BookPDF Available

The last global extinction (Mid-Pleistocene) of deep sea benthic foraminifera (Chrysalogoniidae, Ellipsoidinidae, Glandulonodosariidae, Plectofrondiculariidae, Pleurostomellidae, Stilostomellidae), their Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic history and taxonomy

Authors:

Abstract

Part 1. The Last Global Extinction in the Deep Sea During the Last Global Extinction (LGE) c. 20% (30 genera, 105 species) of cosmopolitan, mainly deep-sea (600–4000 m), benthic foraminiferal species (excluding unilocular taxa), belonging to seven families, became extinct. During this late Pliocene–middle Pleistocene interval (3.6–0.13 Ma), five families (Chrysalogoniidae, Glandulonodosariidae, Stilostomellidae, Ellipsoidinidae, Pleurostomellidae) were wiped out and one more (Plectofrondiculariidae) was almost wiped out with just one species surviving to the present. Most (76 of 105 species) of these extinctions occurred during the mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition (MPT, 1.2–0.55 Ma) at an extinction rate of 25% myr-1 of the deep-sea benthic foraminifera, compared with a background rate through the Cenozoic of c. 2% myr-1. Most species in the families Chrysalogoniidae, Stilostomellidae, Ellipsoidinidae and Pleurostomellidae had equal levels of abundance throughout their middle bathyal–middle abyssal depth ranges. The Glandulonodosariidae mostly lived at middle bathyal to uppermost abyssal depths and the Plectofrondiculariidae at bathyal to outer shelf depths. These Extinction Group (Ext. Gp) families comprised 30–70% of the deep-sea benthic foraminiferal fauna in the middle to late Eocene. Major declines in their relative abundance and species richness at abyssal depths began in the late Oligocene–Miocene in the Southern Ocean, in the late Miocene in the deep Indian Ocean, in the early Pliocene in the West Pacific, then globally in the late Pliocene at upper abyssal (2300–3000 m) depths and all depths in the Mediterranean Sea. At bathyal depths (900–2200 m) declines and extinctions were largely confined to the Pleistocene. These declines occurred in pulses mostly coinciding with glacial episodes of expansion of polar ice sheets, initially in Antarctica but during the MPT in the Arctic. The LGE preferentially impacted species with specific morphologies (elongate, cylindrical, often uniserial tests) and apertural types (e.g., small rounded, dentate, cribrate, or lunate slit). The precise functions of these are not known but the apertural modifications could be related to having a specific food source whose pulsed decline in abundance in the plankton resulted in the LGE. Data on δ13C analyses suggest that Ext. Gp species lived infaunally. Strong positive correlation of Ext. Gp abundance in the Pliocene–MPT with foraminiferal proxies for sustained and pulsed organic carbon flux supports the hypothesis that the Ext. Gp favoured enhanced food supply with consequent lower oxygen concentrations. Decreased bottom temperature, increased bottom water ventilation or carbonate corrosiveness, increased interspecific competition and predation, or increased or more wildly fluctuating food supply are all rejected as unlikely to be the causes of the LGE. We hypothesise that the cause may have been the progressive decline or demise of the specific phytoplankton source of the detritus that the Ext. Gp fed upon, during global cooling and later increasingly cold glacials of the MPT with lowered atmospheric CO2. The LGE and regional highest occurrence levels of Ext. Gp species have considerable biostratigraphic value in providing rapid age assessments of Quaternary oceanic sediment where planktic foraminiferal age datums are rare. Part 2. Late Cretaceous–Cenozoic History of the Extinction Group The absolute abundance and flux of the Ext. Gp were generally greater at bathyal than at deeper abyssal depths and in more eutrophic rather than oligotrophic regions. Peak Ext. Gp fluxes, relative abundance and species richness occurred between the middle Eocene and early Miocene but some short abundance peaks in the Pliocene–MPT were associated with brief periods of locally high productivity. The oldest Ext. Gp species originated in the Jurassic and eight more appeared in the Early Cretaceous. The peak of Ext. Gp species originations (2.7% myr-1) was Late Cretaceous, except in the Glandulonodosariidae (Paleocene) and Plectofrondiculariidae (middle to late Eocene). A secondary peak of originations (2% myr-1) occurred in the late Eocene across all Ext. Gp families. More than 80% of Ext. Gp species originated during the Cretaceous–Eocene (Greenhouse World) compared with c. 30% of modern deep-sea benthic foraminifera. The Cretaceous–Cenozoic Ext. Gp species had an even spread of species durations between five and 85 myrs (except plectofrondiculariids), with mean species durations of 50 myrs (Pleurostomellidae), 47 myrs (Glandulonodosariidae), 46 myrs (Stilostomellidae), 44 myrs (Ellipsoidinidae), 41 myrs (Chrysalogoniidae) and 20 myrs (Plectofrondiculariidae). Cenozoic Ext. Gp faunas are dominated by mostly long-lived species of just three genera – Strictocostella, Siphonodosaria and Pleurostomella. The Ext. Gp was largely unaffected by the K/Pg or PETM extinction events. The late Eocene–Oligocene cooling was the first interval where the Ext. Gp showed an above background level of faunal change or instability and species turnover (1% myr-1, esp. Ellipsoidinidae, Plectofrondiculariidae, Glandulonodosariidae). After an early Miocene decline, extinctions began accelerating in the middle to late Miocene (1% myr-1) concurrent with progressive cooling of mid and high latitude climate and surface waters. During the Middle Miocene Climate Transition, Ext. Gp relative abundance declined and some local changes in assemblage composition occurred, but there was no pulse in global species turnover. The rate of extinctions accelerated further in the Pliocene (3% myr-1, dominantly stilostomellids), accompanied by significant changes in the composition of the dominant and overall Ext. Gp fauna as they became less diverse. With one exception, the remaining 40% of the total Cretaceous–Cenozoic diversity of the Ext. Gp disappeared during the Pleistocene, mainly during the MPT. Part 3. Taxonomy of the Extinction Group Two hundred and fifty-three species from 38 genera in the Extinction Group families (Chrysalogoniidae, Glandulonodosariidae, Plectofrondiculariidae, Stilostomellidae, Ellipsoidinidae, Pleurostomellidae, Nodosariidae in part), are reviewed and illustrated, together with eight additional species that became extinct or declined dramatically during the Last Global Extinction. Twelve genera and 26 species are described as new (Anastomosa n.gen., A. boomgaarti n.sp., A. loeblichi n.sp., Cribroconica n.gen., Epelistoma n.gen., E. morgansi n.sp., Lotostomoides n.gen., L. jorisseni n.sp., L. schwageri n.sp., Scallopostoma n.gen., Glandulonodosaria colomi n.sp., G. lutzei n.sp., Fingerina n.gen., Grigelis schoenfeldi n.sp., Mucronina hornibrooki n.sp., M. resigae n.sp., Plectolingulina n.gen., Carchariostomoides n.gen., Caveastomella n.gen., C. caralpae n.sp., C. weinholzi n.sp., Siphonodosaria campana n.sp., S. kaihoi n.sp., S. robertsoni n.sp., Stilostomella? guptai n.sp., Strictocostella srinivasani n.sp., S. strongi n.sp., Toddostomella n.gen., Unidens n.gen., U. ishizakii n.sp., Ellipsoglandulina keyzeri n.sp., Ellipsoidella tappanae n.sp., Laterohiatus n.gen., Nodosarella kohli n.sp., N. nomurai n.sp., N. schroederadamsae n.sp., Obesopleurostomella n.gen., O. boltovskoyi n.sp., Ossaggittia n.gen., O. thomasae n.sp.). Three-hundred and seventy-three species and 20 genera are suppressed as subjective junior synonyms.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Additionally, we document changes in the relative abundance of infaunal (living deeper within the sediment) and epifaunal (living at the seafloor or in the uppermost centimeters of the sediment) habitat-related morphogroups in calcareous and agglutinated taxa (Corliss, 1985;Jones and Charnock, 1985;Corliss and Chen, 1988 relative abundance of these morphotypes has been commonly used as a proxy for environmental conditions at the seafloor, with infaunal taxa indicating lower oxygenation and/or higher trophic conditions (e.g., Jorissen et al., 1995Jorissen et al., , 2007. Interpretation of morphogroups is somewhat problematic, however, even for living foraminifera (Buzas et al., 1993), and even more so for fossil assemblages, mostly due to the lack of modern analogs (e.g., Hayward et al., 2012). For all sites and sections of our compilation, we quantified the overall drop in diversity of benthic foraminifera across the K/Pg boundary (Fisher-α index; Murray, 2006). ...
... Interpretation of benthic morphogroups should be done cautiously, however, because (1) their use has limitations even in the modern environments, and assignments from morphology have been found to be correct for living foraminifera only in ~75% of cases (Buzas et al., 1993); (2) common, now extinct species in Cretaceous and Paleogene faunas are non-analog to living species in morphology (Thomas and Gooday, 1996;Hayward et al., 2012;Arreguín-Rodríguez et al., 2018), and thus there are no direct observations of their ecological affinities; ...
Chapter
This volume pays tribute to the great career and extensive and varied scientific accomplishments of Walter Alvarez, on the occasion of his 80th birthday in 2020, with a series of papers related to the many topics he covered in the past 60 years: Tectonics of microplates, structural geology, paleomagnetics, Apennine sedimentary sequences, geoarchaeology and Roman volcanics, Big History, and most famously the discovery of evidence for a large asteroidal impact event at the Cretaceous–Tertiary (now Cretaceous–Paleogene) boundary site in Gubbio, Italy, 40 years ago, which started a debate about the connection between meteorite impact and mass extinction. The manuscripts in this special volume were written by many of Walter’s close collaborators and friends, who have worked with him over the years and participated in many projects he carried out. The papers highlight specific aspects of the research and/or provide a summary of the current advances in the field.
... Global stratigraphic range: Orthomorphina jedlitschkai is an extinct species, occurring from the Cretaceous to Pleistocene (Hayward et al., 2012). ...
Article
This article documents the taxonomy and biostratigraphy of middle Miocene foraminifera from the Namibian continental shelf. The taxonomy of 51 benthic and 12 planktic foraminiferal species from the northern Namibian shelf are discussed, their stratigraphic significance given, and their ecological preferences and regional distribution summarised within this study. The identification of extinct planktic foraminifera provided key stratigraphic control for the middle Miocene strata of this region. A total of 47 species are identified and discussed for the first time from this region, with an attempt to resolve some of the discrepancies in the identification of taxa in previous literature. Nineteen species recorded in this study are extinct and eleven taxa reported here have previously only been reported on the genus level on the southwestern shelf of South Africa.
... Taxa were allocated into infaunal and epifaunal morphogroups to infer oxygenation and trophic conditions in the deep ocean, with epifaunal morphogroups generally more abundant in oligotrophic environments (Jorissen et al., 2007). Caution must be taken with a simplistic interpretation of morphogroups, however, as it is problematic even for living foraminifera (Buzas et al., 1993) and the lack of modern analogs makes it less straightforward for fossil assemblages (Hayward et al., 2012), especially when significant changes in relative abundance of species of the same morphogroup result in a constant total abundance of that morphogroup (e.g., Alegret & Thomas, 2009;Alegret et al., 2021). The benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates (BFAR), a proxy for delivery of organic matter to the seafloor (Jorissen et al., 2007), were calculated following Herguera and Berger (1991) using the number of benthic foraminifera per gram of sediment >63 μm, the weight % of the sample >63 μm, the sediment density (Sutherland, Dickens, Blum, Agnini, Alegret, Bhattacharya, et al., 2019), and the linear sedimentation rates as obtained from the refined age model (Figure S2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental and biotic responses to early Eocene hyperthermal events in the southwest Pacific are critical for global paleoclimate reconstructions during Cenozoic greenhouse intervals, but detailed multidisciplinary studies are generally missing from this time and location. Eocene carbonate sediments were recovered during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 371 at Site U1510 on southern Lord Howe Rise in the Tasman Sea. Part of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO; 53.26–49.14 Ma) and superimposed hyperthermal events have been identified based on refined calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic data and carbon stable isotope records on bulk sediment and benthic foraminifera. Four negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) associated with negative oxygen isotope excursions are recognized within the EECO. Comparison with a global compilation of sites indicates these CIEs correlate to the K event (Eocene Thermal Maximum 3), and tentatively to the S, T, and U events. Sediments with a high carbonate content throughout the EECO provide an excellent opportunity to examine these CIEs, as carbonate dissolution often impacts correlative records elsewhere. Benthic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton taxa indicative of warm waters are most abundant during the K event, the most prominent hyperthermal of the EECO. Eutrophication of surface waters during the K event did not lead to increased trophic conditions at the seafloor, whereas a coupled response is observed during smaller hyperthermals. The biotic turnover sheds new light on the paleoenvironmental consequences of hyperthermal events.
Chapter
This unusual book, published to honor the late iconoclast and geologist extraordinaire Warren Bell Hamilton, comprises a diverse, cross-disciplinary collection of bold new ideas in Earth and planetary science. Some chapters audaciously point out all-too-obvious deficits in prevailing theories. Other ideas are embryonic and in need of testing and still others are downright outrageous. Some are doubtless right and others likely wrong. See if you can tell which is which. See if your students can tell which is which. This unique book is a rich resource for researchers at all levels looking for interesting, unusual, and off-beat ideas to investigate or set as student projects.
Chapter
Fossils have stirred the imagination globally for thousands of years, starting well before they were recognized as the remains of once-living organisms and proxies of former worlds. This volume samples the history of art about fossils and the visual conceptualization of their significance starting with biblical and mythological depictions, extending to renditions of ancient life as it flourished in long-vanished habitats, and on to a modern understanding that fossil art conveys lessons for the betterment of the human condition. The 29 papers and accompanying artwork illustrate how art about fossils has come to be a significant teaching tool not only about evolution of past life, but also about conservation of our planet for the benefit of future generations.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils from washed drill-cuttings of three wells in the Chilean sector of the Magallanes Basin were studied. This contribution aims to identify, characterize and illustrate microfossil assemblages throughout the Cenozoic sedimentary record to integrate foraminiferal and nannofossil data, and improve further biostratigraphic studies in the basin. The analyzed Paleogene and Neogene successions in these three wells correspond to five discrete foraminiferal and nannofossil assemblages, which were recognized and are described here: the early–middle Paleocene assemblage is mainly characterized by agglutinated foraminifera and few nannofossil species like Chiasmolithus danicus and Prinsius tenuiculus; the early Eocene assemblage is represented by low diversity and oceanic species, consisting of planktic foraminifera like Subbotina triloculinoides, radiolarians and calcareous nannofossils including Chiasmolithus bidens and Toweius pertusus; the middle–late Eocene assemblage is the most diverse of all those distinguished in this study, as it contains a rich microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera including the species Elphidium saginatum, Virgulinella severini, and Globigerinatheka index, as well as numerous nannofossils like Chiasmolithus solitus, C. oamaruensis and Reticulofenestra reticulata; the early Oligocene marks the turnover to a reduced assemblage including Subbotina angiporoides and Chiasmolithus altus; and ultimately, the late Oligocene–early Miocene assemblage, characterized by a low species richness of mainly nonionid foraminifera and reticulofenestrid nannofossils. A detailed systematic list of both foraminiferal and nannofossil species is presented, intended to serve as a catalogue that will help to identify the different Cenozoic assemblages of the basin in future studies.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.