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Abstract

This introduction to the special issue considers past and current research on “Social Capital and Entrepreneurship” to develop a schema and an associated research agenda. With the general goal of establishing social capital as a foundational theory of entrepreneurship, we discuss how future research can utilize social capital perspectives across levels of analysis and contexts to explain a wide variety of entrepreneurship phenomena.

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... Social groups (such as family, teams, social class) to which people belong are an important source of identity [85]. Since entrepreneurship is highly social [3,37,82], social context can come into play in forming entrepreneurial identity [33,81]. ...
... To fill these two gaps, this study takes a contingency perspective to investigate the link between entrepreneurial persistence and performance. Since entrepreneurship is inherently a socially situated activity [3,37,82], different sources of social support that entrepreneurs receive may interact with entrepreneurial persistence to drive performance. We argue support from peer entrepreneurs in the same online marketplace community, denoted as online community peer support, are especially relevant entrepreneurial resources in this context. ...
... Finally, this study expands our understanding of peer support in an online marketplace setting. Scholars have long called for studies to explore the effects of social support exchange on entrepreneurship [37]. Especially in an online context, as social media applications (e.g., online seller communities, discussion groups, forums) proliferate, peer support manifests in a new digital form-online community peer support. ...
Article
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Online marketplaces, as two-sided platforms connecting sellers and buyers electronically, have become a fierce battlefield for entrepreneurs to launch a business. However, existing studies on electronic commerce have mainly focused on consumer behavior; literature is sparse regarding why some entrepreneurial sellers have withdrawn from the online marketplaces while others persist. In this paper, we investigate the antecedents and outcomes of entrepreneurial persistence in online marketplaces. Using primary survey data and secondary store traffic and trade volume data from a large online marketplace, we find that entrepreneurial persistence enhances performance in online marketplaces. Instrumental support from peer entrepreneurs in the same online community strengthens this positive link. Entrepreneurial passion and sense of belonging to online marketplaces are significant precursors of entrepreneurial persistence. This study advances knowledge development in digital entrepreneurship by offering a systematic investigation of entrepreneurial persistence in online marketplaces. It also provides implications to individual entrepreneurs in terms of how to sustain efforts and succeed, and to platform companies in terms of how to better serve their entrepreneurial sellers.
... Because social relationships between and among actors "drive opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploitation", social capital has been recognized as a foundational perspective of entrepreneurship (Gedajlovic, Honig, Moore, Payne, & Wright, 2013, p. 455). Indeed, social capital has been studied in relation to creativity, intentions to create a new venture, innovation, growth, venture financing, among many other entrepreneurial outcomes (Gedajlovic et al., 2013). That said, the involvement of the family in a business is an important additional consideration when examining how social capital is linked to entrepreneurship. ...
... Social capital, on the other hand, represents the resources (e.g., trust, goodwill, information, financial capital) embedded within and derived from the networks of relationships. So, social capital is generally thought of as resulting from social relationships and leading to important outcomes, including entrepreneurial ones (Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Generally speaking, social capital is the linchpin that connects relational ties and networks to activities and outcomes. ...
... While the relationship between social ties/networks and social capital is conceptually straightforward, the reality is much more complex and Gedajlovic et al., 2013) ambiguous. One key issue lending to the complexity is that it is difficult to fully understand if, how, and in what ways an actor-be it an individual, family, firm, or even a community-holds, controls, and maintains certain resources. ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the issue of entrepreneurship in family businesses (and business-owning families) through the lens of social capital, which generally represents the value embedded in the social relationships of individuals or collectives. We discuss how social networks can be utilized to develop and sustain entrepreneurship in family businesses by providing conduits for social capital in the form of information, knowledge, financial capital, and other resources. Some practical examples are given that may help families and family business leaders foster an environment that builds and supports the pursuit of opportunities.
... One key element of an entrepreneur's social environment is social capital (Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Social capital is an asset based on individuals' relationships and involves the added value which flows from friends, colleagues, and others (Adler & Kwon, 2002;Burt, 1992). ...
... Social capital is an asset based on individuals' relationships and involves the added value which flows from friends, colleagues, and others (Adler & Kwon, 2002;Burt, 1992). Studies exploring the role of social capital in entrepreneurial intention, or its antecedents, have mainly focused on social capital offline (e.g., Liñán & Santos, 2007;Sequeira et al., 2007), which is developed face to face over long periods (Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Some recent studies have explored the impact of social capital in virtual communities on the entrepreneurial intention of online university students (Pérez-Macías et al., 2018, 2019b and in comparison to face-to-face students (Pérez-Macías et al., 2019a). ...
... Specifically, we draw on the three dimensions of social capital developed by Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998): structural, relational, and cognitive. Previous entrepreneurship literature has employed this perspective (e.g., De Carolis & Saparito, 2006;Liao & Welsch, 2005) in an effort to recognize and differentiate multiple forms of social capital (Gedajlovic et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Entrepreneurial intention is a key research question in entrepreneurship. Previous studies have proven the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain entrepreneurial intention. Scholars have thus focused on analyzing factors to develop the three antecedents of TPB, one of which is social capital. However, research has barely considered social capital online. We extend research by exploring the effect of social capital on these antecedents and on entrepreneurial intention, and by analyzing the differences in these influences between social capital online and offline. Using partial least squares and commonality analysis for 587 individuals in Spain, we find that social capital influences these antecedents and entrepreneurial intention. Furthermore, social capital online has a greater effect in attitude toward entrepreneurship, a similar effect on perceived behavioral control, and a lesser effect on social norms than social capital offline. Finally, social capital online has a greater influence on entrepreneurial intention than social capital offline. JEL CLASSIFICATION: M1 Business Administration, M13 New Firms • Startups
... [1] If an entrepreneur has a strong individual and collective antecedent this in turn reflects on the size and "value" of his/ her individual and collective social network which then results in both the individual and collective having a "durable" social capital that has been brought about by shared experiences and motivation towards the same objective. Gedajlovic et al. [22] in 2013, noted that positive social capital whether individual or collective, bears significant impact J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f on the individual and collective entrepreneurial outcomes. Many positive outcomes therefore accumulate and result in individual and collective performance outcomes i.e. in this case project outcomes. ...
... If an entrepreneur has a strong individual and collective antecedent this in turn reflects on the size and "value" of his/ her individual and collective social network which then results in both the individual and collective having a "durable" social capital that has been brought about by shared experiences and motivation towards the same objective. According to Gedajlovic et al. [22] positive social capital whether individual or collective, bears significant impact on the individual and collective entrepreneurial outcomes. Many positive outcomes therefore accumulate and result in individual and collective performance outcomes i.e. in this case project outcomes. ...
... As the backers count was above 24,500, there would be 2 probabilities; a backer's count that is lower than 40,500; whereby the possibility of project success decreases to 0 and the number of failed projects increases to 2 with 0 live projects and 0 cancelled projects. If the backer's count was higher than 40,500, then the likelihood of project success would increase to 467 successful projects, 22 failed, 6 live projects and 3, cancelled. The time duration of the projects of lesser than 8.5 and more than 6.5 days means that there would be 23 projects that would be successful, 272 failed, 11 live projects and 25 cancelled as shown in the algorithm1.0 ...
Article
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Abstrct The essence of this paper is to analyse the ripple effects caused from the intertwining and complex relationship between the relational and structural dimensions of social capital on the US based Kick starter projects’ outcomes. This will be measured based on real time data collected from the Kick starter.com in form of 1157 projects organised in the structure of;the number of backers, amount of time taken to fund the projects and the converted amount pledged towards the projects,as classified according to various project categories and geographical locations. This research applies qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis methods as well as data mining techniques; k-Nearest Neighbour, Naive Bayes and Decision Tree Algorithms. The results from this research confirm that relational social capital i.e. the number of backers involved in the projects, has significantly strong and positive impact on the converted amount pledged towards a project and the project outcome. This paper also offers a feasible decision-making model that will be used by the entrepreneurs in the future to determine which type of project categories an entrepreneur can choose to host and the project outcome.
... As a result, on average, social capital is significantly and positively related to small firm performance (Stam et al., 2014). Broadly defined, social capital refers here to value embedded in entrepreneurs' social relationships and social networks (Adler & Kwon, 2002;Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Often, entrepreneurs build on their personal social capital and carry that over to their venture, for instance by transforming friends into customers (e.g. ...
... Although the last decades witnessed many new techniques that improved the measurement of networks and the content forming and flowing through these networks, there are still significant challenges to match network and social capital theory with the methods being used (Berthod et al., 2017;Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Hoang & Yi, 2015). Therefore, we provide an overview of methods and measures being used (see Tables 2 and 3). ...
... This recombination process is a firm-level process, whereas the network interactions are at the individual level; therefore, this provides a good illustration of multi-level network effects (e.g. Gedajlovic et al., 2013). The diversifying mechanism shows how the content-structure interaction-or more precisely, the interaction between material and cognitive content and the diversity of network ties-can have higher-level outcomes. ...
Article
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Network studies in the entrepreneurship domain suffer from an incomplete theorization of how the content of social capital relates to network relationships and structures in which entrepreneurs are embedded or embed themselves. This study presents a systematic review of the various ways in which the interaction between content (e.g. cognition and resources) and social structure has been studied within entrepreneurship. Based on this review, we develop a more integrative account of the underlying action mechanisms that link the content and structure of social capital. These mechanisms cut across different research traditions and align areas of entrepreneurship research. In this way, we contribute an integrative review of prior work and a formative set of directions for further theorizing and research on social capital, networks and entrepreneurship.
... Crucial theoretical work espouses the power of family social capital (Arregle et al., 2007;Danes, Stafford, Haynes, & Amarapurkar, 2009;Gudmunson & Danes, 2013;Hoffman, Hoelscher, & Sorenson, 2006;Herrero, 2018;Herrero & Hughes 2019;Pearson, Carr, & Shaw, 2008;Sorenson & Bierman, 2009;Zahra, 2010). In general, social capital represents the value embedded in individuals' or groups' social relationships, through which actual and potential resources become accessible (Adler & Kwon, 2002;Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Herrero, 2018;Hughes et al., 2014). These social relationships are ultimately at the individual level, between an actor in one group or organization and an actor in another but bear relevance for creating organizational-level social capital capable of improving firm performance (Zaheer et al., 1998;Schell, Hiepler, & Moog, 2018). ...
... There are two main reasons for this. First, when social relations are only established based on kinship, the knowledge and resources acquired through such familial external connections can become too homogeneous (Anderson et al., 2005;Gedajlovic et al., 2013), even if relations with family members in other firms outside the family firm present some diversity. Establishing nonfamily relations provides access to new and non-redundant knowledge and resources (Sirmon & Hitt, 2003) to enhance the existing knowledge pool (Chrisman et al., 2009). ...
Article
The benefits or drawbacks of family social capital for family firm performance are hotly debated among scholars. Most of the debate adopts an internal view of family social capital and focuses on familial relations taking place within the boundaries of the family firm or the family business group. However, overlooked in this debate is the role of potentially valuable family bonds held with family members outside the family firm and the family business group’s boundaries—family members working for other firms without ownership connections. We strive to advance this debate by placing the focus on a new category of family social capital originating from social relations with family members working in other firms in the same industry. In so doing, we theoretically and empirically tease out how the number of ties with family members located in other independent firms within the boundaries of a given industry affects family firms’ performance. We also account for the moderating effect on this baseline relationship of the number of ties with members of other firms not bearing a family connection. In so doing, we add new insights to address the paradox among family firm studies about why seemingly vital social relations only sometimes matter for family firm performance. Highlights: • Existing studies adopt an internal view of family social relations. • We offer an external category of family social relations and family social capital. • Valuable family bonds outside the family firm can increase firm performance. • This relationship is enhanced by a stock of external nonfamily social relations.
... In accordance with implications the social capital research revealed, it is likely that relationships serve as a source of innovation, new ideas, a way to lower risks, and consequently support entrepreneurial success (Addicott, 2017;Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Profiting of their community- (Gedajlovic et al., 2013) and the intensity of ties, since for-profit network research assumes especially medium and weak ties like memberships in associations as relevant regarding EO (Granovetter, 1973;Jiang et al., 2018;Yetim, 2008). ...
... In accordance with implications the social capital research revealed, it is likely that relationships serve as a source of innovation, new ideas, a way to lower risks, and consequently support entrepreneurial success (Addicott, 2017;Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Profiting of their community- (Gedajlovic et al., 2013) and the intensity of ties, since for-profit network research assumes especially medium and weak ties like memberships in associations as relevant regarding EO (Granovetter, 1973;Jiang et al., 2018;Yetim, 2008). ...
Article
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While entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in nonprofit organizations (NPOs) is often considered as another businesslike behavior, the present systematic literature review changes this perspective by revealing that the construct refers to several specific third sector organizations' qualities and leverages financial and mission goals simultaneously. EO as a strategic posture of organizations is already well established in management and strategy literature whereas corresponding insights in NPOs are indeed expanded, but fragmented. To develop this research stream, a systematic literature review was conducted, that analyses the results of 76 studies about EO in NPOs. Besides describing current findings, this paper generates a comprehensive overview of applied constructs, drivers influencing EO, and goals promoted by this strategic posture. The context-specific modification of the construct leads to the presumption that EO does not predominantly target businesslike initiatives, but holds a lot of potential meeting NPO's core challenges, such as the fulfillment of various stakeholders' expectations or diverse resources acquisition. The discussion elaborates to what extent EO serves as a viable alternative to highly discussed third sector developments of business approximation.
... One way family social capital can flow within the business is through family support, which can yield benefits but also costs (Arregle et al. 2007;Stam, Arzlanian, and Elfring 2014). Similarly, external social capital can flow within the firm through support from financial institutions, friends, government agencies, non-profit organizations, suppliers, distributors, and angel venture capitalists (Adiguna and Sharif 2014;Gedajlovic et al. 2013). Thus, managerial skill is considered stock as it derives from previous routines and indicates how well an entrepreneur is doing in this dimension. ...
... Both the RBV and social capital theory acknowledge the critical role of the family in the development of entrepreneurial activities (Gedajlovic et al. 2013;Habbershon, Williams, and MacMillan 2003). Families are often a source of financial and non-financial resources, providing access to both social and human capital of family members who are committed and open to receiving lower salaries than non-family employees (Cruz, Justo, and De Castro 2012;Habbershon and Williams 1999). ...
Article
The success of women-owned businesses with regard to the stages of economic development of countries is under-examined on a global basis. This study explores the relationship between country economic and poli- tical contexts and assesses the importance of entrepreneurs’ networks and managerial skills on women’s entrepreneurial success. The research uses data from 22 countries chosen from multi-dimensional country context constructs (i.e., select economic and political factors) and measures both family and external moral and financial support and managerial skills. The results show that stock (managerial skill) and flow (family and non-family support) differentially influence women’s entrepreneurial success in coun- tries at varying levels of competitive development. In particular, the results confirm the positive influence of managerial skills and family moral and financial support on women’s entrepreneurial success (based on annual income) in countries at a higher level of competitive development and confirm their negative influence in countries at a lower level of competitive growth. Moreover, the results reveal influences of non-family financial sup- port (positive for highly competitive countries) on income but not non- family moral support. Public policy implications are discussed.
... Social capital is the "sum of actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by individuals or social units" (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998, p. 243). Networks and social capital are particularly important from a resource perspective, because networks act as conduits through which entrepreneurial teams access the resources they need for the growth and development of their startups (Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Leung et al., 2006;Stuart and Sorenson, 2007;Stam et al., 2014;Vissa and Chacar, 2009). ...
... To what extend cognition and network contribute independently is a question for future research. It would be interesting to disentangle the roles of cognitive and network aspects empirically (Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Our sample is limited to startups that participated in the Techstars accelerator, which is by no means representative of the majority of startups. ...
Article
Full-text available
Extant literature suggests that ethnically diverse work teams can generate both positive and negative outcomes, but it is unclear how startup teams are affected. We seek to help clarify the relationship between startup team ethnic diversity and total investment capital. Using statistical analyses on a dataset of startups that participated in Techstars accelerator programs between 2007 and 2018, our results suggest that startup team ethnic diversity is positively associated with the aggregate amount of investment capital raised by startups. Our study results suggest that ‘diversity as advantage’ theories may be more appropriate for theorizing about startup fundraising than ‘diversity as disadvantage’ theories.
... Granovetter's early work focuses on the role of ties in the employability of individuals. Overall, this approach emphasizes the identification and measurement of such ties and network characteristics and is mainly concerned with the role of social capital in entrepreneurial activity (Gedajlovic et al., 2013). ...
... The SN perspective has theoretically and empirically emphasized the role played by social capital in shaping entrepreneurship (see Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Social capital describes "the sum of resources, actual or virtual, that accrue to an individual or a group by virtue of possessing a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition" (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992, p. 119). ...
Article
The objective of this article is to explore the influence of home bias and the moderating role of social networks (and more particularly family and friends—F&F) in the crowdfunding of a microbrewery in a French region (a lucrative business that uses a territorial solidarity process). We have chosen the case study as methodology to show that neither home bias nor F&F have a significant influence on amounts paid by individuals in crowdfunding. The results are specific to the case studied and are comparable to those of social enterprise. They explain but also justify the behavioural diversity crowdfunding can induce. L’objectif de cet article est d’explorer l’influence du biais domestique et le rôle modérateur des réseaux sociaux (et plus particulièrement de la famille et des amis – F&A) dans le financement participatif (« crowdfunding ») d’une microbrasserie dans une région française (une entreprise lucrative qui utilise le processus de solidarité territoriale). Nous avons choisi l’étude de cas comme méthodologie pour montrer que ni le biais domestique ni les F&F n’ont une influence significative sur les montants payés par la foule. Les résultats sont spécifiques au cas étudié et sont comparables à ceux de l’entreprise sociale. Ils expliquent mais aussi justifient toute la diversité comportementale que le financement participatif peut induire.
... Scholars have long suggested that leadership in universities automatically assumes distributed characteristics (Dansereau & Yammarino, 1998;Middlehurst, 1993) because leaders must draw from a broad range of expertise distributed across the entire university community . Indeed, contemporary leadership theories and practices in international higher education increasingly account for the relational, networked, and entrepreneurial nature of today's postsecondary landscape by building, maintaining, and drawing on change agents' social capital to achieve desired outcomes (Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Mays, 2017). Therefore, we believe that increasingly complex social and organizational realities necessitate more nuanced approaches rooted in relational human interaction and propose that international higher education leaders espouse a collectivistic leadership approach that includes the empowerment and motivation of followers (Kezar et al., 2006;Yammarino et al., 2012). ...
Book
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In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, most traditional postsecondary internationalization models built around inbound and outbound student mobility struggle to remain viable. With mobility as a common manifestation of an institution’s international activities greatly curtailed, many internationalization leaders are reprioritizing efforts toward meaningful and sustainable on-campus programs and curricula, transdisciplinary collaboration, greater access to international experiences, and holistic student engagement through equitable and socially responsive practices. This paper interrogates and extends traditional concepts of leadership in international higher education and proposes specific competencies, dispositions, attributes, and behaviors to support a shift toward organizational and curricular changes in the interest of preparing all students for the complexities of an increasingly unknowable future.
... The literature on social capital and firm performance argues that this relationship depends on the nature of the social capital (Gedajlovic et al., 2013). The more externally connected a minority entrepreneur, the more likely the entrepreneur is to be informed of critical opportunities in the markets and will receive crucial advice from banks and other entities represented by the external ties (Wang and Altinay, 2010). ...
... Most of them found that social capital positively affects entrepreneurial activity in terms of both decision and quality (Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Kansikas & Murphy, 2011;Welsh et al., 2021). ...
Article
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This article investigates the impact of social interactions on household entrepreneurial behavior using the data of the China Family Finance Survey (CHFS) in 2015. The results show that social interaction has a positive influence on household entrepreneurship. More social interactions are associated with a higher likelihood of participating in both business and agricultural entrepreneurship. Moreover, the positive effect of social interaction on entrepreneurship increases with the relaxation of financial constraints faced by households. Finally, entrepreneurship is more motivated by social interaction for women than men. The results obtained in the benchmark are testified to be reliable after addressing the potential endogeneity of social interactions and using a different regression method.
... Further complicating the immigration and entrepreneurship relationship is that attitudes toward entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship are embedded within the social and cultural norms of their community, both their community of origin and their new community (Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Lassmann & Busch, 2015;Mickiewicz et al., 2017). This can be seen in how religious traditions, for example, influence how people think about entrepreneurship with some religious traditions nurturing entrepreneurship, but others hindering it (Audretsch et al., 2007(Audretsch et al., , 2013Conroy & Deller, 2021;Hoogendoorn et al., 2016). ...
... Networking is defined as the extent of entrepreneur's relationships cultivation with external entities that affects a firm's competitive advantage and performance (Su et al., 2015). In the field of entrepreneurship, great emphasis has been placed on the role of networking towards the success of entrepreneurial activities (Johannisson, 2011;Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Martinez and Aldrich (2011) argue that networking may define whether individuals develop desire to pursue, and skills for entrepreneurial success. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine factors leading to venture success, emphasizing the role of entrepreneurs as critical in the whole process, based on a sample of women entrepreneurs. Drawing upon the competence-based view of the firm, it examines the effect of entrepreneurial competencies, managerial competencies and reliance on networks toward increased female venture success rates. Design/methodology/approach A structured questionnaire was allocated to women entrepreneurs to seek respondents’ perceptions. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was undertaken to confirm the constructs’ validity. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed to test the hypotheses. Findings Networking stands out as having the most significant positive effect on venture success while entrepreneurial and managerial core competencies are both important, with entrepreneurial competencies demonstrating a slightly higher score. Also, years of entrepreneurial experience, entrepreneurial family background and family status prove significant. Research limitations/implications The study confirms prior research, highlighting the role of entrepreneurs as central, sharpening understanding of the required determinants of venture success. It further provides new insight into venture success from the perspective of the competence-based theory, highlighting clear-cut competencies. Practical implications The study paves the way for the design of entrepreneurial learning programs targeting entrepreneurs and particularly females, highlighting the need for on-going education and educational programs to support entrepreneurs and distinctly women. Originality/value The study contributes to the effective management of venture progress and success and provides insight into entrepreneurs and policymakers.
... The Greiner model, in general, can provide an efficient framework to entrepreneurs for identifying and exploring team members of an entrepreneurial organisation at specific evolutionary stages also identifies how processes over time change. Also, through the life cycle of team members, the phases of maturity, decline, reconfiguration, and recovery of entrepreneurial organisations can be considered (Gedajlovic et al. 2013). According to Delmar et al. (2003) study, the growth of entrepreneurial venture capital is irregular, so steps need to be taken to revitalise declining organisations, for example, by creating new links and selecting new team members and leaders (Zahra et al. 2009). ...
... A large number of scholars (Aldrich & Zimmer, 1986;Arafat et al., 2018;Brush et al., 2017;Davidsson & Honig, 2003;De Carolis et al., 2009;De Carolis & Saparito, 2006;Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998) have acknowledged the role of social capital in explaining the entrepreneurial activity. According to Ramos-Rodríguez et al. (2012, p. 581), 'social capital is clearly related with social network theory'. ...
Article
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Executive Summary In the present era, the role of women entrepreneurship has been recognized in the process of economic development worldwide; hence, it must be promoted. Before designing any policy intervention to boost women entrepreneurship, it is important to understand the factors driving women to become entrepreneurs. The previous research on women entrepreneurship was preoccupied with performance of businesses run by women. This research aimed at answering the question: ‘What motivates or discourages the women of a society or an economy from becoming an entrepreneur?’ More specifically, this research investigates factors affecting the entrepreneurial propensity of Indian women through the lenses of cognitive and social capital perspectives. The present study is steered to enhance the understanding of women entrepreneurship at a niche level. Scholars have tried to explain factors affecting women entrepreneurship using myriad of approaches. However, these approaches have been criticized on methodological, conceptual and predictive ability weaknesses. Recently, cognitive and social capital perspectives have gained currency in explaining entrepreneurship. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of cognitive factors—opportunity perception (Hypothesis 1), risk perception (Hypothesis 2) and perceived capabilities (Hypothesis 3)—and social capital factors—social networks (Hypothesis4) and informal investment (Hypothesis 5)—on women’s entrepreneurial propensity in India, a developing country. A data set of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey including a sample of 1305 Indians was used and binary logistic regression technique was employed to analyse the data. The finding shows that the entrepreneurial opportunities have no significant influence on women entrepreneurship; risk perception discourages women from becoming entrepreneurs, and perceived capabilities influence the decision of women to engage in entrepreneurship; social network motivates women to be entrepreneurial, and being an informal investor encourages them to start their venture. Surprisingly, we do not find support for opportunity perception. Therefore, policymakers should pay more attention to these factors of perception and social networks so that, the propensity of a woman to become entrepreneur would be increased.
... Networking is a vital way for entrepreneurs to gain access to important resources, including information, knowledge, skills, and financial capital (Gedajlovic, Honig, Moore, Payne & Wright, 2013). Entrepreneurs that create strong networks not only have access to more resources than those without networks (Shu, Ren, & Zheng, 2018), but also tend to be more successful in the businesses they create (Ozcan & Eisenhardt, 2009). ...
Article
Crowdfunding has become an increasingly popular tool for entrepreneurs to solicit public funding from individuals. As its popularity grows, entrepreneurs are seeking to learn more about crowdfunding to improve their chances of success. In this article, we explore how podcasts can offer fresh insights to crowdfunding and serve as an effective tool for entrepreneurs to improve their knowledge and the likelihood that their campaigns are funded. We discuss key insights for entrepreneurs offered by ten popular podcast episodes on crowdfunding. Each episode offers enduring lessons for entrepreneurs interested in launching a campaign and also exemplifies the value that podcasts can potentially offer entrepreneurs.
... In a positive feedback, gradually-increased vouchers would hopefully increase the innovativeness and capability of the collaboration ecosystem, making the community more resilient and productive through increased social capital (Gedajlovic, Honig, Moore, Payne, & Wright, 2013). ...
Thesis
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As a thesis by publication, the candidate presents his published or submitted first-author research papers that develop a model to explain the innate capacity of humans to collaborate in egalitarian teams. Group dynamics are comprised of the minutiae of member perceptions and reactions that cohere a group. This research addresses the lack of a compelling (comprehensive, accurate and detailed) model of group dynamics. The word model describes a simplified representation of reality, that may encapsulate multiple theories. By contrast, theory is singular and suggests only partial representation of reality. A model may therefore offer a more complete representation and may achieve the consilience of numerous theories. This thesis formulates the PILAR model and evaluates each of its five Pillars (Prospects, Involved, Liked, Agency, Respect) and 20 interconnecting forces for their collective capacity to characterise a small group. Various empirical and conceptual evaluations allow the candidate to recommend PILAR as a consilience model that credibly integrates numerous theories while representing an extensive assortment of group dynamics. Chapter one Reviews current group dynamics literature; including concepts, models, perspectives, and methodologies. Reasons are proposed for why social and organisational psychology has (arguably) failed to converge upon a compelling baseline model that is consistent with anthropological hominin groups. To demonstrate a potential application of such a model, I examine a practitioner method of organisational devolution, Appreciative Inquiry (AI). The chapter then presents a novel, iterative, method for developing a baseline model of group dynamics that has been adopted by the candidate. Chapter two (published) Proposes PILAR as a baseline model of group dynamics encapsulating a significant proportion of social and group psychology (SGP) theory. PILAR postulates five ostensive constructs (Pillars) that each member is unconsciously influenced by, when moderating their level of effort, or engagement. These five Pillars then prompt various participant behaviours, including both visible actions such as expressing an opinion or aiding another member, and hidden actions such as thought processes, which may only be evident in body language (if at all). Chapters three, four and five (all published) These three chapters examine whether group members use the five Pillars to assess one another’s contribution to a team. A member observing a colleague’s low Pillars may deduce their poor engagement, while higher Pillars suggest significant effort. A member might also collectively evaluate colleagues’ Pillars to assess a group’s overall engagement, either to match this level, or strategically vary from it, for instance to demonstrate leadership (discussed further in §8.3.3). Chapter three considers whether peer assessment data is indicative of a student team’s collective engagement, and therefore team grade. However only a weak correlation between team grade and team engagement is found. Empirical investigation reveals that half of the respondents answered the survey insincerely, as demonstrated by a lack of variance between responses. Recommendations are made for an improved, and shorter, peer assessment instrument to encourage sincere responses. Using an Exploratory Factor Analysis, Chapter four tests whether respondents aligned their item responses in accordance with the five Pillars. Results were as hypothesised, which prompts the candidate to assess whether the five Pillars were present in a popular online peer assessment tool, the Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness (CATME). It is found that CATME’s originating methodology had excluded two Pillars from consideration. High inter-correlations between CATME’s dimensions may have been the result of redundancy as three Pillars were extended over five dimensions. Chapter five reports the design of a brief peer assessment instrument informed by the Pillars, called Pillar-PP, that assesses a respondent’s peer’s perceptions. The chapter concludes with a recommendation to validate Pillar-PP, while also attempting to identify inter-rater bias between respondents. Chapter six (published) To investigate the universality of PILAR, Chapter six attempts unification of two divergent literatures, one positivist and one constructivist. Regarding the positivist literature, it was postulated that should PILAR accurately represent the small group, its Pillars may be able to categorise industrial and organisational psychology (IOP) constructs, since organisations are constituted by (albeit, hierarchical) teams. Regarding the constructivist literature, AI is action research that facilitates the formation of egalitarian team to undertake ad hoc projects. Chapters seven (published) and eight (submitted) These two chapters develop an evolutionary story behind a postulated baseline model. Chapter seven contends that sub-group level selection (sGLS) selected for pre-verbal anthropological prosociality. Chapter eight extends sGLS by considering how hominins and modern humans moderate their engagement as hierarchy steepness varies. Chapter nine (submitted) Assesses to extent to which Pillars are represented within a systematically selected set of constructs used for group research. It is found that approximately 80% of constructs conceptually align with one Pillar, which suggests that PILAR constitutes a baseline model. Chapter ten (published) Applies PILAR to two growing societal problems, mental health and precarious employment. I develop a model that connects the five Pillars with wellbeing via constructs associated with positive psychology. Each Pillar is postulated as only being reliably achievable when a member possesses the respective dimension of psychological capital (PsyCap). Furthermore, that participation in the team delivers the member each of five basic psychological needs (BPN). When examined in the context of low-status, precarious, employment, a novel public policy for increasing population wellbeing is presented. Chapter eleven The conclusion summarises the sequence of postulates developed through the course of the thesis. Policy and theory implications were then explored, followed by chapter-specific limitations that are potentially significant in aggregation. The thesis ends with a contention that a unique methodology allows deeper insights than ordinarily possible in a dynamically complex problem space.
... Embeddedness contributes to enterprise development through access to benefits from the network structure (Dushnitsky & Shaver, 2009;Zane & DeCarolis, 2016), such as access to tangible resources (e.g., financial resources; Batjargal et al., 2013), learning benefits (Powell et al., 1996), emotional support (Shane, 2003), and enhanced status and legitimacy (Burt, 1997). However, (over-)embeddedness can also lead to a lack of novel or diverse information, lock-in in cohesive networks, or psychological pressure (di Falco & Bulte, 2011;Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Khavul et al., 2009;Khayesi & George, 2011), pointing to the importance of examining how nascent entrepreneurs are-and become-beneficially embedded (Hughes et al., 2007;Jack, 2005;McKeever et al., 2014). Hence, more carefully examining the emergence and underlying social undercurrents of these networks is necessary (Eveleens et al., 2017;Friederici, 2015;Giudici et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Incubators often play an important role in facilitating networks for entrepreneurs. However, nascent entrepreneurs typically face high uncertainty and goal ambiguity, and which ties could provide the resources needed for achieving the respective goal is often unknown in advance. How do incubators facilitate entrepreneurs' network embeddedness in the context of such uncertainty? Using an explorative case-study approach, we studied an incubator in Kenya, an extreme setting from an uncertainty perspective. Our findings show how in high-uncertainty contexts, a social structure that allows for flexibility can provide the conditions under which unexpected discoveries are enabled, facilitating opportunity-inducing networks.
... The concept of networking and norms of trust generate expectations of cooperation between actors, which affects economic activities by lowering transaction costs (Fukuyama, 2002). Empirical studies show that social capital induces entrepreneurship both in the formal and informal sectors because of its multiple effects (Galloway, Sanders and Deakins, 2011;Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Landry, Amara and Lamari, 2002). It influences trust-based behavior that facilitates cooperation, ensures information flow through networking, forms and enforces the entrepreneur's credibility vis-à-vis partners and customers, thus reducing transaction costs (Fukuyama, 2001). ...
Article
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Our study explores the effect of institutions in determining the prevalence of formal entrepreneurship and investigates the entrepreneurial choice in response to these institutions. To pursue the objectives of the study, we utilized eleven years of data from 23 countries of the Asian region. As explanatory variables, entry regulations were taken as a proxy measure of formal institutions; whereas, social capital was considered a proxy measure of informal institutions. Based on the nature of data, we applied a pooled OLS regression model to examine the influence of explanatory variables on the entrepreneurial choice. The findings proclaimed that at an individual level, both formal and informal institutions have a negative effect on entry into formal entrepreneurship. Further, the estimations of the interaction terms revealed the existence of asymmetry between formal and informal institutions regarding that negative influence on entry into formal entrepreneurship.
... It is also regarded as an important factor in team settings (Tremblay & Simard, 2018). Its benefits originate from the interaction among people nested in social surroundings (Cohen & Wills, 1985), and this perspective has been dominant for years in terms of revealing how entrepreneurs explore venture opportunities and ultimately initiate new ventures (Audretsch et al., 2011;Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Hoang & Antoncic, 2003;Stam et al., 2014). From a content perspective, social support can be described as the instrumental and emotional support Powell & Eddleston, 2017) obtained from social surroundings or social networks, with these two distinct forms of support regarded as important underlying dimensions of it (Cohen & Wills, 1985;Klyver et al., 2014;Semmer et al., 2008). ...
Article
Some recent studies have focused on how social support explains the variability of entrepreneurs’ venture goal commitment. These studies have exclusively featured solo entrepreneurs, however, examining the support available to individuals from external ties, while neglecting the social support shared among team members in new venture teams (NVTs). Using data on 81 NVTs and 335 individuals from the Haier Entrepreneurship Platform in China, we investigated the effects of the level of support, perceived heterogeneity of support, and balance between instrumental and emotional support in NVTs on their members’ venture goal commitment. Overall, with variations for the two kinds of support, we found that all of these facets—the level and heterogeneity of the support, as well as the balance between instrumental and emotional support—affected venture goal commitment among NVT members.
... In fact, as the implication of Morrow et al. (2017), its existing measurement is in a vague methodology or a lack of theory-based and validated measurements (Snoxell et al., 2006). As a consequence, most of the existing empirical studies apply partial approaches with one or a few facets of SC (Seghers et al., 2012;Morrow et al., 2017;Xu et al., 2018;Boohene et al., 2019;Chmel ıkov a et al., 2019;Calcagnini and Perugini, 2019;Cofr e-Bravo et al., 2019;Sallah and Caesar, 2020), while it is a multidimensional construct (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 2000;Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Thus, scholars need to weigh each measure depending on the context of the study before applying for their studies (Veerle et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Purpose Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has seriously affected the global economy. How agribusinessmen are overcoming this crisis is being noticed in emerging markets. Using social capital to diversify agribusiness for getting more customers is a useful solution for the growth of agribusiness. However, there is a lack of evidence on the aggregate measurement scale of social capital and the influence of behavioral goals on the intention toward agribusiness diversification. Therefore, this study aims to develop an integrated measurement of social capital and investigate its effect on agribusiness diversification intention using the expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB). Design/methodology/approach A mixed-methods approach is used, including four in-depth interviews, three focus group discussions and two surveys. Structural equation modeling is applied to a sample of 484 respondents to test the proposed hypotheses. Findings The study shows the role of social capital in influencing the intention to diversify agribusiness under the premises of the resource-based view (RBV). The scale of social capital is also developed, which is the first integrated measurement of this asset. The findings contribute significantly to the existing knowledge of social capital, the TPB and diversifying agribusiness. Originality/value This is the first study to explore the comprehensive effect of the facets of social capital on behavioral intention through behavioral goals and determinants of the TPB under the premises of the RBV. The findings will help emerging economies, for example, Vietnam, where most farmers are family business owners or microscaled entrepreneurs in agriculture.
... The needs of a start-up could differ from those of an established company (Hasche, Linton 2018, Blevins et al. 2018. There is also an opinion that use of the innovation ecosystem's resources is often confused with the results of the action of the innovation ecosystem, thereby introducing additional misunderstandings (McKeever, Anderson & Jack 2014, Gedajlovic et al. 2013. ...
Thesis
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This thesis focuses on how the medical technology (MedTech) innovation ecosystems contribute to the formation of start-ups. An innovation ecosystem involves collaboration and the exchange of resources in order to stimulate its own development and change over time. The MedTech innovation ecosystem is characterized by a large number of innovations, which are more concentrated in the pharmaceutical industry, biotech, medical devices, and healthcare information technology fields. Existing ecosystem studies offer a fairly diverse understanding of the formation goals, development parameters, and other parameters, which are often inaccessible to an external observer. Understanding the internal processes typical of successful MedTech innovative ecosystems contributes to the adaptation of best practices for developing innovative ecosystems, reducing the financial, time, and human resources spent, and developing the economy. As a result of the activity of innovative MedTech companies, customers receive new equipment, methods of treatment, and rehabilitation of patients, reducing the costs and workload for medical personnel. The MedTech innovation ecosystem is explored in four Papers and an extended summary in this thesis. Since the study aimed to increase knowledge about how MedTech innovation ecosystems contribute to an increase in the number of start-ups, qualitative research strategy and content and within, cross-case, and narrative methods of analyzing the collected information were chosen. The studied phenomena were investigated from the point of view of subjectivity, that is, the interpretation of the past events of the participants and their personal view of the actions taken. The results of the study were the identification of two key parameters that contribute to the formation and successful development of MedTech innovative start-ups, namely the provision of public support and the possibility of cooperation. Public and private support includes financial resources at various stages of company development, including support for basic and applied research, provision of grants at the stage of company formation for marketing research, a grants search, company registration, other loans, and grants for company formation. Nonfinancial types of support include providing access to the infrastructure of the innovation ecosystem, which includes laboratories, specialized equipment, training courses, entrepreneur support programs, etc. Collaboration involves leveraging the internal connections of the innovation ecosystem and providing access to other innovation ecosystems to work on projects that cross the interests of several areas, as well as MedTech innovation ecosystems in other countries. This thesis brings more clarity to the process of formation and development of the MedTech innovation ecosystem and proposes a model of a successful ecosystem that could be claimed by policymakers who make decisions about the development of the industry. Moreover, the thesis offers several successful cases that consider the non-obvious benefits that start-ups from innovative ecosystems can receive and use as an additional benefit for their development.
... Terutama yang disebut modal sosial terkait perusahaan dan jaringan yang sesuai tampaknya memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan kinerja perusahaan, karena memfasilitasi pertukaran pengetahuan (Westlund, 2006;Tregear & Cooper, 2016). Modal sosial berfungsi sebagai perantara antara jaringan hubungan dan adanya peluang, pembiayaan usaha, penemuan inovatif, atau pasar baru prospek, modal sosial mendorong kewirausahaan karena sosial yang berulang dan kuat koneksi menghasilkan norma timbal balik yang menghasilkan kepercayaan interpersonal (DeWever et al., 2005;Welter, 2012;Gedajlovic et al., 2013). Modal sosial terbukti memiliki pengaruh positif kinerja bisnis (Santarelli & Tran, 2013), inovasi produk (Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998), dan pembentukan jaringan seluruh industri (Walker et al., 1997). ...
Article
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p>The aim of this study is to examine the positive effect of social capital, human capital, reputational capital on business growth on women entrepreneurs in Jakarta dan Tangerang. Intangible assets are widely regarded as a key success factor for business growth in various countries. The growth of women's businesses in developing countries is still rare to find, but in recent years women have been seen to be more active in terms of entrepreneurship and business with women's ownership continues to grow to this day. This study uses a quantitative approach. The data collection technique in this study used an electronic questionnaire via Google Form, consisting of 31 indicators and the number of respondents was 201 respondents who are women and currently have businesses. The analytical method used in this research is SmartPLS 3.0, and in distributing the questionnaire, this study uses judgment sampling technique. The results of this study conclude that social capital has a positive effect on business growth, human capital has a positive effect on business growth, individual reputation capital has a negative effect on business growth, and organization reputational capital has a positive effect on business growth.</p
... The F-PEC (power, experience and culture) scale is used to measure the impact of family on different outcomes of an enterprise (Astrachan et al., 2002). The social capital theory indicates that family capital and human capital influence various facets of entrepreneurship (Davidsson and Honig, 2003;Liñ an and Santos, 2007;Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Ali et al., 2017). Entrepreneurship capital is also conceptualized based on social capital (Audretsch and Keilbach, 2005). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to compare the outcome of support extended by the family and kin for new firms. The authors specially consider business performance, challenges, demography and personality traits of entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach A structured questionnaire was used to collect responses on the socio-demography aspects of the entrepreneur, family, kin, business performance, personality traits and perceived challenges were collected from 350 young entrepreneurs of South Wollo province of Ethiopia. The ANOVA test for continuous variables and the Krukal–Walis test for nominal variables were conducted to find differences across eight groups with family and kin, their occupation (business/non-business) and extended support (yes/no). Findings Only 40% of entrepreneurs reported support, non-business families support entrepreneurial effort more compared to business families. Support is associated with perceived business performance and sociocultural challenges, but not with revenue. Entrepreneurs with less age, education and prior experience received more support compared to others. Entrepreneurs with higher need-for-achievement traits reported less support. Interestingly, entrepreneurs from business backgrounds are likely to perform better, with or without support. Research limitations/implications The extension of support to entrepreneurship depends on socioeconomic, demography, or personality-related factors and their interactions. The study did not investigate support from peers, an extended network, or the nature of support. Social implications Family and kin support influences entrepreneurial persistence, overcoming the sociocultural challenges and arresting quit intention among entrepreneurs at the initial stages of a venture. Originality/value The influence of immediate family or a network represents extremes, overlooking the role of kin. This study fills this gap and extends understanding of the role of kin in the context of Ethiopian young entrepreneurs.
... The social environment also affects one's selfregulatory system, that is, self-efficacy (Hmieleskik and Baron, 2009). Gedajlovic et al. (2013) also found that individual ESE is not only directly affected by individual factors and environmental factors, but also influenced by the interaction between these two types of factors. Packham et al. (2010) compared three different countries, Germany, Poland, and France, and found that under different entrepreneurial environments, university students had different attitudes toward entrepreneurship. ...
Article
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Currently, little is known about the mechanism of how university students’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship education (ATEE) affect entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) in the post-pandemic entrepreneurial environment. Based on the existing research, this study explores the relationship between ATEE, the post-pandemic entrepreneurship environment, and ESE through a questionnaire survey. A total of 910 university students from three universities in Zhejiang Province, China participated, with an effective rate of 92.9%. The data collection focused on the period from August to December 2020. In this study, Stepwise Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze university students' ATEE and its impact on ESE, as well as the moderating effect of the post-pandemic entrepreneurial environment. The results show that the gender of university students and the entrepreneurial experience of their family members exist significant differences in their ATEE and also on their ESE. Furthermore, ATEE exert a significant and positive impact on their entrepreneurial self-efficacy, while the post-pandemic entrepreneurial environment plays a positively moderating role in this influential process.
... A large number of scholars (Aldrich & Zimmer, 1986;Arafat et al., 2018;Brush et al., 2017;Davidsson & Honig, 2003;De Carolis et al., 2009;De Carolis & Saparito, 2006;Gedajlovic et al., 2013;Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998) have acknowledged the role of social capital in explaining the entrepreneurial activity. According to Ramos-Rodríguez et al. (2012, p. 581), 'social capital is clearly related with social network theory'. ...
Conference Paper
The objective of this paper was to measure the significance of the different perceptual and social capital factors on the propensity of Indian women to become an entrepreneur. A sample of 1305 females [drawn from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)] was selected, and logistic regression was employed to test research hypotheses. The analysis results show that most perceptual and social factors significantly influence the women's decision to become entrepreneurs.
... Social capital provides a vehicle or avenue through which community members can communicate to suggest business opportunities and evaluate their respective merits (Awaworyi Coleman, 1988;Greve & Salaff, 2003). In turn, those interactions inform the risks of such opportunities, reduce transaction costs via resources that enable potential entrepreneurs to gain insights, and serve as reference points for acquiring customers (Davidsson & Honig, 2003;Gedajlovic et al., 2013). ...
Technical Report
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Social capital is integral to business formation. Because crime can damage social capital within communities, we examine the links between crime rates and the propensity for entrepreneurship within those communities. Drawing on Australian longitudinal data, we match entrepreneurship rates with types of crime at the community level where crime occurs. We find that higher crime rates cause lower rates of entrepreneurship and that the presence of social capital mediates this relationship as a core explanatory mechanism. We also show that the relationship between crime rates and propensity for entrepreneurship is not deterministic. Being more internal on locus of control dampens the adverse effect of local area crime on the likelihood of being an entrepreneur.
... In the one hand, some studies argue in support of the critical position of social capital as resources for entrepreneurs; this assertion has seen many researchers presume that social capital generally promotes entrepreneurship (Gilmeanu & Gauca, 2017;Marques et al., 2019). On the other hand, Gedajlovic et al. (2013) argue that social capital can also have a negative interference on performance and entrepreneurial outcomes. ...
Article
The mismatch of skills among youth graduates contributes towards existing social and economic challenges of poverty and unemployment especially among youths in most developing countries including Malaysia. Consequently, universities are mandated to transform into Entrepreneurial Universities as a third mission, driving state of the art knowledge, skills acquisition and entre-preneurial mindset that supports technological development and innovations to match up with the emerging needs of Malaysia's economy. Therefore, this study assesses the influence of entrepreneurial universities on the development of social capital. Questionnaires were used to retrieve data from a sample of 382 students in two Institutions. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The direct relationships between the three measures of entrepreneurial university (Input, Process and Output) indicated a positively significant relationship with social capital. However, the moderating effects of Entrepreneurial Intention were supported. Our paper contributes to the literature by examining the role of Entrepreneurial Universities using the three factors of inputs, processes and outputs on social capital development and concurrently examining the moderating effect of Entrepreneurial Intention. It also provides evidence-based support to develop models for emerging entrepreneurial universities in Malaysia which can help the national goal of reducing unemployment due to skill mismatch among graduates.
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Bricolage is commonly recognized as a practice of non-traditional resource mobilization by immigrant entrepreneurs within their country of residence. When the host country is in an adversarial social and institutional context characterized by the liability of foreignness, we posit that accessing “resources at hand” in the external environment is hampered by anti-immigrant sentiments, both socially and institutionally. Through a rigorous analysis of eight cases of immigrant entrepreneurs and their South African-based enterprises, we apply Bourdieu’s theory of practice to examine the practice of bricolage at a more nuanced level. Our findings suggest that the localized prejudice against immigrants ‘otherizes’ their foreignness, and in turn, heightens the entrepreneurs’ awareness of their habitus. We argue that the immigrants’ ‘heightened habitus’ represents an internalization of both cognitive (i.e. resources at head) and adaptive (i.e. resources at heart) dispositions informed by the home country, and which serve as crucial endogenous resources by which to reimagine and reconstruct external resources accessed via local social capital. We present the novel theoretical contribution of immigrant entrepreneurial bricolage as the utilization of both endogenous resources at head and heart, which are activated by – and intended to overcome – their liability of foreignness. Our contribution also aims to reconstruct the frequently referenced exogenous resources at hand.
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We contribute to institutional and social capital theory by developing a theoretical framework that suggests that informal and formal institutions are important in mitigating moral hazard in reward-based crowdfunding. We analyze a large sample of Kickstarter campaigns to test these predictions. We find a strong positive relationship between entrepreneurs' home-county social capital and their crowdfunding performance. A rule change that strengthens entrepreneurs' obligation to provide backers with the promised rewards is associated with a reduction in the effect of social capital, suggesting that formal institutions can substitute for informal ones and provides causal evidence of the effect of social capital.
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This study explores the relationships that human, economic and social capital may have with the creation of employment in small businesses that belong to African immigrants. Based on a cross-country approach, the study utilized self-administered questionnaires to collect data in a cross-sectional manner from 829 respondents in some states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Results obtained from the analysis of the data revealed that certain variables in the triumvirate of human, economic and social capitals displayed statistically significant relationships with employment creation. Specifically, among the studied variables, only management skills, educational achievement, business support services and language proficiency correlated positively with employment creation. Consequently, Governments, African-immigrant entrepreneurs and other interested stakeholders may need to invest in the improvement of these specific components of human, economic and social capital bases of entrepreneurs for the touted benefit of employment creation to materialize.
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By employing an integrated network perspective, this article aims to explain how the network structures of lead investors impact the following of distant strangers in the context of equity crowdfunding (ECF). We conduct an empirical analysis of our thesis based on a Chinese ECF platform. The findings show that the lead investors occupying less central positions in an entire network attract more distant strangers and that the density of ego networks not only has a U‐shaped relationship with the following of distant strangers but also positively moderates the relationship between centrality and the following of distant strangers.
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This paper brings together the fields of social entrepreneurship and social networks by using the social network analysis approach to map the evolution of the network of a social enterprise in India. The paper adopts a case-study approach. The paper asserts that local resources who are more proximate to the final beneficiaries, are central to a social enterprise’s network along with the social entrepreneur using the centrality measures of actors in the network, which had not been attempted in previous studies of social networks of social enterprises. The study can thus provide lessons to social enterprises in identifying local resources and positioning them in the enterprise’s network so as to optimise their utilisation. Additionally, the paper aims to throw light on high resource dynamism, a challenge that arises while leveraging these local human resources.
Article
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The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of counterparties on the formation of an enterprise’s social capital, which is a component of measuring its value. The size of social capital is the result of the synergistic effect of all its components, namely, trust, social networks, and social norms. In this research study, the components of social capital in an enterprise are estimated to be part of the relationship with the stakeholders of the enterprise, including counterparties. Liquidity and financial stability are the criteria for choosing counterparties and for assessing cooperation prospects with them. Additionally, there are rating organizations such as Transparency International Ukraine, whose 2016 results were taken as a basis for the selection of research objects. Organizational transparency and disclosure of data indicate the intention of a company to be open to stakeholders at all levels to increase their confidence. Thus, the level of transparency of activity and the stability of the social network are interdependent. This study examines and analyzes the cooperation of enterprises with other stakeholders to determine its impact on the formation of the social capital of enterprises. The results will provide a basis for the development of a social capital assessment method.
Article
Purpose Realizing the value of social capital to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing economies, where relationship networks play a big role in filling the gaps that are left by dysfunctional institutions, the purpose of this paper is to gain an empirical understanding of various forms of social capital in relation to the innovation of SMEs in Zimbabwe. Design/methodology/approach Primary data is collected from SMEs across several regions in Harare, where instrument validity is checked with confirmatory factor analysis, and hypotheses are tested using moderated regression analyses. Findings A positive influence is observed for both alliance capital and reputational capital on innovation, while non-significant moderating effects in terms of environmental hostility and dynamism are noted for these relationships Practical implications On a practical level, to increase levels of innovation, SME owner-managers need to secure stronger investments into their social infrastructure by developing (both physical and digital) alliance and reputational capitals Originality/value By segregating various forms of social capital, an original understanding is attained in terms of how entrepreneurs actively leverage alliance and reputational forms of social capitals to increase their levels of innovation. The theoretical and empirical understanding of the social capital-innovation link is enhanced, and the study constructs now have broader application as their psychometric properties have been established in an under-researched African market context.
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Entrepreneurial intention plays a key role in entrepreneurship. Over the years, scholars have explained it using personality traits, cognitive models and, to a lesser extent, the role of social environment. Since this role has been underestimated, we build on trait activation theory to explore how social networks are especially relevant and can trigger the activation of individuals’ need for achievement to predict entrepreneurial intention. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 597 university students from Spain using partial least squares (PLS). Our results confirm that social network size positively influences the entrepreneurial information obtained in social networks, which in turn, positively impacts entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, we found that need for achievement is activated in the context of social networks, enhancing the influence of this information on entrepreneurial intention. Through fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), we also identify alternative configurations of the previous variables that lead to greater entrepreneurial intention.
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Framing within the service-dominant logic view, this paper deals with the emergence of new market spaces conceptualized as new contexts of use. This work aims to describe the emergence of a new value cocreation context from brokerage and exaptation strategies. By filling a literature gap, the paper describes why and how the service-dominant logic and brokerage strategy, i.e., a strategy brokering different cultural domains and contexts of use, and their variant exaptation, i.e., a strategy brokering a technological domain featured by a specific use with a completely different context of use, are useful for framing the emergence of a new market space. The paper's second aim is to draw the configuration of firm cognitive endowment—the T-shaped model—potentially enabling brokerage/exaptation strategies. The paper highlights the features a firm cognitive endowment should possess in terms of in-depth competencies and dynamic capabilities to trigger new and potentially valuable contexts of use.
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Despite growing research on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, few studies explore all three sustainability pillars and implemented practices, in the context of regional small firms. This study uses a novel integration of two theoretical concepts, local embeddedness, and sustainability embeddedness orientation, to fill this knowledge gap. Using 26 interviews, the study highlights the nuanced interconnectedness of three new theoretical concepts that link local embeddedness and sustainability embeddedness – locally embedded sustainability values, spatially-driven sustainability and locally adapted sustainability. An integrated theoretical framework is provided that uses the three new concepts to explain how and why small firm local embeddedness in regional communities influences their sustainability embeddedness orientations and implementation of sustainability practices. Small firms were found to have an embedded orientation of economic sustainability, as it was core to the firms’ values, strategies, and the practices, and was influenced by the region’s locally embedded sustainability values. The region’s values afforded locally adapted sustainability for all three pillars, where owners decide whether to pursue an embedded or emergent orientation when picking social and environmental sustainability practices to implement. The practical implications of the study are that regional small firms need additional support to encourage further embedding of these sustainability practices.
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