ArticlePDF Available

Meditation Increases Compassionate Response to Suffering



Content may be subject to copyright.
Psychological Science
The online version of this article can be found at:
DOI: 10.1177/0956797613485603
2013 24: 2125 originally published online 21 August 2013Psychological Science
Paul Condon, Gaëlle Desbordes, Willa B. Miller and David DeSteno
Meditation Increases Compassionate Responses to Suffering
Published by:
On behalf of:
Association for Psychological Science
can be found at:Psychological ScienceAdditional services and information for Alerts:
What is This?
- Aug 21, 2013OnlineFirst Version of Record
- Oct 11, 2013Version of Record >>
by Paul Condon on October 12, 2013pss.sagepub.comDownloaded from by Paul Condon on October 12, 2013pss.sagepub.comDownloaded from by Paul Condon on October 12, 2013pss.sagepub.comDownloaded from by Paul Condon on October 12, 2013pss.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Psychological Science
24(10) 2125 –2127
© The Author(s) 2013
Reprints and permissions:
DOI: 10.1177/0956797613485603
Short Report
Contemplative science has documented a plethora of
intrapersonal benefits stemming from meditation, includ-
ing increases in gray matter density (Hölzel, Carmody,
et al., 2011), positive affect (Moyer et al., 2011), and
improvement in various mental-health outcomes (Hölzel,
Lazar, et al., 2011). Strikingly, however, much less is
known about the interpersonal impact of meditation.
Although Buddhist teachings suggest that increases in
compassionate responding should be a primary outcome
of meditation (Davidson & Harrington, 2002), little scien-
tific evidence supports this conjecture. Even as scientists
have begun to examine the effects of meditation on pro-
social action, the conclusions that can be drawn with
respect to compassion have been limited by designs that
lack real-time person-to-person interactions centered on
suffering. Previous work, for example, has utilized medi-
tators’ self-reported intentions and motivations to behave
in supportive manners toward other individuals (e.g.,
Fredrickson, Cohn, Coffey, Pek, & Finkel, 2008) and com-
puter-based economic games requiring cooperation (e.g.,
Leiberg, Klimecki, & Singer, 2011; Weng et al., 2013) to
assess altruistic action. Such methods have suggested that
meditation may increase generalized prosocial respond-
ing, but have not clearly and objectively gauged responses
meant solely to mitigate the suffering of other individuals.
To address this gap, we utilized a design in which
individuals were confronted with a person in pain in an
ecologically valid setting. If, as suggested by Buddhist
theorizing, meditation enhances compassionate respond-
ing, participants who have completed a brief meditation
course should act to relieve such a person’s suffering
more frequently than those who have not completed the
The final set of participants comprised 39 individuals (29
female, 10 male; mean age = 25.23 years, SD = 4.66)
recruited from the Greater Boston community for an
8-week study on meditation. (See the Supplemental
Material available online for recruitment procedures.)
Individuals were randomly assigned either to complete
meditation classes or to be in a waiting-list control group.
Those assigned to the meditation condition were further
randomly subdivided to receive one of two protocols:
mindfulness or compassion meditation. We utilized two
separate meditation protocols both to enhance generaliz-
ability and to ensure that any resulting effects of medita-
tion on behavior could not be attributed to demand
characteristics. Although techniques to focus and calm
the mind were taught in both protocols, direct discussion
of compassion and the suffering of other people occurred
only in compassion meditation. (See the Supplemental
Material for meditation protocols.)
Meditation classes were held in a nondenominational
venue dedicated to spiritual activities (e.g., prayer, medi-
tation, yoga). A Tibetan Buddhist lama (author W. M.)
with 20-plus years of meditation experience conducted
both courses. The classes were taught in a secular format
featuring 60 min of instruction, 30 min of practice, and
30 min for discussion; classes were held once a week for
8 weeks. Participants also received 20-min audio-guided
meditations to complete independently outside of class.
Participants reported their daily use of the audio record-
ings each week. Participants received $60 for their
Following 8 weeks of meditation practice or approxi-
mately 8 weeks after initial recruitment to the waiting list,
XXX10.1177/0956797613485603Condon et al.Meditation and Compassionate Behavior
Corresponding Authors:
Paul Condon, Department of Psychology, 360 Huntington Ave.,
Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115
David DeSteno, Department of Psychology, 360 Huntington Ave.,
Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115
Meditation Increases Compassionate
Responses to Suffering
Paul Condon
, Gaëlle Desbordes
, Willa B. Miller
and David DeSteno
Department of Psychology, Northeastern University;
Athinoula A. Martinos Center for
Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School;
Department of Religion, Harvard University
Received 1/3/13; Revision accepted 3/17/13
2126 Condon et al.
participants were scheduled to come to the lab under the
guise of completing tests of cognitive ability. To obtain a
naturalistic measure of responses to suffering, we utilized
confederates to construct a test situation outside the labo-
ratory. All confederates were blind both to the hypothesis
being tested and to each participant’s experimental condi-
tion. Prior to a participants arrival, two female confeder-
ates sat in a designated waiting area possessing three
chairs. Upon arriving at the waiting area, the participant
sat in the remaining chair. After the participant had been
sitting for 1 min, a third female confederate, who played
the role of the “sufferer, appeared around the corner with
crutches and a walking boot. The sufferer, who visibly
winced while walking, stopped just as she arrived at the
chairs. She then looked at her cell phone, audibly sighed
in discomfort, and leaned back against a wall.
To assess compassionate responding, we measured
whether the true participant offered his or her seat to the
sufferer to relieve her pain. Via text message, one of the
sitting confederates surreptitiously notified the experi-
menter, who was waiting out of sight, whether and when
the participant offered the seat to the sufferer. If 2 min
passed and the participant had not given up his or her
seat, the trial was ended and coded as a nonhelping
response. The experimenter then entered the waiting
area, greeted the participant, and escorted him or her to
the lab to complete a series of measures unrelated to the
goals of the present analysis.
Results and Discussion
As predicted, meditation directly enhanced compassion-
ate responding. Meditators offered their seats to the suf-
ferer more frequently than did nonmeditators from
the waiting-list control group, !
(1, N = 39) = 5.13, p =
.02, " = .36 (see Table 1). This enhanced prosocial
responding did not differ as a function of meditation pro-
tocol; participants practicing mindfulness meditation
were as likely to aid the sufferer as were those practicing
compassion meditation (see the Supplemental Material
for analysis).
That 8 weeks of meditation resulted in
such a large effect—increasing the odds of acting to
relieve another person’s pain by more than 5 times (odds
ratio = 5.33)—is all the more striking given that the help-
ing occurred in a social context whose features should
attenuate such behavior. The simple presence of the two
confederates and their total disregard for the pain of the
sufferer constitutes a classic bystander manipulation in
which both diffusion of responsibility and norms sug-
gesting an acceptance of nonintervention are heightened
(cf. Darley & Latané, 1968).
Additional work will be needed to isolate the specific
causal mechanism for the observed effect more narrowly,
as several meditation-induced mediators (e.g., height-
ened awareness, increased perspective taking) stand as
possible candidates (cf. Hölzel, Lazar, et al., 2011).
Nonetheless, this study is the first to clearly show the
power of meditation to increase compassionate respond-
ing to suffering, even in the face of social pressures to
avoid so doing. In turn, it provides scientific credence to
ancient Buddhist teachings that meditation increases
spontaneous compassionate behavior.
Author Contributions
P. Condon, D. DeSteno, G. Desbordes, and W. B. Miller
designed the experiments. P. Condon and W. B. Miller con-
ducted the research. P. Condon and D. DeSteno conducted the
analyses and wrote the manuscript.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with
respect to their authorship or the publication of this article.
We acknowledge support from a Mind and Life Institute
Francisco J. Varela award. Any views, findings, conclusions, or
recommendations expressed in this publication do not neces-
sarily reflect those of the Mind and Life Institute.
Supplemental Material
Additional supporting information may be found at http://pss
1. Participants in the meditation condition earned an additional
$20 and entry into a $100 raffle for completing weekly logs.
2. Additional analyses revealed that gender did not affect rates
of helping behavior. Also of import, analyses of self-reported
social networks demonstrated that social-network size neither
increased as a result of participation in the meditation classes
nor significantly differed between the meditation and control
groups, suggesting that increases in social capital from par-
ticipating in a group activity could not account for the central
finding that meditation increased compassionate respond-
ing (see the Supplemental Material for these and additional
Table 1.# Observed and Expected Frequencies of Helping
Behavior Across Conditions
Meditation training Waiting-list control
Outcome Observed Expected Observed Expected
No help 10 13.3 16 12.7
Help 10 6.7 3 6.3
Meditation and Compassionate Behavior 2127
Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention
in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377–383.
Davidson, R. J., & Harrington, A. (2002). Visions of compassion:
Western scientists and Tibetan Buddhists examine human
nature. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel,
S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions,
induced through loving-kindness meditation, build con-
sequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 95, 1045–1062.
Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti,
S. M., Gard, T., & Lazar, S. W. (2011). Mindfulness practice
leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density.
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191, 36–43.
Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z.,
Vago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness
meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a
conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psycho-
logical Science, 6, 537–559.
Leiberg, S., Klimecki, O., & Singer, T. (2011). Short-
term compassion training increases prosocial behav-
ior in a newly developed prosocial game. PLoS ONE, 6,
e17798. Retrieved from
Moyer, C. A., Donnelly, M. P. W., Anderson, J. C., Valek, K.
C., Huckaby, S. J., Widerholt, D. A., . . . Rice, B. L. (2011).
Frontal electroencephalographic asymmetry associated
with positive emotion is produced by very brief meditation
training. Psychological Science, 22, 1277–1279.
Weng, H. Y., Fox, A. S., Shackman, A. J., Stodola, D. E.,
Caldwell, J. Z. K., Olson, M. C., . . . Davidson, R. J.
(2013). Compassion training alters altruism and neural
responses to suffering. Psychological Science, 24, 1171–
!!!!!Meditation and Compassionate Behavior
Supplementary Online Material (word count: 977)
During recruitment, all participants self-
reported little to no experience with any type of
meditation experience and none reported completing
any previous meditation course or meditation retreat.
All participants passed a telephone-administered
version of the Mini-Mental State Examination as
indicated by a score greater than or equal to 21
(Newkirk et al., 2004).
Sixty-seven individuals were initially
recruited for the study. Twenty-six dropped out prior
to completion of the training portion. Two others
were removed by experimenters: one who did not
take a chair in the waiting area upon arrival and one
who expressed suspicion about the study. The final
sample consisted of 39 individuals (20 meditators,
and 19 waitlist controls).
Supplementary Analyses
Amount of Training
On average, meditating participants attended
6.60 (SD=0.50) instruction sessions and reported
completing independent 20-minute intervals of
meditation 3.74 (SD=1.04) times per week.
Helping Behavior by Meditation Class
Those participants who completed the
mindfulness- and compassion-based meditation did
not differ in frequency of helping behavior,
(1)=0.20, p>.65 (see Table S1).
Gender differences in helping behavior have
been reported in numerous studies, although the
direction of these differences vary depending on
context. Males help more frequently in some contexts
(e.g., short-term encounters), but females help more
in others (e.g., long-term close relationships; for a
review, see Eagly & Crowley, 1986). In the current
study, we found that participant gender did not affect
frequency of compassionate responding, f
out of 29, f
=3 out of 10, !
(1,N=39)=0.07, p>.79.
Furthermore, the composition of male and female
participants in the meditation and control groups did
not differ, !
Design Limitations: Control Group and Social
Network Analysis
The nature of our design required that one
group (i.e., meditators) came together for repeated
classes, thereby creating a context that afforded
interaction with other individuals participating in the
study. The waitlist group had no such possibility of
interacting with others due to participation in a
structured class. Thus, although the control group
was matched with respect to interest in meditation
and desire to enroll in an 8-week course, its members
did not engage in repeated interactions with
meditation class members or an instructor. One
resulting concern is that repeated interactions with
fellow participants in the course may have produced
social consequences that could account for increased
levels of helping behavior (e.g., increased social
resources). To rule out this possibility, we obtained a
measure of the number of people that participants
interacted with on a regular basis before and after
training. At pre- and post-testing (i.e., eight weeks
apart), participants received an email with a link to an
online version of the Social Network Index (Cohen,
Doyle, Skoner, Rabin, & Gwaltney, 1997). This
survey asked participants to list the initials of every
individual that they “interacted with in person or over
the phone at least once every two weeks.” The survey
prompted participants to list people in the following
categories: romantic partner, parents, partner’s
parents, children, relatives, friends, classmates, co-
workers, acquaintances, members of a spiritual
group, members of a volunteer group, and members
of unspecified groups. Participants could list up to
seven individuals for each category, with the
exception of friends and members of unspecified
group (up to ten individuals). Our primary interest
concerned the total number of people with whom
participants reported interacting. If the meditation
classes increased social capital, we would expect to
find that those in the meditation group reported an
increase in their number of relationships at post-
testing, relative to the wait-list group.
A 2 (time: pre, post) X 2 (group: meditators,
wait-list) repeated measures ANOVA, with time as
the repeated factor, revealed no main effect of group
on social capital (M
=11.58; SD
=12.35 SD
=5.07), F(1,31)=0.21, p>.65,
and no effect of time (M
=12.18; SD
=11.58 SD
=5.10), F(1,31)=0.83, p>.37.
There was no interaction, F(1,31)=1.40, p>.24 (note
that only 13 participants from the WL control group
provided responses to the SNI). In sum, participants
!!!!!Meditation and Compassionate Behavior
in the meditation group did not experience a growth
in their social network as a function of participating
in an organized class. Thus, the experience of
participating in a group activity is unlikely to account
for our central finding, at least as stemming from
increases in social capital.
It could also be argued, however, that
exposure to a caring or charismatic instructor might
have exerted an influence, principally through
modeling. That is, meditation in and of itself
covaried with exposure to an instructor in our design.
Although certainly possible, we believe that such a
factor is unlikely to account for our findings in the
present case. If it were the influence of exposure to a
caring instructor, we would expect to find a greater
effect of meditation on prosocial behavior among
participants following the compassion meditation
protocol, where actual discussion of the virtue of
relieving the suffering of others was discussed by the
instructor. In the mindfulness meditation condition,
no such discussions occurred; all instruction centered
on techniques involved in centering attention (e.g.,
breathing), and consequently provided no opportunity
for prosocial behavior to be modeled on or directly
influenced by the instructor’s explicit or implicit
goals. Nonetheless, having established the basic
phenomenon, we believe it fruitful for future
investigation to aim toward disambiguating the exact
mechanisms associated with contemplative training
that may underlie its enhancement of prosocial
behavior, as well as individual susceptibility to such
References for Supplementary Material
Cohen, S., Doyle, W.J., Skoner, D.P., Rabin, B.S., Gwaltney, J.M. (1997). Social ties and
susceptibility to the common cold. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277,
Eagly, A.H., & Crowley, M. (1986). Gender and helping behavior: A meta-analytic review of the
social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 283-308.
Newkirk, L.A., Kim, J.M., Thompson, J.M., Tinklenberg, J.R., Yesavage, J.A., & Taylor, J.L.
(2004). Validation of a 26-point telephone version of the Mini-Mental State Examination.
Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 17, 81-87.
We thank Kevin Bickart for assistance with the social network analysis.
!!!!!Meditation and Compassionate Behavior
Supplementary Table 1.
Observed and expected frequencies of helping behavior by meditation group.
Note. !
(1)=0.20, p>.65! !
!!!!!Meditation and Compassionate Behavior
Supplementary Table 2A.
Mindfulness-based training protocol.
Training components
Open awareness meditation
Introduction of basic techniques (e.g., body-scan) for relaxing the body and monitoring the mind’s natural tendency to
wander from the object of attention (i.e., the body).
Mindfulness of a physical object
Introduction and elaboration of practices for learning to calm the conceptually discursive mind for the purpose of attenuating
involuntary thoughts. Stability of attention (i.e., on a physical object) is practiced with the goal of sustaining attention in a
purposeful, non-judgmental manner for an extended period.
Mindfulness of the breathing with relaxation (I)
Continuing practice of techniques designed to instill a deepening sense of physical and mental relaxation, stillness, and
vigilance. When successful, involuntary thoughts subside and vividness of attention gradually increases. This gives rise to an
overall sense of greater presence, calm, and equilibrium.
Mindfulness of the breathing with relaxation (II)
Continuing practice from Week 3. Additional instruction focused on common impediments to meditation practice, including
sleepiness, agitation, and boredom.
Settling the mind in its natural state (i. e., mindfulness of mental events) (I)
Introduction of practices for further refining the meditator’s metacognitive abilities, with the goal of attenuating the
immediate and habitual absorption in one’s thoughts that characterize most mental functioning. When successful, insight
into the nature of the mind and its activities is achieved.
Settling the mind in its natural state (II)
Continued practice with the goal of developing increased relaxation, stillness of awareness in the midst of mental activities,
and vividness, together with heightened metacognitive abilities to observe mental states and processes without identifying
with them.
Awareness of awareness (I)
In this final technique, relaxation, stillness, and vividness of attention continue to be enhanced, leading to a perception of the
process of becoming aware, as opposed to only perceiving the contents of awareness.
Mindfulness of awareness and thoughts
Participants use the techniques they’ve learned from all previous weeks and apply them to concentration on the quality of
immediate mental experience. Instead of using breath or body as an object, now mind itself becomes the meditation object.
Particular attention will be paid to working with the arising and disappearing of thoughts.
!!!!!Meditation and Compassionate Behavior
Supplementary Table 2B.
Compassion-based training protocol.
Training components
Developing attention and stability of mind
Introduction of basic meditation techniques for focusing attention for increasingly longer periods of time. These techniques
are included in the practice of all subsequent compassion meditation components.
Baring witness to ones current life-stressors and difficulties
Introduction of practice for noticing and reflecting on current life challenges, such as a difficult situation, event, or person.
Participants learn to accept themselves in these moments and relax resistance to discomfort to remain and experience these
states without judgment or a need to remedy it. When successful, this practice leads to the dissolution of discomfort.
Commune with other’s life-stressors and difficulties
Introduction of techniques to develop awareness of the commonality of one’s own suffering. Participants learn to recognize
that all others feel discomfort just as they do. Participants imagine themselves in a community of others experiencing the
same discomfort.
Extending compassion outward
Building on previous practice of bearing witness and communing with suffering, participants visualize breathing own and
others suffering into the heart (inhalation) and dissolving all difficulties outward into a spacious sky (exhalation).
Release of suffering
Introduction of practice for letting go of one’s own and others’ suffering into a state of open awareness.
Exchange with others – close target
The culmination of previous instruction are specifically applied to a close other (i.e,. a person that one cares about).
Participants visualize the disappearance of another’s suffering as they breath it inward and send compassion outward.
Exchange with others – neutral, unknown target and a difficult, annoying target
Extending practice of exchange with others to neutral and difficult targets.
Exchange with others – all sentient beings
Extending practice of exchange with others to all sentient beings.
... This interpretation suggests that those who engage in extraordinary, costly altruism to benefit anonymous strangers, such as altruistic organ donors, may be more generous both in the real world and in social discounting tasks (11,12) because they are extraordinarily good at overriding their selfish preferences. And perhaps interventions with the potential to increase costly generosity, such as loving kindness meditation (LKM) training (13,14), do so by improving the ability to override selfish preferences. ...
... This practice is designed to increase feelings of love and positivity for others at varying social distances (39). Prior work has linked LKM training with increased feelings of social connectedness (13,40,41), decreased intergroup bias (42), prosocial behavior in the laboratory (13,14), and charitable donations (13, 43)-although a recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that the robustness of such effects are moderated by the type of control group (active control versus waiting list) and whether the meditation intervention teacher coauthored the published work (44). Thus, while prior work suggests LKM may cause reductions in social discounting comparable to those observed in naturally-occurring altruists, this has not previously been tested. ...
... Finally, our study also indicated that undergoing an eight-week LKM training protocol aimed at increasing care and kindness towards others at varying social distances did not reduce social discounting, despite our predictions and despite some evidence linking similar training to laboratory-based prosociality (13,14). Instead, LKM training made decisions for distant others more difficult for participants. ...
Full-text available
Most people are much less generous toward strangers than close others, a bias termed social discounting. But people who engage in extraordinary real-world altruism, like altruistic kidney donors, show dramatically reduced social discounting. Why they do so is unclear. Some prior research suggests reduced social discounting requires effortfully overcoming selfishness via recruitment of temporoparietal junction. Alternatively, reduced social discounting may reflect genuinely valuing strangers’ welfare more due to how the subjective value of their outcomes is encoded in regions such as rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala. We tested both hypotheses in this pre-registered study. We also tested the hypothesis that a loving-kindness meditation (LKM) training intervention would cause typical adults’ neural and behavioral patterns to resemble altruists. Altruists and matched controls (N=77) completed a social discounting task during fMRI; 25 controls were randomized to complete LKM training. Neither behavioral nor imaging analyses supported the hypothesis that altruists’ reduced social discounting reflects effortfully overcoming selfishness. Instead, group differences emerged in social value encoding regions, including rostral ACC and amygdala. Activation in these regions corresponded to the subjective valuation of others’ welfare predicted by the social discounting model. LKM training did not result in more generous behavioral or neural patterns, but only greater perceived difficulty during social discounting. Our results indicate extraordinary altruists’ generosity results from the way regions involved in social decision-making encode the subjective value of others’ welfare. Interventions aimed at promoting generosity may thus succeed to the degree they can increase the subjective valuation of others’ welfare.
... Specifically, we already know that mindfulness-based programs may increase empathy (Cheang et al., 2019), reduce the slippery slope effects in moral decision-making related to making the tradeoff between money for myself and unpleasant electric shocks to another person (Du et al., 2023), or increase the level of moral reasoning and decision-making (Shapiro et al., 2012) measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) (Rest et al., 1999). Distinct aspects of mindfulness also relate to higher moral responsibility (Small & Lew, 2021), higher sensitivity to moral foundations (Verhaeghen & Aikman, 2020), increased compassionate responses to suffering (Condon et al., 2013), or moral sensitivity, moral identity, and prosocial behavior (Xiao et al., 2020). Additionally, not only may mindfulness impact how people behave, feel, and think regarding moral issues, as also selfcompassion was found to decrease the acceptance of own immoral behaviors (Wang et al., 2017) and was related to reduced unethical behavior through lower moral disengagement (Yang et al., 2020). ...
... Past studies showed that it is hard to predict people's behaviors based on their answers to moral dilemmas (Bostyn et al., 2018), and we need more studies to understand the complex link between what people think and what people do. However, past studies have already demonstrated that after a short mindfulness course, participants acted to relieve another person's suffering more frequently than those who have not completed the course (Condon et al., 2013). Future studies could test more directly how such courses impact moral judgment and behaviors simultaneously. ...
Full-text available
Objectives Meditation practices, mindfulness, and self-compassion have been found to affect our physical and mental well-being in many ways. However, can they also affect our moral judgment, for example, what we think about right and wrong? This study aims to explore the potential influence of meditation, mindfulness and self-compassion on utilitarian moral judgments. Method In Study 1 (n = 316), we measured participants’ frequency of meditation, their level of mindfulness, self-compassion, and their utilitarian moral judgment through two well-known moral dilemmas (switch and bridge) and using a two-dimensional model of moral psychology (the Oxford Utilitarianism Scale with negative, i.e., instrumental harm, and positive, i.e., impartial beneficence dimensions). In Study 2 (n = 41), we conducted a psychological 8-week mindfulness course and measured the same variables as in Study 1 before and after the course. Results In Study 1, we observed that participants who meditated more often exhibited lower levels of instrumental harm. In Study 2, we found that participants had a lower level of impartial beneficence after the 8-week mindfulness course. Conclusions Practices such as meditation may be related to moral judgment, specifically to lower acceptance of harming others (instrumental harm), but they may also reduce the concern for the welfare of as many people as possible (impartial beneficence). Further research is needed to understand better if and how moral judgments may change when people meditate and develop their mindfulness and self-compassion. Preregistration The studies were not pre-registered.
... In such circumstances, ethical instructions are unnecessary and may even tamper the outgrowths due to social desirability response (Berry et al., 2020;He et al., 2015). Nevertheless, among empirical research, both nonethic-based mindfulness training and ethic-based mindfulness equally increased prosociality (Condon et al., 2013; for review, see Donald et al., 2019). ...
... It was found that dispositional mindfulness is associated with inclusionary behavior in the Cyberball virtual tossing game (Jones et al., 2019). Long-term mindfulness intervention increased the odds of help-giving to a stranger with crutches (Condon et al., 2013). Short-term mindfulness interventions increased rates of volunteering to help people with chronic illness (Malin & Gumpel, 2022), and help-giving toward a racial outgroup member (Berry et al., 2021a). ...
Full-text available
Objectives Mindfulness is associated with personal psychological benefits, and recently, there has been an increase in research regarding its prosocial effect. This article reports on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the link between dispositional mindfulness and prosociality and the effect of certain mindfulness interventions on prosociality. Method A literature search was conducted to identify correlational studies that included a valid assessment of dispositional mindfulness or randomized controlled trials that conducted mindfulness interventions and measured overt prosocial outcomes among adults. Two separate random-effect models were set to examine the pooled effect sizes, and subsequent moderator analyses examined possible moderators to explain the heterogeneity in effect sizes across studies. Results The literature search resulted in 31 eligible studies (N = 16,432). The meta-analysis of the correlational studies (K = 7) resulted in a small-to-medium pooled effect size, g = 0.380, 95% CI [0.19, 0.56], and the meta-analysis of the intervention studies (K = 24) resulted in a small-pooled effect size, g = 0.271, 95% CI [0.08, 0.45]. There was no significant difference between short-term and long-term, nor between ethics-based and non-ethics-based interventions. The effect sizes of online studies were unreliable. There was evidence of publication bias in both models. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated the link between dispositional mindfulness and prosociality and the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions in increasing prosociality. While this effect might be short-lived, the preservation over time should be addressed by long-term follow-ups. This field of research would benefit from standardized protocols of intervention to prevent heterogeneity. Pre‑registration This study was not pre-registered.
... As such, increases in each of these wave amplitudes has the potential to indicate effective meditation. However, it is important to note that the length and depth of meditative states can vary among individuals, and the progression may also depend on various factors such as meditation technique, frequency of practice, and individual differences in mental and physiological characteristics [47][48][49]. ...
Full-text available
Prostate cancer (PCa) survivors often experience post-treatment challenges that impact their well-being and mental health. The Prostate Cancer Patient Empowerment Program (PC-PEP) aims to address these issues through a comprehensive intervention, involving daily meditation/breathing exercises, physical activity, pelvic floor exercises, emotional connection strategies, and peer support. This study presents a secondary analysis of a Phase 2 feasibility study that evaluated the effects of a 28-day PC-PEP intervention on stress reduction. Thirty patients with PCa from the Maritimes, Canada, underwent pre- and post-intervention assessments to measure brainwave activity (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma) using the Muse™ headband, and heart rate variability (HRV) using the HeartMath® Inner Balance™ as indicators of stress reduction. A statistically significant Time × Sensor Scalp Assessment Time interaction emerged for all brain waves. Amplitudes were generally higher during the first half of the meditation assessment time but became comparable afterward. A statistically significant Time × Sensor Scalp Location × Sensor Scalp Assessment Time interaction also emerged for alpha waves, indicating higher prefrontal lobe amplitudes than temporal lobe amplitudes from pre- to post-assessment. There were no statistically significant differences in HRV metrics from pre- to post-intervention, except for a marginally significant achievement score, indicating increased HRV coherence post-intervention. The findings suggest that the stress reduction component of PC-PEP successfully improved outcomes related to decreased stress. These results have implications for the development of future iterations of PC-PEP interventions, aiming to optimize participant benefits.
... It is through mindfulness and compassion meditation that someone will realize the connection between one's and others suffering and not the opposite. In fact, studies found that meditation increases compassionate response to suffering of others (Condon et al., 2013;Rosenberg et al., 2015), this is in-line with Buddhist teachings, which suggest that increases in compassionate responding should be a primary outcome of meditation (Davidson et al., 2003). In addition, mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation exercises have been found to increase connectedness with other humans and with nature (Aspy & Proeve, 2017;Hutcherson et al., 2008). ...
Full-text available
Purpose Previous compassion scales measured correlates or consequences of compassion, included mindfulness in their definition and do not fully operationalize the affective, cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal skills involved in cultivating compassion. The proposed Compassion Questionnaires towards Self (CQS) and Others (CQO) aim to operationalize compassion towards self and others by grounding them in affective, cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal dimensions with each representing a set of skills that can be cultivated through training and practice. Methods Based on the proposed theoretical approach, the CQS and CQO items were developed through consultations with a panel of eight graduate students and a group of ten experts in the field. A series of three studies were conducted to validate the questionnaires and test their clinical utility. Results Results from the three studies suggested the merging of the affective and cognitive dimensions, yielding three independent dimensions for both the CQS and CQO. These findings were additionally supported by convergent and discriminant evidence. In addition, results suggested that CQS and CQO subscales’ scores are moderately associated with mindfulness measures and are sensitive to mindfulness training or meditation practice and experience. Conclusions. The CQS and CQO are the first questionnaires that operationalize compassion towards self and others as sets of affective, cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal skills/abilities that are independent from mindfulness, and they have important theoretical and practical implications. Limitations as well as theoretical and practical implications of the CQS and CQO are thoroughly discussed.
... Compassion is often a core value of most of the world's religions and belief systems (Strauss et al., 2016). Cherry (2016) cites research that shows that adults can be taught to be more compassionate;; one of the techniques used is compassionate meditation, whose purpose is to produce caring feelings for other people who are suffering (Association for Psychological Science, 2013; ; Condon, Desbordes, Miller, & DeSteno, 2013;; DeSteno, 2015;; Kim & Shy, 2015). Humility, also a core value of many religions, can be taught together with compassion or by itself. ...
Full-text available
Leadership has captured people's interest from ancient times to the present day. This fascination has driven intergenerational stories of leaders, legends, fables, and leadership lessons. The significance of leadership to ancestral group survival implies that leaders were probably the protagonists of intra-- and intergenerational storytelling within a group. This historiographic essay presents an explanation of prominent leadership prototypes based on Zaccaro's framework (2014) describing four leadership prototypes: teacher, warrior, problem solver, and politician. This work further refines Zaccaro's framework by interfacing and reinterpreting these prototypes through four historical representations as seen through the lens of modern models of leadership. These representations and narratives of leadership prototypes include historical accounts from the Sage Kings of Chinese mythology, Plato's Philosopher King, The Rule of St. Benedict, and Machiavelli's The Prince. The interpretation of leadership experiences from a historic viewpoint can help point to the origin of the self--identities of today's leaders, whether they lead nations or corporations, communities or small organizational groups.
Full-text available
This study aims to positively examine the effect of yoga on psychological well-being and the mediator role of helpfulness on this effect. It is seen that they live with the quest to feel good and apply to yoga as a way to strengthen their mental health, having inreasing psychological well-being, and help people more. Therefore, yoga, psychological well-being, and helpfulness were examined in this study. Participants filled the scales via an online form. This study have participants whose ages are between 18–55. Demographic Information Form, Psychological Well-Being Scale, and Helpfulness Scale were used. The collected datas were analyzed by SPSS 23.0 analysis program. According to the findings, the mean score of helpfulness of who are yoga practitioners are significantly lower than non-yoga practitioners. However the mean score of psychological well-being significantly higher than non-yoga practitioners. There were found significant relationships between yoga, psychological well-being, and helpfulness. When there was examined the mediation analysis, helpfulness had a mediator role on the relationship between yoga, and psychological well-being. In the literature, there was a huge lack about the relationship between yoga, psychological we-being, and helpfulness. Thus, these results will show a new perspective to the researchers for explaining with these variables, mostly helpfulness.
Contemplative practices are a staple of modern life and have historically been intertwined with morality. However, do these practices in fact improve our morality? The answer remains unclear because the science of contemplative practices has focused on unidimensional aspects of morality, which do not align with the type of interdependent moral functioning these practices aspire to cultivate. Here, we appeal to a multifactor construct, which allows the assessment of outcomes from a contemplative intervention across multiple dimensions of moral cognition and behavior. This offers an open-minded and empirically rigorous investigation into the impact of contemplative practices on moral actions. Using this framework, we gain insight into the effect of mindfulness meditation on morality, which we show does indeed have positive influences, but also some negative influences, distributed across our moral functioning.
Full-text available
Purpose: Working mothers are leading several industries, and they strive to balance work and family. Mothers at work face their biggest challenges and live with constant guilt when they leave their children. Due to this stressful lifestyle, working mothers struggle to regulate their emotional health and may exhaust themselves, breakdown, or burnout. They can manage this chaos with mindfulness. Working mothers need mindfulness to stay sane. Mindfulness protects against stress, depression, anxiety and other mental health issues and improves human functioning and quality of life as well. Theoretical framework: Working mothers need mindfulness to stay sane. Mindfulness protects against stress, depression, anxiety and other mental health issues and improves human functioning and quality of life as well. Thus, by analyzing the significance of mindfulness among working mothers, this study was proposed to examine the relationship between mindfulness practice (MP) and the quality of life (QOL) of working mothers. Design/methodology/approach: Data was collected from the sample size of 217 respondents who were working mothers in different sectors. Mindfulness and QOL are measured using standardized questionnaires like the Cognitive Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R) and the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scale, respectively. Following data collection, structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis was employed using the partial least squares method. Findings: The findings reveal that there is a significant positive impact of Mindfulness practice on the Quality of work life of working mothers. Research, Practical & Social implications: The research results indicate that working mothers need to practice mindfulness in their routine lives to excel in parenting and to combat challenges in balancing work and life thus improving their QOL. Originality/value: There is meagre research conducted on mindfulness, thus this current study extends its originality on researching on impact of mindfulness practice on quality of life.
This study investigates the effects of an intensive Buddhist (Zen) meditation practice on reductions in existential isolation and increases in prosocial behavior. This study also examines whether the hypothesized reduction in existential isolation resulting from the intensive meditation practice predicts other‐focused compassion. Study 1 utilized a quasi‐experimental design to investigate the effects of meditation on existential isolation and other compassion by comparing healthy Koreans who completed a 7‐day intensive silent Zen meditation ( n = 35) with those who completed a 7‐day vacation ( n = 30). All participants completed measures twice: at baseline and after either their meditation retreat or their vacation. Study 2 used a longitudinal design to investigate whether Study 1 findings would replicate among 75 new TempleStay program participants. In Study 1, relative to participants in the vacation group, participants in the meditation group experienced reduced existential isolation and increased other‐focused compassion from Time 1 to Time 2. Reductions in existential isolation mediated the increases in other‐focused compassion. In Study 2, after a 1‐week intensive meditation training, participants experienced a reduction in existential isolation and an increased in other‐focused compassion; again, the reductions in existential isolation mediated increases in other‐focused compassion. Across two studies, we found evidence of reduced existential isolation and increased other‐focused compassion following an intensive Zen‐meditation practice. These results indicate that meditation practice may help people who suffer from existential isolation, as well as the people with whom they interact.
Full-text available
Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, increased altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and in DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training and that greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement of neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of other people, executive and emotional control, and reward processing.
Full-text available
Cultivation of mindfulness, the nonjudgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment, produces beneficial effects on well-being and ameliorates psychiatric and stress-related symptoms. Mindfulness meditation has therefore increasingly been incorporated into psychotherapeutic interventions. Although the number of publications in the field has sharply increased over the last two decades, there is a paucity of theoretical reviews that integrate the existing literature into a comprehensive theoretical framework. In this article, we explore several components through which mindfulness meditation exerts its effects: (a) attention regulation, (b) body awareness, (c) emotion regulation (including reappraisal and exposure, extinction, and reconsolidation), and (d) change in perspective on the self. Recent empirical research, including practitioners' self-reports and experimental data, provides evidence supporting these mechanisms. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies have begun to explore the neuroscientific processes underlying these components. Evidence suggests that mindfulness practice is associated with neuroplastic changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network, and default mode network structures. The authors suggest that the mechanisms described here work synergistically, establishing a process of enhanced self-regulation. Differentiating between these components seems useful to guide future basic research and to specifically target areas of development in the treatment of psychological disorders. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.
Full-text available
Compassion has been suggested to be a strong motivator for prosocial behavior. While research has demonstrated that compassion training has positive effects on mood and health, we do not know whether it also leads to increases in prosocial behavior. We addressed this question in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we introduce a new prosocial game, the Zurich Prosocial Game (ZPG), which allows for repeated, ecologically valid assessment of prosocial behavior and is sensitive to the influence of reciprocity, helping cost, and distress cues on helping behavior. Experiment 2 shows that helping behavior in the ZPG increased in participants who had received short-term compassion training, but not in participants who had received short-term memory training. Interindividual differences in practice duration were specifically related to changes in the amount of helping under no-reciprocity conditions. Our results provide first evidence for the positive impact of short-term compassion training on prosocial behavior towards strangers in a training-unrelated task.
Full-text available
Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program. Anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) images from 16 healthy, meditation-naïve participants were obtained before and after they underwent the 8-week program. Changes in gray matter concentration were investigated using voxel-based morphometry, and compared with a waiting list control group of 17 individuals. Analyses in a priori regions of interest confirmed increases in gray matter concentration within the left hippocampus. Whole brain analyses identified increases in the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the cerebellum in the MBSR group compared with the controls. The results suggest that participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking.
Full-text available
B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions asserts that people's daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time to build a variety of consequential personal resources. The authors tested this build hypothesis in a field experiment with working adults (n = 139), half of whom were randomly-assigned to begin a practice of loving-kindness meditation. Results showed that this meditation practice produced increases over time in daily experiences of positive emotions, which, in turn, produced increases in a wide range of personal resources (e.g., increased mindfulness, purpose in life, social support, decreased illness symptoms). In turn, these increments in personal resources predicted increased life satisfaction and reduced depressive symptoms. Discussion centers on how positive emotions are the mechanism of change for the type of mind-training practice studied here and how loving-kindness meditation is an intervention strategy that produces positive emotions in a way that outpaces the hedonic treadmill effect.
This book examines how Western behavioral science - which has generally focused on negative aspects of human nature - holds up to cross-cultural scrutiny, in particular the Tibetan Buddhist celebration of the human potential for altruism, empathy, and compassion. Resulting from a meeting between the Dalai Lama, leading Western scholars, and a group of Tibetan monks, this volume includes excerpts from these dialogues as well as engaging chapters exploring points of difference and overlap between the two perspectives.
According to our social-role theory of gender and helping, the male gender role fosters helping that is heroic and chivalrous, whereas the female gender role fosters helping that is nurturant and caring. In social psychological studies, helping behavior has been examined in the context of short-term encounters with strangers. This focus has tended to exclude from the research literature those helping behaviors prescribed by the female gender role, because they are displayed primarily in long-term, close relationships. In contrast, the helping behaviors prescribed by the male gender role have been generously represented in research findings because they are displayed in relationships with strangers as well as in close relationships. Results from our meta-analytic review of sex differences in helping behavior indicate that in general men helped more than women and women received more help than men. Nevertheless, sex differences in helping were extremely inconsistent across studies and were successfully predicted by various attributes of the studies and the helping behaviors. These predictors were interpreted in terms of several aspects of our social-role theory of gender and helping.
Objective: To examine the hypothesis that diverse ties to friends, family, work, and community are associated with increased host resistance to infection. Design: After reporting the extent of participation in 12 types of social ties (eg, spouse, parent, friend, workmate, member of social group), subjects were given nasal drops containing 1 of 2 rhinoviruses and monitored for the development of a common cold. Setting: Quarantine. Participants: A total of 276 healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 55 years, neither seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus nor pregnant. Outcome measures: Colds (illness in the presence of a verified infection), mucus production, mucociliary clearance function, and amount of viral replication. Results: In response to both viruses, those with more types of social ties were less susceptible to common colds, produced less mucus, were more effective in ciliary clearance of their nasal passages, and shed less virus. These relationships were unaltered by statistical controls for prechallenge virus-specific antibody, virus type, age, sex, season, body mass index, education, and race. Susceptibility to colds decreased in a dose-response manner with increased diversity of the social network. There was an adjusted relative risk of 4.2 comparing persons with fewest (1 to 3) to those with most (6 or more) types of social ties. Although smoking, poor sleep quality, alcohol abstinence, low dietary intake of vitamin C, elevated catecholamine levels, and being introverted were all associated with greater susceptibility to colds, they could only partially account for the relation between social network diversity and incidence of colds. Conclusions: More diverse social networks were associated with greater resistance to upper respiratory illness.