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Distribution of Extracellular Enzyme Producing Bacteria in the Digestive Tracts of Four Brackish water Fish Species

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Abstract: Occurrence and distribution of enzyme-producing bacteria in the proximal (PI), middle (MI), and distal (DI) segments of the gastrointestinal tracts of 4 brackish water teleosts (Scatophagus argus, Terapon jarbua, Mystus gulio, and Etroplus suratensis) have been investigated. Data were presented as log viable counts g–1 intestine (LVC). Te heterotrophic bacterial population had the highest occurrence in the DI regions of all fsh species studied except M. gulio. Proteolytic and amylolytic bacteria had the highest occurrence in the DI of M. gulio (LVC = 5.50 and 5.93, respectively), while cellulolytic and lipolytic populations exhibited highest occurrences in the DI regions of T. jarbua (LVC = 6.33) and S. argus (LVC = 5.78), respectively. Out of the 81 bacterial isolates, the most promising 3 isolates were determined through quantitative enzyme assay and studied through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for identifcation. Both the strains SA2.2 isolated from S. argus and TJ2.3 isolated from T. jarbua showed high similarity to diferent strains of Brevibacillus parabrevis, while another strain, MG4.2, isolated from M. gulio, was similar to Bacillus licheniformis. Te NCBI GenBank accession numbers of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for isolates SA2.2, TJ2.3, and MG4.2 were KF377322, KF377324, and KF377323, respectively. Te present study might ofer scope for further research to evaluate prospects for application of the gut-associated extracellular enzyme- producing bacteria in brackish water aquaculture. Key words: Brackish water fsh, gut bacteria, enzyme, Brevibacillus parabrevis
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79
http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/
Turkish Journal of
Zoology
Turk J Zool
(2014) 38: 79-88
© TÜBİTAK
doi:10.3906/zoo-1205-3
Distribution of extracellular enzyme-producing bacteria in the digestive tracts of 4
brackish water sh species
Paramita DAS
1
, Sudipta MANDAL
1
, Argha KHAN
1
, Sanjib Kumar MANNA
2
, Koushik GHOSH
1,
*
1
Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Zoology, e University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan, West Bengal, India
2
Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, West Bengal, India
* Correspondence: kghosh@zoo.buruniv.ac.in
1. Introduction
e microora within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of
marine and freshwater sh species has been widely inves-
tigated (Austin, 2002; Ghosh et al., 2010; Ray et al., 2010;
Askarian et al., 2011, 2012) e nutrient-rich GI tract of
sh is a favorable growth environment for these bacteria
(Kar et al., 2008). During the last decade, there has been an
improved understanding of the importance of commen-
sal intestinal microora in sh (Bairagi et al., 2002; Ghosh
et al., 2002a, 2010; Ringø et al., 2010; Khan and Ghosh,
2012; Mandal and Ghosh, 2013). e gut microora may
be categorized as either autochthonous (indigenous) or
allochthonous (transient) depending upon its ability to
colonize and adhere to the mucus layer in the digestive
tract (Ringø and Birkbeck, 1999; Ringø et al., 2003). e
bacterial ora within the GI tract of sh shows very broad
and variable enzymatic potential, and these enzymatic
masses may interfere positively in the digestive process of
sh (Ray et al., 2010). Fish gut bacterial isolates have been
demonstrated to break down chitin (Danulat and Kausch,
1984; MacDonald et al., 1986; Itoi et al., 2006), p-nitro-
phenyl-b-N-acetylglucosamine and protein (MacDonald
et al., 1986; Belchior and Vacca, 2006), cellulose (Saha and
Ray, 1998; Bairagi et al., 2002; Ghosh et al., 2002a, 2010;
Saha et al., 2006; Mondal et al., 2008), starch (Sugita et al.,
1997; Ghosh et al., 2002a, 2010), phytate (Li X et al., 2008,
Li XY et al., 2008; Roy et al., 2009; Khan et al., 2011; Khan
and Ghosh, 2012, 2013), and tannin (Mandal and Ghosh,
2013). Previous studies conducted in the carps advocated
the benecial aspects of gut-associated microbiota in the
host sh with regard to nutrition (Ghosh et al., 2002a,
2002b, 2003; Ray et al., 2010). Meanwhile, information on
the enzyme-producing gut bacteria in the brackish water
sh species is scanty (Rani et al., 2004; Sivasubramanian
et al., 2012). In this context, the search for extracellular
enzyme-producing benecial gut bacteria to be used as
probiotics for the culturable brackish water sh species
may be of interest.
Abstract: Occurrence and distribution of enzyme-producing bacteria in the proximal (PI), middle (MI), and distal (DI) segments of
the gastrointestinal tracts of 4 brackish water teleosts (Scatophagus argus, Terapon jarbua, Mystus gulio, and Etroplus suratensis) have
been investigated. Data were presented as log viable counts g
–1
intestine (LVC). e heterotrophic bacterial population had the highest
occurrence in the DI regions of all sh species studied except M. gulio. Proteolytic and amylolytic bacteria had the highest occurrence
in the DI of M. gulio (LVC = 5.50 and 5.93, respectively), while cellulolytic and lipolytic populations exhibited highest occurrences in
the DI regions of T. jarbua (LVC = 6.33) and S. argus (LVC = 5.78), respectively. Out of the 81 bacterial isolates, the most promising 3
isolates were determined through quantitative enzyme assay and studied through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for identication.
Both the strains SA2.2 isolated from S. argus and TJ2.3 isolated from T. jarbua showed high similarity to dierent strains of Brevibacillus
parabrevis, while another strain, MG4.2, isolated from M. gulio, was similar to Bacillus licheniformis. e NCBI GenBank accession
numbers of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for isolates SA2.2, TJ2.3, and MG4.2 were KF377322, KF377324, and KF377323, respectively.
e present study might oer scope for further research to evaluate prospects for application of the gut-associated extracellular enzyme-
producing bacteria in brackish water aquaculture.
Key words: Brackish water sh, gut bacteria, enzyme, Brevibacillus parabrevis
Received: 03.05.2012
Accepted: 21.08.2013 Published Online: 01.01.2014 Printed: 15.01.2014
Research Article
80
DAS et al. / Turk J Zool
erefore, the primary objective of the present study
was to detect the autochthonous extracellular enzyme-
producing bacteria from the proximal (PI), middle (MI),
and distal (DI) segments of the GI tracts of 4 culturable
brackish water teleosts. Furthermore, the study was
intended to evaluate the gut bacterias ability for protease,
amylase, cellulase, and lipase production, and to identify
the most promising bacterial strains by 16S rRNA gene
sequence analysis.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Fish species examined
Four brackish water sh species, Scatophagus argus,
Mystus gulio, Terapon jarbua, and Etroplus suratensis,
were collected from 3 brackish water culture ponds of the
Fish Technological Station, Junput, West Bengal, India
(21°43.232N, 87°48.884E) and brought to the laboratory
in oxygen-packed plastic bags. Physicochemical
parameters of the collection ponds ranged between pH
8.1 and 8.4, with water temperature of 29.8–31.4 °C and
salinity of 16–18 ppt. Feeding habits, average live weight,
average sh length, and average gut weight of the shes
examined are presented in Table 1.
2.2. Processing of specimens
Nine specimens of each species collected from 3 ponds
(3 from each pond) were evaluated for the present study.
e shes were starved for 48 h to empty the GI tracts
(Ray et al., 2010). Aer starvation, sh were anesthetized
with 0.03% tricaine methane-sulfonate (MS222), and the
ventral surface of each sh was thoroughly scrubbed with
1% iodine solution for surface decontamination (Trust
and Sparrow, 1974). e shes were dissected aseptically
within a laminar airow and their alimentary tracts
were removed. Gut samples were processed for isolation
of adherent (autochthonous) bacteria as described by
Ringø (1993), with minor modication. e GI tracts
were divided into proximal (PI), middle (MI), and distal
(DI) segments, cut into pieces, and ushed carefully 3
times with 0.9% sterile saline solution using an injection
syringe in order to remove nonadherent (allochthonous)
microora, according to Ghosh et al. (2010). Gut segments
from the 3 specimens of a species collected from the same
pond were pooled together region-wise for each replicate,
and thus there were 3 replicates for each gut segment from
each sh species. e gut segments were homogenized
with 10 parts of sterilized, prechilled 0.9% NaCl solution,
as described elsewhere (Das and Tripathi, 1991). Pooled
samples were used to avoid erroneous conclusions due
to individual variations in gut microora, as described
elsewhere (Ghosh et al., 2010).
2.3. Microbial culture
Homogenized samples of each gut segment were used
separately aer appropriate serial (1:10) dilutions (Beveridge
et al., 1991). Diluted samples (0.1 mL) were poured
aseptically within a laminar airow onto sterilized tryptone
soy agar (TSA, HiMedia, India) plates to determine the
culturable heterotrophic autochthonous aerobic/facultative
anaerobic microbial population. For determination of
protease-, cellulase-, amylase-, and lipase-producing
bacterial populations, diluted samples (0.1 mL) were poured
onto peptone gelatin agar (PG), carboxymethylcellulose
agar (CMC), starch agar (SA), and tributyrin agar (TA)
plates, respectively. e culture plates were incubated at
30 °C for 48 h. e colony-forming units (CFUs) per unit
sample volume of gut homogenate were determined by
multiplying the number of colonies formed on each plate by
the reciprocal dilution (Rahmatullah and Beveridge, 1993),
and the data were presented as log viable counts g
–1
intestine
(LVC). Colonies with apparently dierent morphological
appearances (such as color, conguration, surface, margin,
and opacity) from a single plate were streaked separately on
respective plates to obtain pure cultures.
Table 1. Food habits, average live weight, average sh length (standard length), and average gut weight of the shes examined.
Fish species Feeding habit
Average live
weight (g)
Average sh
length (cm)
Average gut
weight (g)
Scatophagus argus
Omnivorous; feeds on shes, insects, algae,
and sand-dwelling invertebrates
53.87 ± 4.92 13.76 ± 0.56 3.02 ± 0.2
Terapon jarbua
mnivorous; feeds on worms, crustaceans,
insects, and plant matter
46.5 ± 3.56 14.2 ± 0.81 1.7 ± 0.14
Mystus gulio Carnivorous 24.2 ± 1.94 11.92 ± 0.45 1.22 ± 0.17
Etroplus suratensis
Omnivorous; feeds on lamentous algae, plant
material, and insects
33.46 ± 1.4 11.99 ± 0.28 0.53 ± 0.03
Results are mean ± SD of the 3 observations.
81
DAS et al. / Turk J Zool
2.4. Screening of isolates by qualitative assay for
exoenzyme production
Out of the 81 extracellular enzyme-producing isolates
from the sh species examined, 21 isolates were primarily
selected (on the basis of growth potential at 30 °C) for
qualitative enzyme assay. For extracellular amylase
production, isolates were inoculated on SA plates and
incubated at 30 °C for 48 h. e culture plates were ooded
with 1% Lugols iodine solution to identify amylase activity
by the formation of a transparent zone (halo) surrounding
the colony (Jacob and Gerstein, 1960). Similarly, for
extracellular protease, the isolates inoculated on PG plates
were incubated at 30 °C for 48 h; the appearance of a
halo aer ooding the plates with 15% HgCl
2
indicated
the presence of proteolytic activity (Jacob and Gerstein,
1960). For determination of cellulase production, isolates
grown on CMC plates at 30 °C for 48 h were ooded
with Congo red dye prepared with 0.7% agarose (Teather
and Wood, 1982). Congo red selectively binds with
unhydrolyzed CMC. Appearance of a halo due to the
presence of hydrolyzed CMC surrounding the bacterial
colony indicated cellulase production in the medium.
Lipase producers showed a halo surrounding their colony
in 1% tributyrin plates (Sangiliyandi and Gunasekaran,
1996). ere were 3 replicates for each experimental set.
Qualitative extracellular enzyme activity was assessed
based on the measurement of the halo zone (diameter in
mm) around the colony and presented as scores, as follows:
0 (0–5 mm), 1 (low, 6–10 mm), 2 (moderate, 11–15 mm), 3
(good, 16–20 mm), 4 (high, 21–25 mm), and 5 (very high,
>25 mm).
2.5. Quantitative enzyme assay
On the basis of the qualitative assay, 10 extracellular
enzyme-producing isolates were selected for quantitative
assay using broth culture to screen the promising isolates.
Quantitative assay for the production of amylase, cellulase,
protease, and lipase were performed following the methods
described by Bernfeld (1955), Denison and Koehn (1977),
Walter (1984), and Bier (1955), respectively. A detailed
description for measurement of extracellular enzyme
production and quantitative enzyme assay has been
mentioned elsewhere (Bairagi et al., 2002). Quantitative
enzyme activities were expressed as units (U).
2.6. Identication of isolates by 16S rRNA gene sequence
analysis
e most promising 3 of the extracellular enzyme-
producing isolates were investigated by means of their
quantitative enzyme assays (amylase, cellulase, protease,
and lipase) in addition to their 16S rRNA partial gene
sequence analysis for identication. e gene encoding
16S rRNA was amplied from the isolates by polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) using universal primers 27f
(5´-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3´) and 1492r
(5´-GGTTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3´). e PCR
reactions were performed using PCR mix containing 200
µM of deoxynucleotides (dNTPs), 0.2 µM of each primer,
2.5 mM MgCl
2
, 1X PCR buer, and 0.2 U of Taq DNA
polymerase (Invitrogen). e template DNA was obtained
by extracting genomic DNA using the GenElute Bacterial
Genomic DNA Kit (Sigma-Aldrich) from a fresh colony
grown on a nutrient agar slant. e following cycle was
used for PCR reaction: initial denaturation at 95 °C for 3
min, followed by 35 cycles at 95 °C for 1 min, annealing at
55 °C for 1 min, and extension at 72 °C for 2 min, and a nal
extension at 72 °C for 3 min (Lane, 1991). PCR products
were sent to a commercial house for Sanger sequencing
using an automated DNA sequencer (Applied Biosystems
Ltd.). Sequenced data were aligned and analyzed for nding
the closest homolog of the microbes using a combination
of NCBI GenBank and RDP databases. e phylogenetic
tree was constructed incorporating 16S rRNA partial
gene sequences of isolates SA2.2, TJ2.3, and MG4.2 and
their phylogenetically closest type strains using MEGA
5.2 soware following the minimum evolution method.
Partial sequences of 16S rRNA from the 3 selected isolates
were deposited in the NCBI GenBank database to obtain
accession numbers.
2.7. Media composition
TSA medium contained (g L
–1
): pancreatic digest of casein,
15; papaic digest of soybean meal, 5; NaCl, 5; agar, 15; pH of
7.5. PG medium contained (g L
–1
): beef extract, 3; peptone,
5; gelatin, 4; agar, 20; pH of 7.5. CMC medium contained
(g L
–1
): beef extract, 5; peptone, 5; NaCl, 5; carboxymeth-
ylcellulose, 2; agar, 20; pH of 7.5. SA medium contained (g
L
–1
): beef extract, 5; peptone, 5; NaCl, 5; starch (soluble), 2;
agar, 20; pH of 7. TA medium contained (g L
–1
): tributyrin-
agar, 10; peptone, 5; agar, 15; pH of 7.5.
2.8. Statistical analysis
Data pertaining to specic extracellular enzyme production
by the selected isolates were subjected to analysis of
variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s test following Zar
(1974) using SPSS 10 (Kinear and Gray, 2000).
3. Results
Heterotrophic as well as protease-, cellulase-, amylase-,
and lipase-producing bacterial populations present in
the PI, MI, and DI segments of the GI tracts of all the
sh species examined are presented in Table 2. Analysis
of the bacterial populations in the GI tracts of 4 brackish
water sh revealed that the heterotrophic population
on TSA plates diered among dierent sh species as
well as among dierent regions of the gut. e bacterial
population on TSA plate was highest in the DI region of
M. gulio (LVC = 7.49 g
–1
intestine), followed by T. jarbua
(LVC = 7.48 g
–1
intestine), while it was lowest in the PI
82
DAS et al. / Turk J Zool
region of M. gulio (LVC = 6.38 g
–1
intestine). e highest
amylolytic bacterial population was detected in the DI
region of M. gulio (LVC = 5.93 g
–1
intestine), followed by
S. argus (LVC = 5.73 g
–1
intestine); it was lowest in the PI
region of E. suratensis (LVC = 4.87 g
–1
intestine). Cellulase-
producing bacteria showed the highest concentration
in the DI region of T. jarbua (LVC = 6.33 g
–1
intestine),
followed by S. argus (LVC = 6.06 g
–1
intestine), while it
was lowest in the PI region of E. suratensis (LVC = 4.83
g
–1
intestine). Proteolytic bacterial population showed the
highest concentration in the DI region of M. gulio (LVC =
5.50 g
–1
intestine), followed by T. jarbua (LVC = 5.41 g
–1
intestine); the lowest concentration was in the PI region
of S. argus (LVC = 4.69 g
–1
intestine). Lipolytic bacteria
rates were highest in the DI region of S. argus (LVC =
5.78 g
–1
intestine), followed by the MI region of the same
species (LVC = 5.76 g
–1
intestine). Altogether, 21 enzyme-
producing bacterial isolates were primarily selected from
dierent sh species, and extracellular enzyme production
by the bacterial isolates was assayed qualitatively.
Qualitative extracellular enzyme activities were presented
as scores (Table 3), maximum and minimum scores being
18 and 2, respectively. Based on the qualitative assay, 10
bacterial isolates were selected for the quantitative enzyme
assay. Results of the quantitative enzyme assay revealed
signicant dierences in the enzyme activities among
dierent bacterial isolates (Table 4). Maximum amylase
and cellulase activities were recorded in SA2.2 isolated
from the DI of S. argus (44.03 ± 0.43 U and 13.12 ± 0.23 U,
respectively). Protease activity was highest in TJ2.3 isolated
from the DI of T. jarbua (26.89 ± 0.28 U), while the best
lipase activity was noticed in MG4.2 isolated from the DI
of M. gulio (11.1 ± 0.31 U). Considering all 4 enzymatic
activities, isolates SA2.2, TJ2.3, and MG4.2 were found
to have the most potential among the 10 selected isolates.
Based on the nucleotide homology and phylogenetic
analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, isolates SA2.2
and TJ2.3 were both identied as Brevibacillus parabrevis
(GenBank Accession Nos. KF377322 and KF377324). e
isolate SA2.2 showed 100% similarity with B. parabrevis
HDYM-18 (EF428244), while isolate TJ2.3 showed 99%
similarity with B. parabrevis M3 (AB215101). us,
SA2.2 and TJ2.3 were 2 dierent strains of B. parabrevis.
e isolate MG4.2 was identied as Bacillus licheniformis
Table 2. Log viable counts (LVC) of autochthonous adherent bacteria isolated from the proximal (PI), middle (MI), and distal (DI)
segments of the GI tracts of the sh species examined.
LVC g
–1
intestine
Fish species
Bacterial count in
TSA plate
Amylolytic
bacteria
Cellulolytic
bacteria
Proteolytic
bacteria
Lipolytic
bacteria
Scatophagus argus
PI 6.93 4.92 5.06 4.69 5.58
MI 7.11 5.61 5.84 4.99 5.76
DI 7.29 5.73 6.06 5.12 5.78
Terapon jarbua
PI 6.98 5.33 5.18 4.85 5.09
MI 7.28 5.50 5.92 5.20 5.43
DI 7.48 5.62 6.33 5.41 5.55
Mystus gulio
PI 6.38 5.61 5.69 5.05 5.31
MI 7.09 5.66 5.29 5.27 5.35
DI 7.49 5.93 4.93 5.50 5.50
Etroplus suratensis
PI 6.78 4.87 4.83 4.74 4.96
MI 6.92 4.93 4.85 4.89 5.08
DI 7.25 4.94 4.99 5.08 5.23
83
DAS et al. / Turk J Zool
(GenBank Accession No. KF377323). It showed 100%
similarity with B. licheniformis GLU 113 (FN678352). It
appeared from the phylogenetic tree that strains SA2.2
and TJ2.3 were closest to the B. parabrevis type strain
(AB112714) and were grouped together, whereas MG4.2
was distantly placed with B. licheniformis (Figure).
4. Discussion
Diverse microbial communities in the GI tracts of
freshwater or marine carnivorous, herbivorous, and
omnivorous sh species have been reported abundantly
(for review, see Ray et al., 2012). However, the
endosymbiotic community among the brackish water
sh species has remained poorly investigated (Esakkiraj
et al., 2009). Digestive tracts of endotherms are colonized
mainly by obligate anaerobes (Finegold et al., 1983),
while the predominant bacterial genera isolated from
most sh guts have been aerobes or facultative anaerobes
(Trust and Sparrow, 1974; Horsley, 1977; Sakata, 1990;
Bairagi et al., 2002; Ghosh et al., 2002a). In the present
investigation, aerobic/facultative anaerobic extracellular
enzyme-producing bacterial symbionts were detected in
the GI tracts of 4 brackish water sh species. As the sh
were starved for 48 h and their GI tracts were thoroughly
Table 3. Qualitative extracellular enzyme activity of some bacterial strains isolated from the GI tracts of the sh species examined.
Enzyme activities were presented as scores as described in the text.
Fish species
Bacterial
strains
Enzyme activity (scores)*
Total score
Isolated from Amylase
1
Cellulase
2
Protease
3
Lipase
4
Terapon jarbua
TJ3.1 PI 0 2 0 0 02
TJ1.2 MI 2 2 3 2 09
TJ1.1 DI 4 3 3 2 12
TJ2.3 DI 5 4 5 4 18
TJ4.1 DI 4 3 4 4 15
Scatophagus argus
SA3.1 PI 0 4 3 2 09
SA1.1 MI 4 3 3 4 14
SA3.2 MI 0 2 3 3 08
SA2.2 DI 5 4 5 3 17
SA1.2 DI 5 3 3 2 13
SA2.1 DI 3 2 3 2 10
SA4.3 DI 0 4 3 2 09
Mystus
gulio
MG3.1 PI 0 2 0 4 06
MG4.1 MI 4 2 4 3 13
MG1.1 MI 0 3 4 2 09
MG4.2 DI 5 3 5 5 18
MG1.2 DI 4 2 3 2 11
Etroplus suratensis
ES3.1 PI 0 2 4 2 08
ES1.2 MI 0 2 4 0 06
ES2.1 DI 3 3 4 0 10
ES4.3 DI 2 2 4 0 08
*: With pure culture of bacterial isolates.
1
On starch (SA) plate;
2
on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) plate;
3
on gelatin-peptone (GP) plate;
4
on tributyrin-agar (TA) plate.
84
DAS et al. / Turk J Zool
Table 4. Prole of specic enzyme activities (mean ± SE) in the selected isolates from the GI tracts of the sh species
examined.
Bacterial
strain
Enzyme activity (U)
Amylase* Cellulase
$
Protease
#
Lipase
@
MG4.1 26.82 ± 0.34
c
7.42 ± 0.24
a
20.31 ± 0.28
e
8.20 ± 0.27
c
SA2.2 44.03 ± 0.43
e
13.12 ± 0.23
d
20.95 ± 0.20
e
8.45 ± 0.51
c
TJ2.3 42.25 ± 0.70
e
11.76 ± 0.16
c
26.89 ± 0.28
g
8.79 ± 0.38
d
TJ4.1 34.19 ± 0.51
d
12.59 ± 0.16
d
22.87 ± 0.20
f
7.56 ± 0.52
b
MG4.2 36.98 ± 0.72
d
10.03 ± 0.13
b
11.78 ± 0.12
a
11.1 ± 0.31
e
TJ1.1 30.22 ± 0.69
c
10.80 ± 0.38
c
12.31 ± 0.32
b
5.66 ± 0.60
a
SA1.1 22.13 ± 0.08
b
9.95 ± 0.32
b
12.43 ± 0.27
b
7.78 ± 0.25
b
SA1.2 31.98 ± 0.16
c
9.1 ± 0.13
a
13.43 ± 0.38
c
5.82 ± 0.27
a
MG1.2 22.43 ± 0.12
b
9.61 ± 0.62
b
18.17 ± 0.43
d
8.92 ± 0.22
d
ES2.1 17.43 ± 0.27
a
8.41± 0.54
a
19.91 ± 0.33
d
Nil
Data are means ± SE of 3 determinations. Values with the same superscripts in the same vertical column are not
signicantly dierent (P < 0.05).
*:
1 unit (U) = 1 µg maltose liberated mL
–1
of enzyme-extract min
–1
#
: 1 unit (U) = 1 µg tyrosine liberated mL
–1
of enzyme-extract min
–1
$
: 1 unit (U) = 1 µg glucose liberated mL
–1
of enzyme-extract min
–1
@
: 1 unit (U) = 1 µmol fatty acid liberated mL
–1
of enzyme-extract min
–1
Bacillus subtilis JQ424889
Bacillus mojavensis AB021191
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AB325583
Bacillus atrophaeus AB363731
Bacillus licheniformis MG4.2 KF377323
Bacillus licheniformis
NR074923.1
Bacillus aerius AJ831843
Brevibacillus brevis AB101593
Brevibacillus choshinensis AB112713
Brevibacillus agri AB112716
Brevibacillus parabrevis AB112714
Brevibacillus parabrevis SA2.2 KF377322
Brevibacillus parabrevis TJ2.3 KF377324
Alicyclobacillus pohliae AJ564766
9
9
78
68
51
10
0
88
10
0
10
0
9
8
43
10
0
0.02
Figure. e phylogenetic tree showing the relationship among Brevibacillus parabrevis
strains SA2.2 and TJ2.3, Bacillus licheniformis MG4.2, and their phylogenetically
closest type strains. e GenBank accession numbers of the type strains and studied
strains are shown following species names. Distance matrix was calculated by Kimuras
2-parameter model. e scale bar indicates 0.02 substitutions per nucleotide position.
Alicyclobacillus pohliae AJ564766 served as an out-group.
85
DAS et al. / Turk J Zool
washed with sterile, chilled 0.9% saline prior to isolation
of microora, it may be suggested that the microorganisms
isolated in the present study belong to the autochthonous
adherent microora, as suggested elsewhere (Ghosh et
al., 2010). e rate of microora present within the GI
tract of sh is much higher than that of the surrounding
water, indicating that the GI tract of sh provides favorable
ecological niches for these microorganisms (Mondal et
al., 2008). However, isolation and identication alone
might not give a realistic depiction of the gut microora
in dierent regions of the GI tract with an appraisal of
their likely function (Khan and Ghosh, 2012). erefore, it
was considered legitimate in the present study to quantify
heterotrophic bacteria along with specic extracellular
enzyme-producing bacteria in dierent regions of
the GI tracts in the sh species studied, as the major
endeavor in the present study was to gather information
on extracellular enzyme-producing gut bacteria in some
brackish water shes.
In the present study, gut bacteria were isolated by
conventional culture-based methods. It is generally argued
that culture-dependent techniques are time-consuming,
lack accuracy (Ase et al., 2003), and do not represent a
correct picture of the bacterial diversity in the sh gut,
even if several dierent media are used (Ray et al., 2010).
However, the use of a culture-based technique employing
a specic substrate containing selective media is justiable,
as the major aim of the present study was to detect dierent
extracellular enzyme-producing gut bacteria. Besides, in
the present study, conventional methods in combination
with 16S rRNA analysis have been employed to identify
the potent enzyme-producing gut isolates, as suggested
elsewhere (Ghosh et al., 2010; Mondal et al., 2010; Ray et
al., 2010).
Proper information regarding the relative importance
of exogenous enzymes produced by the endosymbionts
of the GI tract and digestive enzymes produced by the
host is essential for understanding the contribution
of endosymbionts in digestion (Clements, 1997). In
the present investigation, all the sh species examined
exhibited considerable amylolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic,
and lipolytic bacterial populations (Table 2). is can be
correlated with their feeding habits. Being omnivore sh
species, the occurrence of protease-, amylase-, cellulase-,
and lipase-producing bacterial populations in the digestive
tracts of S. argus, T. jarbua, and E. suratensis is justied.
e occurrence of proteolytic, cellulolytic, and amylolytic
bacteria in the gut has been suggested as an omnivorous
feeding aptitude of the sh by Creach (1963) and Ghosh
et al. (2002a, 2010). Previously, Bairagi et al. (2002)
failed to detect cellulolytic bacteria in the GI tracts of
carnivorous catsh and murrels; however, the results of the
present investigation showed the presence of cellulolytic
bacteria in carnivorous M. gulio. Stickney and Shumway
(1974) opined that omnivores and carnivores might
pick up cellulolytic ora from invertebrates that harbor
the bacteria, which might explain the presence of the
cellulolytic bacteria within the GI tract of M. gulio in the
present study. e present study indicated that cellulolytic
bacteria exist in the GI tracts of all the brackish water
sh species studied, which supports the hypothesis that
bacteria might contribute to the degradation of cellulose
in sh (Ray et al., 2010). e presence of a huge population
of cellulolytic bacteria and their vital role in extracellular
cellulase production in sh has been documented in
several investigations (Das and Tripathi, 1991; Saha and
Ray, 1998; Bairagi et al., 2002; Saha et al., 2006; Mondal
et al., 2008; Mondal et al., 2010). In their previous study
with carp, Shcherbina and Kazlawlene (1971) suggested
that cellulose absorption takes place in the DI, which may
indicate the presence of microbial cellulase in this region.
Our observation is in accordance with this hypothesis as
most cellulase-producing bacteria were recorded in the DI
of all sh species studied except in M. gulio, which was
supposed to be a carnivorous sh. Furthermore, it may be
mentioned that except for cellulolytic bacteria in M. gulio,
the heterotrophic microbial population was observed to be
highest in the DI regions of all the sh species studied when
compared to the PI and MI regions, which is in harmony
with previous reports (Mondal et al., 2008; Ghosh et al.,
2010; Ray et al., 2010).
e assay of extracellular enzyme production showed
the highest values for amylase and cellulase production in
SA2.2 isolated from the DI of S. argus. However, protease
and lipase productions were highest in TJ2.3 isolated
from the DI of T. jarbua and MG4.2 isolated from DI
of M. gulio, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative
determination of extracellular enzyme production
exhibited poor performance by the isolates from E.
suratensis when compared with the isolates from the other
shes studied. In the present study, the 2 ecient enzyme-
producing strains (SA2.2 and TJ2.3) were established
through quantitative enzyme assay and identied as
Brevibacillus parabrevis based on 16S rRNA sequence
analysis. Although both promising isolates belonged to B.
parabrevis, the strain SA2.2 isolated from DI of S. argus
showed the most similarity to B. parabrevis HDYM-18
(EF428244) (Ping and Ge, 2007; unpublished data), while
strain TJ2.3 isolated from DI of T. jarbua showed closeness
to B. parabrevis M3 (AB215101) (Suzuki et al., 2005;
unpublished data). Another strain, MG4.2, isolated from
the DI of M. gulio, showed 16S rRNA sequence similarity
to B. licheniformis GLU 113 (FN678352) (Shariati, 2010;
unpublished data). Diverse strains of extracellular enzyme-
producing bacteria have been identied from the GI tracts
of freshwater and marine shes (for review, see Ray et
86
DAS et al. / Turk J Zool
al., 2012). e occurrence of B. licheniformis within the
gut of freshwater shes has been reported previously by
several authors (Mondal et al., 2010; Dan and Ray, 2013).
However, to the authors’ knowledge, extracellular enzyme-
producing Brevibacillus sp. has not been reported from
sh gut previously. In addition, reports on gut-inhabiting
extracellular enzyme-producing bacteria from brackish
water sh species are scanty (De et al., 2012).
An extensive range of enzymes produced by GI bacteria
could be a contributing source of digestive enzymes in
sh (Ray et al., 2012). Characterization of the microbial
populations in the intestinal microenvironment of sh, and
understanding of the physiological interactions between the
indigenous microora and the host, might have important
implications (Silva et al., 2005). Enzymes produced by
intestinal sh microora might have a signicant role in
digestion, mainly for substrates such as cellulose, which
few animals can digest, and also for other substrates
(Smith, 1989). Luczkovich and Stellwag (1993) opined that
the GI microora of pinsh (Lagodon rhomboides) might
contribute to the breakdown of plant material. Kar et al.
(2008) indicated that the enzyme-producing gut bacteria
are able to utilize carbohydrates such as mannose, xylose,
ranose, cellobiose, and cellulose. ese substances are
mainly found in plant foodstus. erefore, cellulase and
amylase activities by the gut bacteria might indicate their
ability to aid in the digestion of plant foodstus. e use
of benecial bacteria as probiotics has a long tradition in
animal husbandry (Stavric and Kornegay, 1995). Benecial
bacteria could be introduced in commercial aquaculture
by incorporating them into formulated sh diets, or in the
form of bacteria biolm to achieve colonization in the GI
tract to a higher degree (Bairagi et al., 2002, 2004; Ghosh
et al., 2002b, 2003, 2004a, 2004b; Ramachandran et al.,
2005; Ramachandran and Ray, 2007; Askarian et al., 2011;
Saha and Ray, 2011). It has been suggested that benecial
gut bacteria are continuously competing with pathogens
through competitive exclusion (Ray et al., 2012). ese
topics could be addressed in upcoming studies. Whether
the gut bacteria can contribute to the hosts nutrition has
not been elucidated in the present study. Assessment of
the role of the enzyme-producing gut bacteria in brackish
water sh culture should therefore be given high priority
in future studies.
Acknowledgments
e authors are grateful to the Head of the Department
of Zoology, e University of Burdwan, West Bengal,
India; the Department of Science and Technology (FIST
Programme), New Delhi, India; and the University Grants
Commission (Special Assistance Programme), New
Delhi, India, for providing research facilities and nancial
support. e authors are obliged to Nilanjan Maitra for
rendering help in the analyses of sequenced data.
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... Kim and Kim (2013) displayed culturable autochthonous exoenzyme-producing B. licheniformis in the DI of farmed olive flounder. A strain of B. licheniformis was isolated from the mid-instetine (MI) of long whiskers catfish (Mystus gulio) by Das et al. (2014), and dispalyed exo-enzyme activities. Three studies, isolated B. licheniformis from the gut of mrigal , intestine of rohu (Mukherjee et al., 2017) and the PI of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) , and revealed pathogen inhibitionand potential probiotic characteristics. ...
... In fact, a wide range of enzymes, viz., carbohydrases, phosphatases, esterases, lipases, and peptidases produced by gut bacteria might contribute to the digestive processes in fish . Extensive studies on Indian major carps (e.g., Ray et al., 2012;Mandal and Ghosh, 2013;Das and Ghosh, 2014;Dutta et al., 2015;Dutta and Ghosh, 2015;Mukherjee et al., 2017) and other teleosts (e.g., Cahil, 1990;Ringø et al., 1995Ringø et al., , 2010Llewellyn et al., 2014;Al-Hisnawi et al., 2015;Hoseinifar et al., 2016;Ringø and Song, 2016) have indicated the presence of autochthonous gut-associated microorganisms in fish and their beneficial attributes in nutrition. The enzymes of nutritional importance produced by the gut bacteria may be categorized into (1) digestive enzymes, for example, protease, amylase, lipase, etc., and (2) degradation enzymes, for example, non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) -degrading enzymes, phytase, tannase, and chitinase. ...
... Although reports on specific lipase-producing bacilli from fish gut are scarce, some of the studies describing amylase, protease or cellulase-producing bacilli within fish gut also addressed lipolytic activity. Thus, lipase-producing bacilli were detected in the guts of Indian major carps (Dutta and Ghosh, 2015;Dutta et al., 2015;, Mukherjee et al., 2017; Atlantic salmon (Askarian et al., 2012); brackish water fishes, crescent perch and wishers catfish (Das et al. 2014), catfishes (Dey et al. 2016;Nandi et al., 2017a), and Nile tilapia ). ...
Article
Species of Bacillus are spore-forming bacteria that are resistant to aggressive physical and chemical conditions, with various species showing unusual physiological features enabling them to survive in various environmental conditions including fresh waters, marine sediments, desert sands, hot springs, Arctic soils and the gastrointestinal tract of finfish and shellfish. They are able to rapidly replicate and tolerate a multitude of environmental conditions, giving a wide range of beneficial effects in the aquaculture sector. Application of Bacillus spp. as probiotics in feed or for bioremediation of aquaculture rearing water have great potential for sustainable aquaculture. Species of Bacillus may play a desirable role in removing waste products from aquaculture environments, maintaining optimum water quality and reducing stress, which can lead to an improved immuno-physiological balance, better growth and enhanced survival in target aquatic animals. Application of probiotic Bacillus spp. can enhance growth and immune function of aquatic organisms. Probiotic Bacillus can also assist in maintaining a higher density of beneficial bacteria and a lower load of pathogenic agents in aquaculture ponds. Much is still unknown, however, about how the probiotic efficacy of specific Bacillus species is affected by different aquatic animal species, age and growth condition, water quality and diet. Also, the details of mode of actions of Bacillus spp. on the immune-physiological functions of aquatic organisms as well as their functions as bioremediators of water quality need further studies. This review addresses the presence of Bacillus spp. in the gastrointestinal tract of finfish and shellfish, their ability to produce enzymes and antibacterial compounds, and their efficacy and potency as probiotics in aquaculture.
... Pathogen inhibitory property of the GI tract microbiota in diverse fish species has also been recognized (Verschuere et al. 2000). Beneficial effects of the extracellular enzymeproducing microorganisms isolated from fish gut have been widely documented in several previous occasions (Ray et al. 2012, Ganguly and Prasad 2012, Das et al. 2014. Therefore, there is an increasing thrust for screening and selection of useful indigenous intestinal bacteria from the host species to ensure viability and desired benefits. ...
... Following water quality parameters of the FRP tanks were recorded during starvation period using Multi-Parameter PCSTestr TM 35 (Eutech Instruments, Oakton) for temperature 30.3-32.2 °C and pH 7.3-7.5, and using Traceable DO Meter (Fischer Scientific, Model No. 0666266) for dissolved oxygen 6.0-7.1 mgL -1 . Three specimens obtained from different muddy water bodies were kept in separate tanks (45 L) on the basis of their sources and starved for 48 hr in order to empty their digestive tract before dissection (Das et al. 2014). ...
... Qualitative extracellular enzyme activity was evaluated on the basis of the dimension of the halo zone (diameter in mm, in excess of the colony diameter) around the colony (Table 2) and presented as scores (Das et al. 2014) as follows: 0, nil (no halo); 1, low (6-10 mm halo); 2, moderate (11-20 mm halo); 3, good (21-30 mm halo); 4, high (31-39 mm halo); 5, very high (≥ 40 mm halo). ...
... The activity of the protease, cellulase, lipase and amylase of the isolates were qualitatively determined in an enzyme specific agar medium 16 .Bacterial isolates extracellular protease, lipase, cellulase and amylase secretion were determined using gelatin peptone agar, tributyrin agar, carboxymethylcellulose agar and starch agar respectively. Enzyme activity of the isolates is expressed by the formation of the clearing or halo zone around the bacterial colony. ...
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Isolation and characterization of bacteria in food products are important to determine and distinguish the beneficial or harmful effects of microbiota in certain samples. Lactic acid bacteria in foods had long been associated with good factors as food preservatives and with added fermentation metabolites. This study isolated and characterized lactic acid bacteria from burong bangus. The culture and purification process of bacteria isolation resulted in 4 strains of lactic acid bacteria namely Enterococcus faecalis, Tetragenococcus muriaticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subp. delbrueckii and Carnobacterium divergens. High enzymatic activity was observed with E. faecalis particularly on lipase and protease assay. While C. divergens have no enzymatic activity against lipase, protease, amylase and cellulase. The antimicrobial property of L. delbrueckii is only susceptible to amoxicillin unlike the other three bacteria isolates. No antagonistic activities observed with the four bacterial strains against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The result of this study showed promising benefits to the food industry especially in developing countries like the Philippines because population is not yet so aware of these organisms and the benefits that can be derived through their consumption.
... The activity of the protease, cellulase, lipase and amylase of the isolates were qualitatively determined in an enzyme specific agar medium 16 . Bacterial isolates extracellular protease, lipase, cellulase and amylase secretion were determined using gelatin peptone agar, tributyrin agar, carboxymethylcellulose agar and starch agar respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Isolation and characterization of bacteria in food products are important to determine and distinguish the beneficial or harmful effects of microbiota in certain samples. Lactic acid bacteria in food products had long been associated to good factors as food preservatives and with added fermentation metabolites. This study isolated and characterized lactic acid bacteria from burong bangus. The culture and purification process of bacteria isolation resulted to 4 strains of lactic acid bacteria namely Enterococcus faecalis, Tetragenococcus muriaticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subp. delbrueckii and Carnobacterium divergens. High enzymatic activity were observed with E. faecalis particularly on lipase and protease assay. While C. divergens have no enzymatic activity against lipase, protease, amylase and cellulase. The antimicrobial property of L. delbrueckii is only susceptible to amoxicillin unlike the other three bacteria isolates. No antagonistic activity were observed with the four bacterial strains against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The result of this study showed promising benefits to the industry especially in developing countries like the Philippines because population are not yet so aware of this organisms and the benefits that can be derived through their consumption.
... This trend was also observed in herring, Clupea harengus, larvae (Hansen et al., 1992) and juvenile Dover sole, Solea solea, though not adults ( MacDonald et al., 1986). The results of an analysis of the occurrence and distribution of enzyme-producing bacteria in the proximal, middle, and distal segments of the GIT of four brackish water teleosts (Scatophagus argus, Terapon jarbua, Mystus gulio, and Etroplus suratensis) showed that the density generally increased along the GIT ( Das et al., 2014). Other studies also found similar trends ( . ...
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The body of work relating to the gut microbiota of fish is dwarfed by that on humans and mammals. However, it is a field that has had historical interest and has grown significantly along with the expansion of the aquaculture industry and developments in microbiome research. Research is now moving quickly in this field. Much recent focus has been on nutritional manipulation and modification of the gut microbiota to meet the needs of fish farming, while trying to maintain host health and welfare. However, the diversity amongst fish means that baseline data from wild fish and a clear understanding of the role that specific gut microbiota play is still lacking. We review here the factors shaping marine fish gut microbiota and highlight gaps in the research.
... Cellulase activity cannot be found in milkfi sh Chanos chanos (Chiu and Benitez, 1981), but other studies found the microbial cellulase activity in the digestive tract of herbivorous fi sh, especially milkfi sh (Bairagi et al. 2002). This data was supported by Das et al. (2014) that detect the presence of cellulolytic microbes in the digestive tract of four brackish water fish species. Three of them, including Etroplus suratensis, Scatophagus argus and Terapon jarbua are kind of omnivorous fish that eat algae as well as milkfish. ...
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Cellulase has been widely used as biocatalyst in industries. Production of cellulase from microorganisms has many advantages such as short production time and less expense. Our previous study indicated that one of cellulolytic bacteria from digestive tract of milkfish (Chanos chanos), namely BSA B1, showed the highest cellulase activity. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic of BSA B1 strain using 16S rRNA gene sequence. Furthermore, this study also determine the specific activity of purified cellulase from BSA B1 strain and its potency to hydrolyze Chlorella zofingiensis cellulose. Cellulase was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and ion exchange chromatography. The purified cellulase was used to hydrolyze cellulose of C. zofingiensis. The result demonstrated that BSA B1 strain was closely related with Bacillus aerius and Bacillus licheniformis. The specific activity of the crude enzyme was 1.543 U mL-1; after dialysis was 4.384 U mL-1; and after chromatography was 7.543 U mL-1. Purified cellulase exhibited activity in hydrolyzed both CMC and C. zofingiensis. Compared to commercial cellulase, purified cellulase had lower activity in hydrolyzed CMC but higher activity in hydrolyzed C. zofingiensis. Ethanol dehydration could potentially increase the reducing sugar yield in cellulose hydrolysis when used appropriately. Morphology of C. zofingiensis cell has changed after incubation with cellulases and ethanol dehydration indicated degradation of cell wall.
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Four dissimilar bacterial colonies were isolated from the intestine of ornamental fish Swordtail Xiphophorus helleri through serial dilution. The isolated colonies were identified as Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., and Pseudomonas sp., by using biochemical tests. Enzyme productivity and antibacterial activity of intestinal bacteria of Swordtail were carried out against pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Streptococcus pyogenes and Klebshilla pneumoniae along with commercial antibiotic Tetracycline. Based on biochemical tests, enzyme productivity and antibacterial activity mass multiplication of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., and Streptococcus sp., was done in nutrient broth. Four different feeds such as feed I (Control) (without bacteria), Feed II (1ml Bacillus sp.,), Feed III (1ml of each of Bacillus sp., and Streptococcus sp.,), Feed IV (1ml each of Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., and Enterobacter sp..,) were prepared. Sixty fishes were used for the study. Feed utilization parameters of the Swordtail were estimated after 21 days. Based on the antibacterial test the Bacillus sp., and Enterobacter sp. has higher inhibition. Most of the feed utilization parameters were higher in feed IV. From the results, it was concluded that the combination of three dissimilar bacteria in the feed enhanced the growth of the Swordtail.
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Probiotic potential of the autochthonous bacteria in catla, Catla catla has been evaluated through determination of antagonistic activity (in vitro) of the cellular components of gut bacteria against seven fish pathogens. Altogether 208 strains were isolated, inhibitory activity of the isolates was evaluated through cross-streaking and 16 primarily selected antagonistic strains were confirmed using the double-layer method. Four bacteria that showed antagonism against ≥4 pathogens were selected as putative probiotics. The intracellular, extracellular, whole-cell and heat-killed cell components exhibited bactericidal activity against the pathogens. In addition, the selected strains were capable of producing different extracellular enzymes, competent to grow in intestinal mucus and could tolerate diluted bile juice. Analysis of 16SrRNA partial gene sequence revealed that both the strains CC1FG2 and CC1FG4 were Bacillus methylotrophicus (KF559344 and KF559345), while the isolates CC1HG5 and CC2HG7 were Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii (KF559346) and Enterobacter hormaechei (KF559347) respectively. Bio-safety evaluation through intra-peritoneal injection of the isolates did not induce any pathological signs or mortalities in C. catla. The study confirmed probiotic properties of autochthonous gut bacteria in C. catla and demonstrated potential for using them as bio-control agents. However, in vivo studies are essential to explore their efficacy in the commercial aquaculture.
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Cellulolytic enzymes are produced by Poronia oedipus grown on soluble and insoluble forms of cellulose. Cellulase production is negligible when the organism is grown in the presence of glucose. Optimal cellulolytic activity occurs at 50–55 C. Hydrolysis of filter paper is greatest at pH 4.2; but with carboxymethylcellulose as a substrate, optimal cellulase activity occurs at pH 4.4 to 5.0. Total accumulation of reducing sugar in the cellulase assay with filter paper as a substrate does not rise above 1% of the substrate concentration; with CMC as a substrate, approximately 5% conversion is reported.
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An extracellular lipase producing bacterium was isolated, from an oil mill refinery effluent, which was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. The maximum lipase production by the B. licheniformis OME1 was at 72 at room temperature in peptone medium and the activity was higher in triglycerides than in esters.
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Bacterial strains were isolated from the intestinal tract of river fish and the environmental water and sediment, and examined for their antibacterial abilities against Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, A. salmonicida ATCC 33658, Escherichia coli IAM 1264 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 using a double agar-layer method. A total of 940 isolates including aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were classified into 13 taxonomic groups. Almost all specimens of carp and crucian carp harbored Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroidaceae (including Bacteroides type A) as predominant intestinal microflora. All fish specimens harbored the bacteria with antibacterial abilities. An average of 2.1% of tested strains exhibited antibacterial activity against the four target strains, but the activity varied with fish species, intestinal segments and sampling times, along with taxonomic groups of tested bacteria. The target strains were inhibited mainly by the predominant microflora of fish intestines: 3.2-10.3% of strains belonging to Bacteroides type A and other Bacteroidaceae inhibited the growth of A. salmonicida ATCC 33658 while 3.1-7.4% of strains of genus Aeromonas exhibited the inhibitory effect against E. coli IAM 1264 and S. aureus ATCC 25923. These results may suggest that these bacteria affect the composition of intestinal microflora of river fish, to some extent, by producing antibacterial substances.