Insulin responsiveness of glucose transporter 4 in 3T3-L1 cells depends on the presence of sortilin
Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118.Molecular biology of the cell (Impact Factor: 4.47). 08/2013; 24(19). DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E12-10-0765
In mammalian organism, insulin-dependent translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane of fat and skeletal muscle cells plays the key role in postprandial clearance of blood glucose. Glut4 represents the major cell-specific component of the insulin-responsive vesicles, the IRVs. However, it is not yet clear whether or not the presence of Glut4 in the IRVs is essential for their ability to respond to insulin stimulation. We have prepared two lines of 3T3-L1 cells with low and high expression of myc7-Glut4 and studied its translocation to the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting and cell surface biotinylation. In undifferentiated 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, translocation of myc7-Glut4 was low regardless of its expression levels. Co-expression of sortilin increased targeting of myc7-Glut4 to the IRVs, and its insulin responsiveness rose to the maximal levels observed in fully differentiated adipocytes. Sortilin ectopically expressed in undifferentiated cells was translocated to the plasma membrane regardless of the presence or absence of myc7-Glut4. AS160/TBC1D4 is expressed at low levels in pre-adipocytes but is induced in differentiation and provides an additional mechanism for the intracellular retention and insulin-stimulated release of Glut4.
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ABSTRACT: The neurotensin receptor-3 also known as sortilin belongs to the new receptor family of vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein domain containing receptors. Growing evidence show that the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein domain family is implicated as a genetic risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and Parkinson's disease, in addition to links associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, lysosomal disorders, cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. In fact, sortilin expression is elevated in many human cell lines controlling the trafficking and release of neurotrophins. Hence, not surprisingly the imbalance of neurotrophin signaling is implicated in several human diseases. The fine regulation of the growth factor, brain derived nerve factor by sortilin mediates both neuronal and tumor cell survival, whereas sortilin mediated beta secretase-1 trafficking increases the cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer's disease. Perturbation of the autocrine/paracrine loop of neurotrophins in combination with the cell surface interaction of sortilin with neurotensin receptor 1 or 2 or tyrosine kinase receptor A or B are dramatically upregulated in both neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In cardiovascular diseases, the circulatory low-density lipoprotein is closely correlated with sortilin expression in hepatocytes. Herein, this review discusses the multifaceted role played by sortilin and its interacting partners in human disease which could be interesting novel target(s) in drug discovery. Nevertheless, completely challenging the function of sortilin could prove unfavorable given the important universal role of sortilin plays in the body. Hence, metabolism disorders could be relieved with specific targeted therapeutic challenge of sortilin function.
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ABSTRACT: Insulin causes the exocytic translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to stimulate glucose uptake in fat and muscle. Previous results support a model in which TUG traps GLUT4 in intracellular, insulin-responsive vesicles termed GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Insulin triggers TUG cleavage to release the GSVs; GLUT4 then recycles through endosomes during ongoing insulin exposure. The TUG C-terminus binds a GSV anchoring site comprising Golgin-160 and possibly other proteins. Here, we report that the TUG C-terminus is acetylated. The TUG C-terminal peptide bound the Golgin-160-associated protein, ACBD3 (acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3), and acetylation reduced binding of TUG to ACBD3, but not to Golgin-160. Mutation of the acetylated residues impaired insulin-responsive GLUT4 trafficking in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ACBD3 overexpression enhanced the translocation of GSV cargos, GLUT4 and IRAP, and ACBD3 was required for intracellular retention of these cargos in unstimulated cells. SIRT2, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, bound TUG and deacetylated the TUG peptide. SIRT2 overexpression reduced TUG acetylation and redistributed GLUT4 and IRAP to the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mutation of the acetylated residues in TUG abrogated these effects. In mice, SIRT2 deletion increased TUG acetylation and proteolytic processing. During glucose tolerance tests, glucose disposal was enhanced in SIRT2 knockout mice, compared to wildtype controls, without any effect on insulin concentrations. Together, these data support a model in which TUG acetylation modulates its interaction with Golgi matrix proteins and is regulated by SIRT2. Moreover, acetylation of TUG enhances its function to trap GSVs within unstimulated cells, and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
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ABSTRACT: Insulin-stimulated delivery of glucose transporters (GLUT4) from specialized intracellular GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) to the surface of fat and muscle cells is central to whole-body glucose. This translocation and subsequent internalization of GLUT4 back into intracellular stores transits numerous small membrane-bound compartments (internal GLUT4-containing vesicles; IGVs) including GSVs, but the function of these different compartments is not clear. Cellugyrin and sortilin define distinct populations of IGV; sortilin-positive IGVs represent GSVs, but the function of cellugyrin-containing IGVs is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for cellugyrin in intracellular sequestration of GLUT4 in HeLa cells and have used a proximity ligation assay to follow changes in pairwise associations between cellugyrin, sortilin, GLUT4 and membrane trafficking machinery following insulin-stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipoctyes. Our data suggest that insulin stimulates traffic from cellugyrin- to sortilin- membranes, and that cellugyrin-IGVs provide an insulin-sensitive reservoir to replenish GSVs following insulin-stimulated exocytosis of GLUT4. Furthermore, our data support the existence of a pathway from cellugyrin-membranes to the surface of 3T3-L1 adipocytes that bypasses GSVs under basal conditions, and that insulin diverts traffic away from this into GSVs. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.