model of thinking with different principles at its centre. We believe that a Web 2.0 research platform and a social network approach offers marketing research new tools to meet the challenges of the future. The paper identifies a number of trends that may well provide fertile ground for marketing researchers to develop new approaches. The open source movement will not only affect the way that we think but the very methodologies that we use. The emergence of Web 2.0 offers us an array of collaborative tools with which to develop new research approaches to explore the rapidly changing social and media environment. At the same, the rapid growth of online social networks has fuelled the already rich research literature on the importance of studying humankind in 'tribes' or 'groups'. We argue that the combination of social computing tools and an understanding of social networks will allow us to build new types of research communities, in which respondents interact not only with the researchers but with the clients and most fertilely with each other. Moreover as we examine these types of networks we will become increasingly better able to handle multiple sources of data, and be as comfortable with these new forms of user generated content as we are with the traditional data collection tools of the last fifty years. We believe that these social software tools and trends provide the blueprint for researchers to build new types of 'participatory panels' or 'research communities' and we describe our experiences in developing such a community.
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The purpose of this report is to round up current literature and other published sources on harnessing web 2.0 for business-to-business marketing and add an empirical perspective on the subject from Finland. Web 2.0 means technologies that enable users to easily communicate, and organize, create and share content. By web 2.0 tools, we mean blogs and podcasts, social networks, communities, content aggregators and virtual worlds. Based on the literature review we present pros and cons of every tool for marketing purposes. Among the examined Finnish industrial firms the utilization of web 2.0 is still low, but blogs, wikis and video sharing raised some interest. Overall, web 2.0 provides firms with benefits still largely unexplored, and we believe that the importance of internet marketing will continue to grow. (working paper can be found at: http://jultika.oulu.fi/Record/isbn978-951-42-9120-3)
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The Internet and its increasing usage has changed informal learning in depth. This change has affected young and older adults in both the workplace and in higher education. But, in spite of this, formal and non-formal course-based approaches have not taken full advantage of these new informal learning scenarios and technologies. The Web 2.0 is a new way for people to communicate across the Internet. Communication is a means of transformation and knowledge exchange. These are the facts that cannot be obviated by the organisations in their training programmes and knowledge management. This special issue is devoted to investigating how informal learning changes or influences online information in Social Web and training strategies in institutions. In order to do so, five papers will present different approaches of informal learning in the workplace regarding Web 2.0 capabilities.
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This article presents a model of how social influence processes affect individuals' attitudes toward communication media and media use behavior. The model integrates two areas of research. One body of work posits that media use patterns are the outcome of objectively rational choices. These choices involve evaluating communication options and selecting an appropriate medium to match the communication requirements of the task. The second perspective is social information processing theory (Salancik & Pfeffer, 1978). This approach proposes that attitudes and behaviors are partially determined by information embedded in the social context. The synthesis of these perspectives asserts that media characteristics and attitudes are in part socially constructed. Furthermore, attitudes are influenced by attributions based on observations of one's own past behavior. This model is shown to explain a wider range of existing empirical findings. Also, new propositions are derived to guide future research. This social construction model of media use has significant implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of future research in organizations.
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This paper argues that social media metrics should be captured as customer investments in marketers’ social media efforts and that applications considered in concert with performance objectives drive the choice of metrics. Motivating this approach are the “four c’s” that drive consumer use of social media. These include the connections consumers make with each other, the user-generated content they create, their consumption of other users’ content and their control of their own online experiences. Social media metrics that are linked to three broad social media performance objectives are identified for eight general categories of social media applications and the paths managers have for improving social media effectiveness that rely on using these metrics are discussed.
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The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very limited understanding of what the term “Social Media” exactly means; this article intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media.
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The increasing importance of the Internet in most domains has brought about a paradigm change in consumer relations. The influence of Social Networks has entered the Customer Relationship Management domain under the coined term CRM 2.0. In this context, the need to understand and classify the interactions of customers by means of new platforms has emerged as a challenge for both researchers and professionals worldwide. This is the perfect scenario for the use of SEMO, a platform for Customer Social Networks Analysis based on Semantics and emotion mining. The platform benefits from both semantic annotation and classification and text analysis, relying on techniques from the Natural Language Processing domain. The results of the evaluation of the experimental implementation of SEMO reveal a promising and viable platform from a technical perspective.
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Purpose – To explore the factors that affect the implementation of Internet technologies and to what extent the size of the company, as an organizational factor, influences that process. Design/methodology/approach – According to the innovation adoption theory, it was found that Internet adoption in firms is a process with different stages where a company is in one of a number of development stages depending on some variables related to organizational factors, such as the availability of technology resources, organizational structure, and managerial capabilities. The paper identified empirically different stages in the Internet adoption process and linked them with those factors. It analyzed questionnaire-based data from 280 companies, applying factor and clustering analysis. Findings – Four main groups of companies were found according to their stage in the adoption of Internet technologies. The paper established that, contrary to the literature suggestions, the size of the company does not have any effect on the availability of these Internet technologies but it does for managerial capabilities. The smaller the size of the firm, the greater the possibilities of using external advice in adopting Internet technologies, because small firms usually have fewer managerial capabilities. In the mean time, a more sophisticated technology development was identified in larger firms. Research limitations/implications – As in all empirical research, the characteristics of this study limit the applicability of the findings. First, the study concentrated in businesses that already were using Internet technologies, because they have registered their domain name. Consequently, the study firms that did not have a Spanish domain name were omitted; however, firms could have a “.com” or “.org” domain name and still be Spanish firms. Also, other companies without any domain name on the Internet were not included in the study. Second, the study applied a classification analysis with exploratory purposes about the characteristics of the business according to the cluster of pertinence. Nevertheless, a longitudinal study could be more useful explaining whether or not these companies follow the process described. Third, a more detailed questionnaire with more specific questions could be more helpful to gain a better description of the phases of a more sophisticated technology adoption (i.e. the acceptance/routinization and infusion stages). Practical implications – This paper has some relatively important managerial implications. First, the fact of having a domain name does not mean that the companies are in the acceptance/routinization phase and even less in the infusion phase. From this, the paper identified how the majority of firms were in the so-called initial stages of the Internet technologies adoption process. Second, it is possible that managers who do not perceive the strategic value of these technologies are managing the majority of these firms. Third, as more businesses implement these technologies in their processes, presumably more competitive pressure will exist to adopt Internet technologies. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the research into the organizational factors that affect Internet adoption.
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Explores the application of Web 2.0 technologies to business intranets, and their potential use in managing and developing business information and knowledge assets. Considers how Web 2.0 approaches on the public web are subtly reshaping the relationship between users and information. Argues that Web 2.0 is not a technological innovation, but is changing the understanding of the status of information, knowledge and the role of the user in information applications. Suggests that, as information proliferates, control is being gradually ceded to users, opening up the possibility of a new, more democratic, and more evaluative phase in the exploitation of information within organizations.
Article
During different time era's different methods of communications has developed and changed the day by day life. Social media has become the method of statement in the 21't century, enabling us to express our belief, ideas and manner in a absolute new way. This way of message have also have a huge impact on corporation, where they have realize that without a correct plan and social media strategy they have no chance to stand out in the rapidly changing digital freedom. To guarantee a successful attendance on social media the companies need to take different marketing theories into consideration so that they can boost their brand in different aspect. If this can be collective with original ways of consumer interaction the companies have a good chance to take the lead in social media marketing'. The meteoric growth of community websites, such as Twitter, Facebook and Linkedln, have usher the world into a new era of social media. The global reach is nothing short of marvelous, so much so that if Facebook were a country, it would be third largest, next to China and India. Some even say that this is the biggest shift since the industrial revolution, which means that the world has a brand new playing meadow At its center, social media is any kind of online media that stimulates participation, openness' conversation, Connecters and sense of community. The social media phenomenon has a profound impact. Social media has transformed research methods. This allows brands to communicate better with their consumers, and intensify their association with them. The advertising world has not been spared from social media influence. Companies are now more careful with advertising; chiefly in anticipate consumer response and avoiding unanticipated blunders to prevent a viral consumer backlash in networking sites. Social media plays a hybrid role in the promotion mix. It allows companies to talk to their clientele and, at the same time, it allows regulars to talk to one another. Shaping customers' discussions to ensure they are aligned to the organization's goals is the firm's best importance. Companies have started provided that their consumers with networking platforms, and have occupied them during blogs and other social media tools. Social media is seen by Marketers today as a great opportunity to boost market share figures. Marketers are only too happy to view the social web as a new set of channels through which to market their goods or services. Social media marketing is a hot topic for companies. It allows companies to establish a communication channel with its customers, market their products, build brand equity, and boost clientele faithfulness.However, as it is a two-way channel, it requires effort and care to manage this communication. Dissatisfied customers can protest out loud, attainment many other customers easily and damaging the brand's image. In order to avoid the risk of damaging the brand's image rather than improving it, the company should align their social media marketing with the global marketing strategy of the company. In order to do this, the business should choose the profile of people that matches its target segment and communicate with them accordingly.
Article
Software process improvement is a practical concern in software companies today and it has been addressed in research. Part of this research has applied a knowledge management perspective. Researchers point out that two different strategies exist where a mixture is difficult to maintain: Personalization focus on people and their collaboration and codification focus on documents and their accessibility. This paper addresses different knowledge management problems of a software company and how they can be alleviated. A prototype, which distinguishes between different organizational levels e.g., software managers and software developers and applies different knowledge management strategies, was built. It consists of a wiki and an enterprise system. This article shows how each part of the system focuses on one of the strategies and describes the differences for tool support. This combination could be beneficial because the connection between the two different parts of the prototype works. Further implications for practitioners are explained.
Article
This paper discusses open innovation from the viewpoint of customers and users, focusing on their new roles. The paper focuses particularly on the 'user as the innovator' approach that encourages outsourcing at least parts of innovation process to users and user communities. The 'user as the innovator' approach is based on three premises in the existing literature: users are capable and willing to innovate, communities are important entities in innovation activity and users are willing to freely reveal their ideas. The empirical material comes mainly from business-to-consumer contexts. The aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of the business-to-business context and discuss the premises in that light. Finally, the paper proposes a future research agenda in order to better understand and capitalise on the 'user as the innovator' approach in business-to-business contexts.
Article
Process oriented Knowledge Management (pKM) has been a widely discussed approach for KM initiatives. The approach ties business strategy closely to KM by connecting knowledge activities to key business processes. Social Software has been taken up in many domains as an organizational tool for managing knowledge. Up till now, the impact of being globally distributed (organizations and teams) has not been emphasized within the pKM view, nor has been the Social Software approach. The globally distributed, Social Software – supported approach has clear impacts for designing and implementing KM processes in the pKM view. Within this paper we clarify these implications with an integrated model for introducing Social Software tools for Knowledge Management and aligning those with KM as well as business processes. Our approach emphasizes on aligning the Social Software activities with KM coordination processes, knowledge-intensive business processes and knowledge activities. Our work also stresses the need to recognize and deal with KM barriers within the coordination processes in order to define and implement appropriate interventions and activities.
Book
""The social media phenomenon is still ramping up, and this book provides useful and timely business advice."-Vint Cerf, Father of the Internet" ""Social media and customer care are rapidly coming together. This Second Edition is a must-read for any professional who wants to stay on top of this rapidly changing topic. From the basics to long-term social media strategy, this is the only resource book to have on your desk."-Scott Ross, Senior Vice President, Sales and Marketing, NCO Group, Inc." ""Lon Safko and The Social Media Bible address the key questions-Why should I take part in social media? How should I take part? How do I reap the greatest benefits?-while also providing the push to take the next step."-Jeff Hagen, Director, Consumer Services, General Mills" ""Lon Safko is a serial technologist who really understands social media and is also blessed with the gift of being a great communicator. His book deftly takes you from 'Social Media 101' all the way to PhD status in a format that is easy to browse, informative, and powerful."-Tom Asher, Director, Consumer Relations, North America, Levi Strauss & Co." "The new edition of the ultimate guide to social media" "The Social Media Bible, Second Edition delivers the most comprehensive single resource available for marketing in the social media universe. Here you'll find top-to-bottom coverage of the tactics, tools, and strategies to successfully grow your business in these new media channels." "Revised and updated with user-generated feedback and content, this Second Edition features the latest techniques, platforms, technologies, people, companies, and more, enabling you to make smart moves in the social media world and get the most out of your marketing strategy. Inside this new edition, you'll discover:" "The 100-plus best companies providing software, sites, apps, gaming platforms, and more" "The five steps for developing a successful social media marketing plan" "How to win in social media whether you're a one-person company or a Fortune 500 company" "Additional online content available for book purchasers" "Interviews with 50 different experts, from Twitter inventor Biz Stone to social media marketer extraordinaire Gary "V" to senior vice presidents at YouTube, Yahoo!, Microsoft, Google, and Flickr" "How to measure social media ROI, including numerous examples from companies of all sizes"--BOOK JACKET.
Article
Previous research has established the benefits of branding for business-to-business (B2B) organizations. Various tools can be used to support B2B brands, including the internet and other interactive technologies. Yet research on how organizations use Social Networking Sites (SNS) to achieve brand objectives remains limited. This study addresses the gap by focusing on B2B SMEs and their social networking practices, particularly, usage, perceived barriers, and the measurement of effectiveness of SNS as a marketing tool. Findings from a mail survey show that over a quarter of B2B SMEs in the UK are currently using SNS to achieve brand objectives, the most popular of which is to attract new customers. On the other hand, the most significant barrier is the lack of perceived relevance for particular sectors. Notably, the overwhelming majority of users do not adopt any metrics to assess SNS effectiveness. Almost half of the sample of SMEs that currently use SNS have indicated their intention to increase their marketing spending on this channel, highlighting the growing importance of SNS in a B2B context.
Article
The use, potential and challenges of social media in innovation have received little attention in the literature, especially from the standpoint of the business-to-business sector. Therefore, this paper focuses on bridging this gap. The purpose of this paper is to study the use and potential of social media in the innovation context, especially from the perspective of business-to-business companies. The paper starts by defining of social media and Web 2.0, and then characterizes social media in business, social media in the business-to-business sector and social media in the business-to-business innovation process. The paper also studies the essential differences between business-to-consumer and business-to-business in the given respects. Finally the authors present and analyze the results of their empirical survey of 110 respondents from Finnish companies. The results suggest that there is a significant gap between the perceived extensive potential of social media and current social media use in innovation in business-to-business companies. They have also identified potentially effective ways to reduce the gap, and clarify the found differences between B2B’s and B2C’s.
Book
Getting an innovation adopted is difficult; a common problem is increasing the rate of its diffusion. Diffusion is the communication of an innovation through certain channels over time among members of a social system. It is a communication whose messages are concerned with new ideas; it is a process where participants create and share information to achieve a mutual understanding. Initial chapters of the book discuss the history of diffusion research, some major criticisms of diffusion research, and the meta-research procedures used in the book. This text is the third edition of this well-respected work. The first edition was published in 1962, and the fifth edition in 2003. The book's theoretical framework relies on the concepts of information and uncertainty. Uncertainty is the degree to which alternatives are perceived with respect to an event and the relative probabilities of these alternatives; uncertainty implies a lack of predictability and motivates an individual to seek information. A technological innovation embodies information, thus reducing uncertainty. Information affects uncertainty in a situation where a choice exists among alternatives; information about a technological innovation can be software information or innovation-evaluation information. An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or an other unit of adoption; innovation presents an individual or organization with a new alternative(s) or new means of solving problems. Whether new alternatives are superior is not precisely known by problem solvers. Thus people seek new information. Information about new ideas is exchanged through a process of convergence involving interpersonal networks. Thus, diffusion of innovations is a social process that communicates perceived information about a new idea; it produces an alteration in the structure and function of a social system, producing social consequences. Diffusion has four elements: (1) an innovation that is perceived as new, (2) communication channels, (3) time, and (4) a social system (members jointly solving to accomplish a common goal). Diffusion systems can be centralized or decentralized. The innovation-development process has five steps passing from recognition of a need, through R&D, commercialization, diffusions and adoption, to consequences. Time enters the diffusion process in three ways: (1) innovation-decision process, (2) innovativeness, and (3) rate of the innovation's adoption. The innovation-decision process is an information-seeking and information-processing activity that motivates an individual to reduce uncertainty about the (dis)advantages of the innovation. There are five steps in the process: (1) knowledge for an adoption/rejection/implementation decision; (2) persuasion to form an attitude, (3) decision, (4) implementation, and (5) confirmation (reinforcement or rejection). Innovations can also be re-invented (changed or modified) by the user. The innovation-decision period is the time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. Rates of adoption of an innovation depend on (and can be predicted by) how its characteristics are perceived in terms of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. The diffusion effect is the increasing, cumulative pressure from interpersonal networks to adopt (or reject) an innovation. Overadoption is an innovation's adoption when experts suggest its rejection. Diffusion networks convey innovation-evaluation information to decrease uncertainty about an idea's use. The heart of the diffusion process is the modeling and imitation by potential adopters of their network partners who have adopted already. Change agents influence innovation decisions in a direction deemed desirable. Opinion leadership is the degree individuals influence others' attitudes
Article
Sun Microsystems' CEO challenged his Global Employee Communications team to build communities within the company with social networking technology. Wikis, blogs, Facebook fan pages, and six islands on Second Life are just a few of Sun's new social media tools that employees use to learn, boost innovation, connect with executives and each other—and spread the good word about Sun. To achieve this quickly, the communications team collaborated across organizational boundaries, tapped grassroots social media efforts in other parts of the company, focused on a manageable number of short-term projects, and showed a willingness to experiment. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The media discussion on `information superhighway', `Internet' and `national information infrastructure (NII)' has highlighted the potential of information technology in modern society. The changes in information and communication technologies provide both opportunities and threats to small businesses located in rural communities. The objective of this study is to identify the state of use of various communications technologies and the factors that influence the adoption of these technologies in small businesses located in rural communities in the US. A research model is postulated that contains 10 independent variables under three broad categories — innovation, organizational and environmental characteristics. The dependent variable, adoption of information and communication technologies, is measured as the degree of adoption of four modern communication technologies by the organization. Data from 78 organizations were collected using a structured interview process. The results of data analysis using discriminant analysis indicate that relative advantage, top management support, organizational size, external pressure and competitive pressure are important determinants of adoption.
Article
Software process improvement is a practical concern in software companies today and it has been addressed in research. Part of this research has applied a knowledge management perspective. Researchers point out that two different strategies exist where a mixture is difficult to maintain: Personalization focus on people and their collaboration and codification focus on documents and their accessibility. This paper addresses different knowledge management problems of a software company and how they can be alleviated. A prototype, which distinguishes between different organizational levels e.g., software managers and software developers and applies different knowledge management strategies, was built. It consists of a wiki and an enterprise system. This article shows how each part of the system focuses on one of the strategies and describes the differences for tool support. This combination could be beneficial because the connection between the two different parts of the prototype works. Further implications for practitioners are explained.
Article
Recent events indicate that sharing news in social media has become a phenomenon of increasing social, economic and political importance because individuals can now participate in news production and diffusion in large global virtual communities. Yet, knowledge about factors influencing news sharing in social media remains limited. Drawing from the uses and gratifications (U&G) and social cognitive theories (SCT), this study explored the influences of information seeking, socializing, entertainment, status seeking and prior social media sharing experience on news sharing intention. A survey was designed and administered to 203 students in a large local university. Results from structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis revealed that respondents who were driven by gratifications of information seeking, socializing, and status seeking were more likely to share news in social media platforms. Prior experience with social media was also a significant determinant of news sharing intention. Implications and directions for future work are discussed.
Article
This is the era of social networking, collective intelligence, participation, collaborative creation, and borderless distribution. Every day we are bombarded with more publicity about collaborative environments, news feeds, blogs, wikis, podcasting, webcasting, folksonomies, social bookmarking, social citations, collaborative filtering, recommender systems, media sharing, massive multiplayer online games, virtual worlds, and mash-ups. This sort of anarchic environment appeals to the digital natives, but which of these so-called `Web 2.0' technologies are going to have a real business impact? This paper addresses the impact that issues such as quality control, security, privacy and bandwidth may have on the implementation of social networking in hide-bound, large organizations.
Conference Paper
Social media use, potential and challenges in innovation have received little attention in literature, especially from the standpoint of the business-to-business sector. Therefore, this paper focuses on bridging this gap with a survey of social media use, potential and challenges, combined with a social media - focused innovation literature review of state-of-the-art. The study also studies the essential differences between business-to-consumer and business-to-business in the above respects. The paper starts by defining of social media and web 2.0, and then characterizes social media in business, social media in business-to-business sector and social media in business-to-business innovation. Finally we present and analyze the results of our empirical survey of 122 Finnish companies. This paper suggests that there is a significant gap between perceived potential of social media and social media use in innovation activity in business-to-business companies, recognizes potentially effective ways to reduce the gap, and clarifies the found differences between B2B's and B2C's.
Article
Strategic market planning -- Industrial marketing -- Research for marketing decisions -- Global marketing management -- Marketing management -- Strategic marketing for nonprofit organizations -- Principles of marketing -- Services marketing -- Marketing research and knowledge development -- The strategy and tactics of pricing -- Kleppner's advertising procedure -- Marketing channels -- Legal aspects of marketing strategy -- Design and marketing of new products
Article
The safe days of walled gardens are over. People collaborate on web sites, and as a return, the action of individuals produces something new, even unexpected results. The emergence may be profitable business and provide income for firms, but it also impacts on the social relations and the lives of individuals. In this book, Katri Lietsala and Esa Sirkkunen describe the great variety of practices within the social media. They suggest some general principles how the traditional media could deal with the new situation. The authors show with the help of their case studies what motivates people to participate. The book includes also a short introduction to the Finnish social media history.
Social marketing to the business customer: Listen to your B2B market, generate major account leads, and build client relationships New Jersey: Wiley Enterprise 2.0 and social media in business
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Gillin, P., & Schwartzman, E. (2011). Social marketing to the business customer: Listen to your B2B market, generate major account leads, and build client relationships (1st ed.). New Jersey: Wiley. Growth Lab Consulting (2010). Enterprise 2.0 and social media in business. Survey 2010, Finland.
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Hinchcliffe, D., & Kim, P. (2012). Social business by design: Transformative social media strategies for the connected company. John Wiley & Sons.
Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control Englewood Cliffs, News sharing in social media: The effect of gratifications and prior experience
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Kotler, P. (1996). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control (9th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Retrieved from <http:// www.decitre.fr/pdf/feuilletage/9782744073458.pdf>. Lee, C. S., & Ma, L. (2011). News sharing in social media: The effect of gratifications and prior experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 331–339.
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The Executive's Guide to Enterprise Social Media Strategy: How Social Networks Are Radically Transforming Your Business
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The Social Media management handbook: Everything you need to know to get social media working in your business Social media utilization in business-to-business relationships of technology industry firms
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Wollan, R., & Smith, N. (2010). The Social Media management handbook: Everything you need to know to get social media working in your business. John Wiley & Sons. 8 J.J. Jussila et al. / Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2013) xxx–xxx Please cite this article in press as: Jussila, J. J., et al. Social media utilization in business-to-business relationships of technology industry firms. Computers in Human Behavior (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.07.047
Enterprise 2.0-Survey Fin´08´-kyselyä (p. 12) Retrieved from https Can You Measure the ROI of Your Social Media Marketing?
  • S Helfenstein
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Seven Guidelines for Achieving ROI from Social Media (p. 11). eMarketer. Retrieved from http://static2.social- touch.com/download/eMarketer_Social_Media_ROI Diffusión of innovations
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Ramsey, G. (2010). Seven Guidelines for Achieving ROI from Social Media (p. 11). eMarketer. Retrieved from http://static2.social- touch.com/download/eMarketer_Social_Media_ROI.pdf Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusión of innovations. Free Press.
How companies are benefiting from Web 2.0. McKinsey Quarterly
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Bughin, J., Manyika, J., & Miller, A. (2009). How companies are benefiting from Web 2.0. McKinsey Quarterly, 9, 2009. Carabiner. (2009). Social media: How B2B Companies Can Connect. Carabiner. Retrieved from http://www.carabinerpr.com/docs/pdf/Carabiner_White_Paper-Social_Media.pdf Coleman, D. (2009). Enterprise Social Collaboration Research Study. B2B Media Co. LLC.
Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control Englewood Cliffs, Social media use and potential in business-to-business companies' innovation
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Kotler, P. (1996). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control (9th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Retrieved from http://www.decitre.fr/pdf/feuilletage/9782744073458.pdf Kärkkäinen, H., Jussila, J., & Väisänen, J. (2010). Social media use and potential in business-to-business companies' innovation. In Proceedings of the 14th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp. 228–236).
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Webster, F. E. (1995). Industrial marketing strategy. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Wollan, R., & Smith, N. (2010). The Social Media Management Handbook: Everything You Need To Know To Get Social Media Working In Your Business. John Wiley & Sons.
Social Marketing to the Business Customer: Listen to Your B2B Market
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Geehan, S. (2011). The B2B Executive Playbook: How Winning B2B Companies Achieve Sustainable, Predictable, and Profitable Growth. Clerisy Press. Gillin, P., & Schwartzman, E. (2011). Social Marketing to the Business Customer: Listen to Your B2B Market, Generate Major Account Leads, and Build Client Relationships (1st ed.). New Jersey: Wiley. Growth Lab Consulting. (2010). Enterprise 2.0 and Social Media in Business (Survey 2010 -Finland).
BtoB magazine Emerging trends in B2B social marketing
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