Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy

Chapter (PDF Available) · January 2010with2302 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/9781118001851
In book: Acceptance and Mindfulness in Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Edition: 1st, Chapter: Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Publisher: Wiley, Editors: J. D. Herbert, E. Forman, pp.57-82
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) represents an enormous mental health challenge. Despite successful medication and psychotherapies, fewer than half of patients achieve remission, and relapse is more likely in individuals who do not fully recover. For these reasons, efforts are focusing on the identification of vulnerability factors associated with the onset, maintenance, and relapse of depression. Meditation and other mental training exercises deriving from Buddhist and Hindu traditions represent one potentially fruitful extension to contemporary models of depression, as well as a complement to existing medication and psychotherapy treatments. This chapter provides a contemporary theoretical account of MDD as a bio-psychosocial condition that has been enriched by mindfulness principles. In doing so, we create linkage to the traditional cognitive behavioral model, which has always viewed MDD as arising from a failure to access metacognitive skills that promote healthy emotional processing. Recent efforts to emphasize the cultivation of metacognitive awareness instead of changing cognitive content coincide with the explosion of interest in mindfulness principles and practice. This chapter reviews findings from studies that include mindfulness-enriched treatments for MDD and other emotional disorders and then frames issues facing our field given the promising start in incorporating mindfulness principles into our models.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For over 50 years, Beck's cognitive model has provided an evidence-based way to conceptualize and treat psychological disorders. The generic cognitive model represents a set of common principles that can be applied across the spectrum of psychological disorders. The updated theoretical model provides a framework for addressing significant questions regarding the phenomenology of disorders not explained in previous iterations of the original model. New additions to the theory include continuity of adaptive and maladaptive function, dual information processing, energizing of schemas, and attentional focus. The model includes a theory of modes, an organization of schemas relevant to expectancies, self-evaluations, rules, and memories. A description of the new theoretical model is followed by a presentation of the corresponding applied model, which provides a template for conceptualizing a specific disorder and formulating a case. The focus on beliefs differentiates disorders and provides a target for treatment. A variety of interventions are described. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 10 is March 20, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-compassion, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility, constructs associated with mindfulness-based interventions, have demonstrated associations with multiple aspects of psychological health. However, a very limited body of research has analyzed the relative predictive strength among mindfulness-related constructs. Regression analyses were performed to determine the common and unique variance in psychological health predicted by these constructs and to compare their relative predictive strength in a nonclinical sample of 147 undergraduate students at a Mid-Atlantic university. Consistent with previous research, self-compassion demonstrated a stronger ability than single-factor mindfulness to predict variance in psychological health. However, results were mixed when a multifaceted measure of mindfulness was considered. Self-compassion predicted greater variance than multifaceted mindfulness when prediction was based on one total score, but not when individual subscales were analyzed. Psychological inflexibility predicted greater variance than did self-compassion for negative indicators of psychological health. Results suggest that self-compassion and psychological inflexibility may demonstrate greater associations with psychological health than single scores of mindfulness and that important predictive power is lost, particularly from the nonreactivity facet, when multifaceted mindfulness is consolidated into a single score.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Mindfulness
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background This research investigated the differential ability of three components of low mindfulness to uniquely predict symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression, while controlling for psychological inflexibility, a construct conceptually related to low mindfulness. Also examined was the meditational role of several mindfulness facets in the relationship between psychological inflexibility and symptoms of each disorder. Methods Using a clinical sample (n=153) containing mostly patients with GAD or depression diagnoses, we conducted hierarchical multiple regression analyses and mediation analyses to determine unique relationships. Results Whereas deficits in adopting a non-reactive perspective exhibited incremental validity beyond psychological inflexibility in predicting symptoms of GAD, deficits in acting with awareness did so in predicting symptoms of depression. Results of mediation analyses corroborated this pattern, as the relationships psychological inflexibility exhibited with symptoms of GAD and of depression were mediated by non-reactivity and acting with awareness, respectively. Limitations The cross-sectional design of this study precludes causal interpretations of the mediation models. Conclusion Findings corroborate the following conclusions: (i) the lack of present oriented awareness experienced by individuals with symptoms of depression is not completely accounted for by psychological inflexibility nor by symptoms of GAD; (ii) the reactive approach to automatic thoughts adopted by those with symptoms of GAD is not completely accounted for by psychological inflexibility nor by symptoms of depression. These conclusions suggest that it would be profitable for mindfulness-based therapies to concentrate on these specific mindfulness deficits to ameliorate the severity of GAD and depression.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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