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Local Youth Employment and Inclusion in Argentina: A Public-Private Initiative for the Development of Talents, Social Cohesion and Inclusion

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  • IAE Business School

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The Youth with a Future (YF) Program is part of the initiative for decent work promoted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLE&SS) in the context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It as a public-private model of institutional innovation aimed at sustainable development through actions meant to promote responsible sub-contracting and outsourcing, develop of employability of the youth in vulnerable social sectors, and disseminate a culture of social responsibility that encourages social dialogue.The YF Program – the result of systematic, committed efforts in workshops – implements high-quality, innovative projects with significant social impact to promote employment among youth. It was designed jointly as a training and development program to enable practices in leading global companies that operate in Argentina and seeks to provide a coordinated response to the labor-insertion problems among youth in vulnerable social sectors and to build institutional links to the quality labor market via improved levels of employability and social capital.Given the structural nature of youth poverty and the conditioning that it imposes on formal labor insertion, the program institutes a multi-dimensional response considering not only labor experience but also formal education, the acquisition of qualifications through practices in real work environments and the engagement and cultivation of a culture of quality labor, heightening these young people’s personal values and hopes for the future.The intervention strategy’s modus operandi is likewise innovative. Conceiving of decent work as a constructive and dignifying bond for the individual and of the company as a primordial space for that bond’s realization in society, the program calls on broad-based social participation. It involves a multi-sector alliance (government, companies, and NGOs) to provide a solid social infrastructure. In effect, the training’s workplace quality is guaranteed by the participation of the company’s human resources and pertinent technical areas plus high-level tutors and corporate volunteers, all indispensable for the program’s successful realization. It is an innovative case within the emerging tendency towards Collaborative Entrepreneurship (Miles et al. 2005; Rocha and Miles, 2008).The capacity to create mechanisms for overcoming poverty and social exclusion is also a new contribution. The creation of these mechanisms is based on building bridges between society’s dynamic economic sectors and its excluded, vulnerable segments. Deactivating customary individual and organizational barriers between those social universes enables a transmission of the formal corporate context’s work-related values to those more unprotected sectors, simultaneously managing to add a social perspective to the economic vision of corporate strategies of employability. The program thus fits in with the emerging tendency towards aligning human motivations, goals of public-private organizations, and social needs (Rocha, 2006a; 2008).To date, after four years of implementation, the results of the programme are promising: 68% of the participants hold quality employment, a percentage that is 48% higher than in the comparison group (youth with secondary school diplomas and from the same geographic area, but who did not participated in the program); and the participants have an average monthly income that is 2.7 times higher than that earned by employed youth without secondary school diplomas who reside in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, and 1.7 times higher than that of those of the same urban area who have finished secondary school.
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Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2097880
Rocha & Neer 1
Local Youth Employment and Inclusion in Argentina: A Public-Private Initiative for the
Development of Talents, Social Cohesion and Inclusion
1
Héctor O. Rocha IAE Business School, Universidad Austral
Associate Professor / Business Policy and Entrepreneurship
IAE Business School / Universidad Austral / Mariano Acosta s/n y Ruta 8 (1629) Pilar / Buenos Aires
Direct Line: +542322481068 / Switchboard: +542322481000 / Fax: +542322481050
Web: www.iae.edu.ar / www.iae.edu.ar/hrocha
Dr. Nidya Neer Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security
Coordinator of CSR and Decent Work Program of the MLE&SS
NNEER@trabajo.gob.ar
Direct Line: +54 1 4310-6310
February, 2012
1
This paper is a contribution to a forthcoming OECD publication. We thank Maria Victoria Ronchetti for
her generous assistance in assembling the information of this case. The empirical material of the present
case is based upon the “Technical Study of results assessment and follow-up of the socio-labor and
education situation of the Youth with a Future Program” developed with the support of the ILO Office in
Argentina, in the framework of the Joint Program ILO-UNDP-ECLAC of Support to the Network of CSR
and Decent Work of the MLE&SS. The coordination of YF Program is conducted by Dr. Nidya Neer as
coordinator of CSR and Decent Work Program of the MLE&SS.
Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2097880
Rocha & Neer 2
CONTENT
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. GENERAL CONTEXT
2. REGIONAL CONTEXT
3. STRATEGY AND INSTRUMENTS
4. IMPLEMENTATION
5. FINANCIALS
6. RESULTS AND IMPACTS
a. Focalization
b. Satisfaction of young participants
c. Young participants’ employability conditions
i. Effects on the labor situation
ii. Effects on the education situation
iii. Effects on short and medium-term expectations
iv. Factors associated with the improvement of employability conditions
v. Net effects on employability conditions
d. Corporate Organizations
i. Difficulties confronted
ii. Positive aspects
7. SUCCESS FACTORS.
8. CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND THE CHALLENGES AHEAD.
APPENDIX I Results: Methodology
APPENDIX II - Projects of YF Program: The cases of Microsoft and Acindar- Acerol
Mittal
REFERENCES
Rocha & Neer 3
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Youth with a Future (YF) Program is part of the initiative for decent work promoted by the
Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLE&SS) in the context of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR). It as a public-private model of institutional innovation aimed at
sustainable development through actions meant to promote responsible sub-contracting and
outsourcing, develop of employability of the youth in vulnerable social sectors, and disseminate
a culture of social responsibility that encourages social dialogue.
The YF Program the result of systematic, committed efforts in workshops implements high-
quality, innovative projects with significant social impact to promote employment among youth.
It was designed jointly as a training and development program to enable practices in leading
global companies that operate in Argentina and seeks to provide a coordinated response to the
labor-insertion problems among youth in vulnerable social sectors and to build institutional
links to the quality labor market via improved levels of employability and social capital.
Given the structural nature of youth poverty and the conditioning that it imposes on formal labor
insertion, the program institutes a multi-dimensional response considering not only labor
experience but also formal education, the acquisition of qualifications through practices in real
work environments and the engagement and cultivation of a culture of quality labor,
heightening these young people’s personal values and hopes for the future.
The intervention strategy’s modus operandi is likewise innovative. Conceiving of decent work
as a constructive and dignifying bond for the individual and of the company as a primordial
space for that bond’s realization in society, the program calls on broad-based social
participation. It involves a multi-sector alliance (government, companies, and NGOs) to provide
a solid social infrastructure. In effect, the training’s workplace quality is guaranteed by the
participation of the company’s human resources and pertinent technical areas plus high-level
tutors and corporate volunteers, all indispensable for the program’s successful realization. It is
an innovative case within the emerging tendency towards Collaborative Entrepreneurship
(Miles et al. 2005; Rocha and Miles, 2008).
The capacity to create mechanisms for overcoming poverty and social exclusion is also a new
contribution. The creation of these mechanisms is based on building bridges between society’s
dynamic economic sectors and its excluded, vulnerable segments. Deactivating customary
individual and organizational barriers between those social universes enables a transmission of
the formal corporate context’s work-related values to those more unprotected sectors,
simultaneously managing to add a social perspective to the economic vision of corporate
strategies of employability. The program thus fits in with the emerging tendency towards
aligning human motivations, goals of public-private organizations, and social needs (Rocha,
2006a; 2008).
To date, after four years of implementation, the results of the programme are promising: 68% of
the participants hold quality employment, a percentage that is 48% higher than in the
comparison group (youth with secondary school diplomas and from the same geographic area,
but who did not participated in the program); and the participants have an average monthly
income that is 2.7 times higher than that earned by employed youth without secondary school
diplomas who reside in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, and 1.7 times higher than that of
those of the same urban area who have finished secondary school.
Rocha & Neer 4
1. GENERAL CONTEXT
According to the last ILO report (2010) on youth employment, 38% of the unemployed in the
world are young people (80.7 million), out of which 8.8% live in Latin America and the
Caribbean where the unemployment rate is of 13.4%, and it triples the respective rate of
economically active population of adults (Cinterfor ILO 2010).
In Argentina, the unemployment rate for young men and women is 12.6 and 17.8% respectively,
significantly higher than the 7.3% general average. The proportion of youths that neither study
nor work is 20%.
2
The labor insertion problems suffered by the youth is explained by the confluence of two
factors: the incongruence between the kind of labor they can offer versus demand (due to a lack
of coordination between training systems and company requirements), and the fact that the
economic cycle affects youths more than adults. As for the first factor (demand and supply
coordination) the training provided by the education system does not match the productive
structure. It has been pointed out that the youths have inadequate training for the job market
since they are not trained according to the companies' requirements. Since the education system
has a comprehensive training objective, which includes training for the job in organizations
beyond the companies, it is therefore vital to highlight the role of the companies and their
relationship with the public sector as to the extent to which the inconsistency between supply
and demand has been improved. As a result, the objective requires a comprehensive policy
within the framework of social agreement between the public and the private sector, which goes
beyond the incentives of the market for youth employment. It is necessary that companies take
responsibilities to improve the youths’ opportunities at the beginning of their working life,
taking into account that the main challenge consists in giving a positive answer to the need for
good quality in the first employment, so that the youths can begin learning about working
competences, skills and habits to develop professionally. It is known that the youths have
difficulty in getting well-paid and protected jobs, due to their lack of experience. As a result of
these limitations, the rotation between short periods of employment or precarious employment,
together with the high quantity of job rotation, define the most frequent method of insertion in
most young people that participate in the labor market.
As for the second factor (economic cycle), the economic cycle affects mostly job insertion in
young people. During the periods of economic downturns, the participation of the young
members in households tends to increase. Within this context, the youths are the first ones to be
made redundant due to the fact that the companies are reluctant to lay off more experienced
staff, and due to the higher costs that this implies. On the other hand, during an economic
upturn, companies tend to hire unemployed adults first, due to their working experience.
We consider it important to place the Program within a series of recent changes in the working
world and its relation with education. Different authors have depicted them as “the end of the
linear trajectory” from school to the working world (MLE&SS- ECLAC-UNDP- ILO, 2010).
This is a unidirectional process with well-defined steps: from the end of formal studies until the
access to the labor market, inflection point that would show the beginning of adult life.
2
However, MLE&SS (Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security) recent studies have indicated that the
formal paid job aimed at the youths grew over the 2002-2010 period in a higher proportion compared to that of other
ages. The substantive youth labor insertion in formal employment which this dynamics has allowed meant that a
significant number of workers between 18 and 29 years of age, unemployed or employed in precarious jobs, could
have access to employments registered in social security, which has led to dramatic improvements in working
conditions. It is important to highlight regarding this issue that unregistered employment rate for the 18-29
population fell from 64.4% in 2003 to 47.3% over the first 2010 quarter, whereas the unemployment rate of the youth
over the same period fell from 25% to 15%, that means the number of unemployed decreased by 42%.
Rocha & Neer 5
The changes in the working world have affected this type of hegemonic trajectory with only one
sense and well-defined steps. However, recognizing these changes does not mean not to
recognize that the linear trajectories are a majority, but to highlight the fact that they coexist
with other methods. In many cases, the precarious working conditions have led to unstable
employment trajectories, when periods of temporary poor quality jobs and periods of
unemployment, and inactivity are connected; finally there is a return to precarious employment
again. Undoubtedly, the main cause for this “cycle of instability” is the destabilization of the
working world, which began more than a decade ago and it is still producing effects. However,
it is important to highlight that, contrary to this dynamics, in Argentina there is now a public
offer of new training, so that the disadvantages of this outlook could become new training
opportunities.
The YF Program (The Youth with a Future Program) could be placed within these new
initiatives which deal with the emergence of non-uniform trajectories of coordination between
school and the working world. It is a training practice that, although it is not the same as a job, it
is an experience between “the school and the job”. The Program works as an incentive to finish
high school, and it also offers hands-on training in labor competences. This is not a remedial
program for those who have dropped out of school without questioning this situation, but it
trains the youth for the working world, and at the same time, it helps reconsidering decisions
already taken about schooling. The Program also offers the beneficiary a “mock” for them to see
what a job of good quality is for its benefits and the subjective experience of respect that it
entails. It also provides incentives to finish school, since it is known that in order to get an
effective post, it is vital to finish high school.
This shows the possibility of registering the “Youth with Future” Program within a new
generation of development public policies of employment that match the growing spreading of
non-linear trajectories between training and employment that look for other ways to coordinate
both instances, showing the possibility of creating new opportunities for professional training
and for the return to training in the companies environment.
2. REGIONAL CONTEXT
The YF Program is implemented since 2007 in the main urban centres of the country: Buenos
Aires city, Great Buenos Aires, Mendoza city and Córdoba city.
These regions show some heterogeneity in terms of labor situations among the youth and the
social conditions in which they live; this heterogeneity should be taken into account when
programs are designed, implemented and evaluated.
Among these cities, Buenos Aires has the better situation in terms of poverty (2.1%), youth
unemployment (12.5% among women and 13.4% among men between 18 and 29 years old). It
follows Córdoba, where poverty reaches 3.6% and youth unemployment 12.2% among women
and 6.8% among men. Finally, Mendoza and Great Buenos Aires are the most vulnerable urban
centers. In fact, in Mendoza poverty reaches 6% and youth unemployment 17.4% among
women and 3.0% among men, while in Great Buenos Aires poverty reaches 10% and youth
unemployment 20% among women and 14.4% among men.
Given that Buenos Aires is the most vulnerable center, the first stage of the program has focused
its efforts in Buenos Aires metropolitan region (BAMR), which includes Buenos Aires and
Great Buenos Aires. In fact, more than 90% (1825) of the participants are from BAMR, while
the remaining 10% are from Mendoza (115) and Cordoba (60).
Other indicators of the BAMR are the following:
Rocha & Neer 6
According to the data from the EPH-INDEC (Permanent Household Survey by the
Argentine Institute for Statistics and Census) in the first quarter of 2007, the incidence
of (NBI) unmet basic needs among the youths between 18 and 24 years of age in the
Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region (BAMR) is 23%; such incidence among the same
age group who have not graduated from high school is 41%.
Good quality job taken by high school graduate youths in BAMR is 48%.
As regards salaries, data from EPH shows that the average monthly income of youths
with unfinished studies in BAMR is AR$590.40 and AR$937.70 for those graduates
from high school in the same area.
Figure 1 shows a map of Buenos Aires and Great Buenos Aires in the context of Buenos Aires
province and Argentina
Figure 1
Source: Undersecretary of Technical Programming and Labour Studies MLE&SS
The next sections describe the strategy and results reached in Buenos Aires. The last section
define as one of the future implementation challenges the both the extension of the program to
the other three urban centers and, given the participation of multinational enterprises (MNE),
Rocha & Neer 7
the replicability of the program to other Argentinean and Latin-American regions. This strategy
is aligned with the current trend faced by MNE in critical areas such as labor and natural
resources, that is, “becoming indigenous”, in order to develop local potential based on regional
talents and global expertise and practice (Hart, 2005; Rocha, 2006a).
3. STRATEGY AND INSTRUMENTS
Given the diagnosis presented in the previous sections, a program of high quality, innovation
and impact has been designed jointly between the public and the private sector for the
promotion of youth employment.
In 2006 the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLE&SS) called on 100 top companies
operating locally (such as Peugeot, Telefónica, Nestle, Repsol-YPF, and Novartis) to participate
in a process of intercommunication and the generation of shared responsibilities, with a view to
developing together sustainable labor practices.
The result of that stimulus was the joint design of the Program in Corporate Social
Responsibility and Decent Work, of which the YF Program is part. This is a program for the
creation and development of training practices in blue chips that provides a coordinated social
solution to the problems of stable employment insertion of the youth from vulnerable sectors,
forming institutional links with the good-quality job market through the improvement of
employment and social capital levels. The YF Program is run since 2007 and has reached 1200
participants.
The strategy’s design is for a Program of Training for Employability in which 30 of the
companies participate, plus a Suppliers’ Training Series and a Joint Series of Training for a
Shared Vision in which the remaining companies participate equally.
The YF Program involves male and female young persons, 18 to 24 years old, from low-income
and unemployed backgrounds, who have difficulty finding employment because they have not
finished secondary school and lack significant prior labor experience.
It presents incentives for finishing secondary school, while it also provides practical training in
work-related competencies. In this regards, the Program includes a theoretical phase of training
in the classroom and a practical phase of work-based learning in a real employment context,
which make possible the acquisition of the basic skills and work competencies that each
occupation requires. Work-based learning is applied in a 50 to 80% range of the participating
youth and includes rotations throughout diverse areas within the company.
As regards the activities within the phase of training in the classroom, what must be highlighted
is that, even if there is a wide variety of contents, four of them are the most frequent ones:
training in safety and hygiene in the workplace, training in information technology, training in
CV’s writing and job search, and training about the workers’ rights and duties.
On the other hand, it is important to explain that training in the classroom related to work
specific competencies for which the beneficiary has been trained follows the heterogeneity of
the work profiles in the projects implemented and, in general, courses in the training phase in
the workplace.
It is important to point out that projects carried out within the YF Program framework have
differences in aspects such as number of participants and months of duration of the activities, as
Rocha & Neer 8
well as differences as regards the employment profile for which the youths are trained according
to the sectorial heterogeneity of the participating companies
3
.
Once they finish the training, the youths receive a certificate granted by the company and signed
by MLE&SS, which allows them to show their participation in the YF Program and increase the
possibilities of insertion. In some cases, there is an additional diploma or degree provided in
agreement with an educational institution.
To date, the program has involved 2,000 youths (40% women and 25% with at less one child),
carrying out their qualifications training in 30 top companies, the majority of which are local
branches of multi-national companies such as the Acerol Mittal Group, IBM, and Volkswagen.
Table 1 summarizes the main goal and strategic intents of the program.
Table 1 Goals and Strategies
A strategic challenge
To develop a strategic approach of public-private transition intervention towards the formality
of socio-productive segments with greater concentrations of labor informality and of
occupational groups with less access to quality employment.
Two priority action guidelines
Improvement of employability conditions contributing to inclusion in quality employment of
more labor disadvantaged social groups, specially youths, through the design and
implementation of professional training processes and the development of qualifying practices
in blue chips.
Fostering quality employment in the value chain of blue chips through the development of
gradual employment quality improvement processes by suppliers.
A transversal action guideline
The development of a social responsibility culture connected with quality employment through
the activation of enhanced processes of multisectorial dialog and the boost of concrete actions.
3 Some of the specific posts for which the beneficiaries are trained are the following: metallurgical worker,
maintenance worker, lathe operator, welder , assembly worker, taper, operator of vine-growing processes and
production, administrative assistant, accountant assistant, quality assistant, systems technical support assistant, phone
sales operator, customer support representative, mail distributor, logistics operator, mail operations assistant, food
preparation assistant, preservation maintenance assistance, restocker, draftsperson, mechanic, equipment operator
with knowledge of data processing PC and printer use, phone operator, programmer, technical support, warehouse
operator, packing operator,, money counters, assistant in the Human Resources area, employee in mechanical and
quality auditing.
Rocha & Neer 9
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4. IMPLEMENTATION
Following the idea that the articulation of a democratic political system with an economic
system based on productivity, competition and technological innovation calls for a sustainable
labor relations system, the MLE&SS sought the development of a strong articulation policy
with actors of the production world and civil society in order to guarantee the implementation of
training actions that impact on the working world and encourage debate on the ways of
improving contributions from the private sector to development. For that purpose, it was
necessary to call a systematic, participative and fluent dialog to generate mutual confidence that
would lead to identifying the issues of a common socio-labor agenda in the framework of social
responsibility.
A key implementation criteria is that the triple alliance between government as promoter,
companies as operators, and social organizations as support base creates a strong, legitimate
social infrastructure with which to undertake the generation of jobs with a view to the social
inclusion of populations living in conditions of vulnerability.
Based on these criteria, the YF Program is the result of the joint effort of the public sector
(MLE&SS), companies that are part of the Corporate Social Responsibility Network, and the
civil society. The program also benefited from technical assistance from the ILO for the design
and implementation of an evaluation methodology.
The program activates connections on the local level, between companies and offices as
administrating entities, technical schools as training allies, and social organizations as
companions and social administrators for convoking youth.
How does the implementation work? The companies taking part in the YF Program prepare the
qualifying practice projects supported by the technical assistance of the Employment Secretariat
of the MLE&SS and carry them out with their own physical, financial and human resources, and
with a tutorial supporting system for beneficiaries. Companies call and recruit participants
together with the City Employment Offices and the cooperation of the organizations of the civil
society.
In this regard, we must highlight the importance of the information on recruitment, selection,
orientation, encouragement and incentives strategies privately carried out by companies before
training processes in designing employment policies. It is also vital to know about the training
institutions particularly valued by companies, inside and outside the traditional offer, and the
reasons for this positive appraisal.
Among professional training alternatives, it is a priority to establish, together with companies,
the advantages of learning in working positions, especially the Qualifying Labor Practices
alternative, which focuses mainly on one of the main assumptions of the professional training:
continued training during the professional life. It is gradually less linear and foreseeable and
calls for training experiences that allow the combination of formal learning with less structured
scenarios, articulated in a net of flexible, complementary and diversified alternatives.
Through these means, the youths start a process that promotes the appreciation of employment
and gives access to the rights they are deprived of in precarious conditions. A first bridge is thus
created to the formal labor world, with benefits and challenges and, at the same time, with a way
of going on or resuming learning processes at a professional level.
Consistent with its decentralized administration, the design and supervision of the program is
run by a Mixed Executive Committee, formed by MLE&SS officials from the CSR unit and
representatives of founding training companies. This Committee’s main task is to assess the
projects proposed by the new adhering companies in order to guarantee the preservation of
Rocha & Neer 11
values and guidelines stated in the Agreement that rules the program. The private sector is in
charge of the execution of the program, with the technical assistance of the Secretary of
Employment of the MLE&SS.
5. FINANCIALS
The MLE&SS and the companies co-finance the stimulus allocation the participants receive and
the training and tutorial actions.
The beneficiaries receive a monthly non-remunerative stimulus allocation and a complement, as
compensation for travel expenses, financed jointly by the MLE&SS and the participating
company.
The companies assign the youths the value of minimum wage per each engagement agreement
in as much as the MLE&SS provides the corresponding amount to Unemployment Insurance
(approximately 90% and 10% respectively).
6. RESULTS
There arise some indicators of the program’s impact: “Technical Study of results assessment
and follow-up of the socio-labor and education situation of the YF program’s beneficiaries”,
carried out with the support of the ILO in the framework of the UNDP/ECLAC/ILO Joint
Program. This study was developed on the grounds of a mixed quali-quantitative investigation
carried out with the support of the ILO, from the implementation of debate groups, deep
interviews with beneficiaries and a survey graded according to probability sampling design over
the target population.
The report on the impact of the Program’s implementation will be based on the data presented
in the Regional Context section.
We classify the indicators of the impact of the program’s implementation in four key areas:
a. Focalization
b. Satisfaction of young participants
c. Young participants employability conditions
i. Effects on the labor situation
ii. Effects on the education situation
iii. Effects on short and medium-term expectations
iv. Factors associated with the improvement of employability conditions
v. Net effects on employability conditions
d. Corporate Organizations
Rocha & Neer 12
a. Focalization
As said before, the program was carried out in the city of Buenos Aires and Great Buenos Aires
(BAMR), where the rate of 18 to 24-year-old people excluded from the production world due to
low education levels and little or no labor experience is very high.
A first analysis leads to stating that 73% of youths that started their qualifying practice had a
satisfactory end, meaning that the general desertion rate is not different from that of similar
programs. The highest desertion rates were found in training projects in higher studies sector,
with a greater number of beneficiaries.
The average age of beneficiaries at the time of being admitted is 20.
In order to assess the focalization of the beneficiary population, we looked into the economic
socio-demographic profile of youths who have already taken part in the Program.
Therefore, there arise two dimensions of these youths’ social conditions as key for this purpose.
The first one is associated with the material hardship conditions of the households they live in;
the second is related to the degree of connectivity arising from the layout of ICT packets.
As regards material conditions, it was noted that 47% of youths come from households with
Unmet Basic Needs (NBI, the acronym in Spanish), a figure that shows the extension of
structural poverty among beneficiaries. We must said that this situation is much more precarious
than that arising from the Permanent Household Survey (EPH-INDEC, the acronym in Spanish)
among 18 to 24-year-old people in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region (BAMR), a group in
which the impact of the NBI indicator drops to 23%. Even if compared with the situation of
young people in the same age group but with complete secondary studies, it is seen that the
impact of the NBI among beneficiaries is still higher: 47% against 41%. It is worth highlighting
that there are no significant differences related to this indicator in the different cohorts included
in the Technical Study (youths that have taken part in the Program, those who are currently
taking part and those who have not started participating yet), thus showing the stability of the
focalization.
Precarious life conditions are also seen when considering other key indicators. In this sense, we
note that 17% of beneficiaries of the Program come from overpopulated households, similar to
the situation observed among youths in the BAMR with incomplete secondary education.
Likewise, one out of three beneficiaries lives in slums or disadvantaged neighborhoods, an
impact that is up tenfold on that registered among their peers without secondary studies of that
urban conglomerate.
An important number of beneficiaries share their dwelling with an extended or composed
family, with relatives that do not belong to the core family (36%). Moreover, in 22% of cases,
these youths have at least one child, who mostly shares their house with grandparents. As
expected, this percentage doubles among female beneficiaries (34%) compared with males
(17%). The number of members with incomes is 2.6 per dwelling, with an average dependency
rate of 2.3 members every each member with a salary. Most families have very low total
incomes: 75% is paid less than two thousand pesos a month, meaning an income of about
AR$365 per capita. This situation is similar to that of all BAMR households with 18 to 24-year-
old people without secondary studies. At the time of considering the main problems in
households, beneficiaries refer to unemployment as the most important aspect (47%).
Meanwhile, over a third of them mention the death or loss of fathers, mothers or siblings, and a
tenth considers themselves as poor. However, a third declares they are not affected by any of
these suggested problems.
Rocha & Neer 13
As regards these beneficiaries’ access to ICTs, survey results show that 40% has no computer at
home and 63% has no access to Internet either. These shortages are especially relevant within a
context of an intensive process of participation of young people in virtual nets, through which
they expand their technological sociability. The lack of equitative access to new technologies
not only generates new socio-technological distances but also barriers to the possibilities of
participating in production and consumption areas (UNDP, 2009).
The initial situation of beneficiaries is not so different from that of their BAMR peers: about 8
out of 10 have had a previous working experience and only 3 have had just one, related to
previous studies.
Although these indicate a correct focalization of the Program, it is evident that they must be
considered at the time of designing policies for youths residing in vulnerable sectors. This way,
access to other existing social programs would be favored and they would help solve basic
shortages, considering the comprehensive scope those approaches must feature when destined to
the most disadvantaged population. On the other hand, another shortage must be tackled: though
not in that strong exclusion core, it arises from the low access of youths to ICTs, at a time when
techno-sociability is modifying knowledge patterns, learning and other social life dimensions,
such as employment. As the main objective of the YF Program is to improve employability
conditions of youths belonging to vulnerable sectors, connectivity to Internet predicts social
advantages and should be seriously considered by youth’s policies in the working environment.
b. Satisfaction of young participants
The general assessment of the YF Program tends to be highly positive, with no great differences
between the different surveyed segments. Taking those beneficiaries with a very good
assessment of the Program (65%) and those who marked it as good (29%), the assessment is
positive, over 90%. The satisfaction level tends to increase among young people currently
participating in the Program and among those who were followed up by the company after
completing the project. On the other hand, the general assessment of the Program tends to
decline among those youths who have shared the same tutor with more beneficiaries.
Figure 2: Satisfaction of beneficiaries with YF Program
65.4%
64.3%
70.0%
28.8%
28.5%
30.0%
5.8%
7.2%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Participated in YF
Program
Participates in YF
Program
Very Satisfied
Satisfied
Not Satisfied
Targete d population
Rocha & Neer 14
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
Closely related to what was previously said, young people's assessment is highly positive not
just as regards the Program in general, but also the practical experience it provided to them in
their jobs. Said experience is highly valued by 94% of beneficiaries and increases among those
who are currently participating and those who were followed up by the company. As in the
general appraisal, satisfaction with qualifying practices declines among those youths who were
not so close to the tutor in charge.
On the other hand, most young people (91%) consider the Program was good or very good as
regards the training provided to get a job. This positive appraisal is slightly higher among those
who are currently taking part in the Program (96%) and those who were followed up by the
company after completing the practice (94%). As one of the aspects that generates the greatest
expectations among young people is the possibility of getting working experience, not just to
improve their training but also to facilitate their search for a job, a positive assessment on both
aspects is a critical datum for the development of the Program.
Similar to observations as regards the general assessment of the qualifying practice and the
support provided to get a job, the trainers’, tutors’ and other professionals’ management
receives a positive appraisal of 97%. Among all aspects analyzed, this one is awarded the
highest percentage of positive appraisals, with no significant differences among surveyed
groups. This means that the personalized tutorship is a factor that determines the satisfaction of
the YF Program’s beneficiaries.
c. Effects on young participants’ employability conditions
Labor training programs for young people have been extensively assessed at an international
level, and this has resulted in the development of many assessment innovative methods and an
important evidence collection about their effectiveness.
To contextualize these situations, some comparisons will be made with the situation of young
people in the same age group without secondary studies and living in the BAMR, based on the
information provided by the Permanent Household Survey (EPH, the acronym in Spanish),
INDEC, corresponding to the first quarter of 2007.
From an operative point of view, the improvement in young participants’ employability
conditions is defined, in this Framework, as the capacity of the Program to provide better
chances of access to quality employment and/or labor development of beneficiaries (MLE&SS,
2010), and is assessed on two essential dimensions: the quality of labor insertion after being
trained at the company and access and completion of secondary studies.
i. Effects on the labor situation
The 59% is currently employed, with no relevant differences according to gender. To
contextualize this parameter, it is useful to say that the unemployment rate corresponding to the
same age group of youths living in the BAMR accounts for 50%, while that of the subgroup of
young people with incomplete secondary studies amounts to 47%. Although these values cannot
be strictly compared because the benchmark population is mostly made up by people with no
activities, we can conclude about the positive effects of the Program on the sustained activation
of young beneficiaries and their labor insertion capacity. In this case, we must point out that 6
out of 10 unemployed beneficiaries at the time of the survey claimed to have worked after
completing the qualifying practice. This way, over 8 out of 10 youths that took part in the
Program got a job at least once after their training. As regards those currently unemployed,
Rocha & Neer 15
almost all of them are actively looking for a job and only one tenth has become inactive, mainly
because of maternity or resuming studies.
Figure 3: labor insertion of beneficiaries after YF Program
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO, and EPH-INDEC
A more detailed look into labor insertion of beneficiaries shows that the employment rate
among those who were later followed up by the company is significantly different from those
who did not have such post-training contact. The gap between both groups is higher than 20
points: unemployment rate among young beneficiaries later followed up amounts to 71%;
among those who did not have that contact, it is below 50%, equaling the labor insertion
achieved by young people of the BAMR.
The second results indicator to be highlighted is close to the employment quality among those
who managed to get inserted after finishing the qualifying practice.
Results show that the initial working situation of those youths that took part in the Program is
similar to that of the group without complete secondary studies of the BAMR, but after
finishing their practice, they report a better labor inclusion than even those with complete
secondary studies in that region, on average. Only 27% of those that finished their qualifying
practice had previous working experience in a registered job. When considering the situation
after the Program, the percentage of quality labor insertion rises to 68%, up on the situation
before the YF Program.
67.6%
88.1%
45.2%
40.0%
22.2%
48.2%
26.9%
10.5%
45.1%
45.7%
62.9%
37.3%
5.5%
1.4%
9.7%
14.3%
14.9%
14.5%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
total
follow up after
training
not follow up after
training
total
Incomplete
Secondary School
Complete secondary
school
Targeted population ( YF Program survey)
Targeted population (EPH)
register ed salaried
not register ed salaried
Self-employe d/odd job
Rocha & Neer 16
Figure 4: Quality of labor insertion of young after YF Program
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO, and EPH-INDEC
Figure 5: Quality of labor insertion of young before and after YF Program
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO, and EPH-INDEC
67.6%
88.1%
45.2%
40.0%
22.2%
48.2%
26.9%
10.5%
45.1%
45.7%
62.9%
37.3%
5.5%
1.4%
9.7%
14.3%
14.9%
14.5%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
total
follow up after
training
not follow up after
training
total
Incomplete
Secondary School
Complete secondary
school
Targeted population ( YF Program survey)
Targeted population (EPH)
registered salaried
not registered salaried
Self-employed/odd job
26.6%
67.6%
26.4%
62.8%
26.9%
77.2%
63.0%
26.0%
62.8%
29.0%
63.5%
22.8%
10.4%
5.5%
10.8%
8.2%
9.6%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Before YF
Program
After YF
Program
Before YF
Program
After YF
Program
Before YF
Program
After YF
Program
Total
Men
Women
registered salaried
not registered salaried
Self-employed/odd job
Rocha & Neer 17
It is useful to highlight that the information about employed young people with no secondary
studies in the BAMR shows that there is no difference between the rate of those in a registered
job and that of the labor history in retrospection- of YF Programs beneficiaries. Only 22% of
those without complete secondary studies are currently working in a registered position.
Consistent with the focalization achieved, this comparison reveals that YF Program's
beneficiaries start from a more disadvantaged position than that of their peers with no secondary
school.
On the other hand, more Program beneficiaries fill quality jobs than employed young people
from the BAMR with complete secondary studies: 48% of the second group has a registered job
against the 68% who finished the qualifying practice, as mentioned before.
Moreover, when dealing with differences according to gender, female beneficiaries show a
better performance than males. Based on a comparable labor situation, after leaving the
Program, 77% of employed young women have a registered job and among young men the rate
is 63%.
As in the case of employment rate, we must highlight the follow-up made by the company
impacts significantly on the rise in beneficiaries’ capacity to get a quality job. Among those
who were followed up, employment rate accounts for 88%, while the rate of those who did not
have contact afterwards with the company that trained them drops to 45%.
Another relevant variable regarding the labor insertion of beneficiaries is salaries. Data shows
that average monthly incomes of beneficiaries that took part in the Program and currently
employed amount to AR$1,594.10 Comparatively, this salary is up 2.7 times on that received by
employed young people without secondary studies and living in the BAMR and up 1.7 times on
that earned by young people with secondary studies living in the same area. Those salary gaps
undoubtedly show an important advantage of the positions held by young people who
participated in the Program, compared with the main type of insertion of their peers.
As with other indicators, there is a significant difference between young people trained by the
company with a follow-up and without it: incomes of the Program beneficiaries with a follow-
up by the company are up 62% on that got by beneficiaries who were not followed up. These
salary gaps suggest that, beyond the condition of being a registered worker to which the
Program graduates have more access to, improving labor insertion quality depends on the access
to production and service sectors with higher labor productivity levels.
In that sense, half (49%) of those employees who participated in the Program were hired by the
same companies where they carried out the qualifying practice, while a tenth got a job in the
same activity sector than the company which trained them.
At the time of considering the quality of later labor insertion, we note that although it becomes
worse when beneficiaries are not hired by the training company, it is still better than that
observed for the whole target population. Survey information shows that almost all beneficiaries
later related to the company where they carried out the qualifying practice claim to be holding a
registered job, and almost half (45%) of those employed in another company claim to be in the
same situation. Thus, labor insertion quality of beneficiaries who are not employed by the same
company in which they were trained is similar to that of young people hired in the BAMR with
complete secondary school: this shows a rise in employability conditions.
Finally, it is worth highlighting the positive effects of the qualifying practice over the subjective
conditions of beneficiaries’ employability, thus noting the valuation it receives compared with
their own capacity to get a job. In that sense, the 85% of youths that participated in the Program
Rocha & Neer 18
gave an affirmative response to such question, narrowing the gaps arising from the fact of
receiving follow-up or not, later to be seen in connection with the impact over expectations.
Going deeper into the issues during the interviews showed that young people consider mainly
that the support provided by the Program to improve their working performance and the
possibility of gaining more experience in an activity or profession are the most important
aspects in their improvement of labor insertion capacity.
ii. Effects on the education situation
Although the Program does not aim at reaching the accreditation of formal studies, we must
highlight that most participating companies have provided alternatives for studies to be resumed
and/or completed, focusing on becoming aware of the importance of completing secondary
studies as a tool for social and labor inclusion.
Six out of ten resumed formal studies, either during the qualifying practice or afterwards. This
ratio is comparatively higher among women (77%) than among men (52%) and among those
who were followed up by the training company (70%), compared with those who were not
(53%).
We must note that the results of resuming school are really promising, because 44% of young
men finished secondary school and the other 46% are currently doing so. Likewise, among
those who finished the cycle, 35% is currently attending higher studies and 53% is planning to
do so.
Figure 6: Young back to school during or after YF Program, in %
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
59.9%
51.7%
76.7%
69.9%
52.8%
40.1%
48.3%
23.3%
30.1%
47.2%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Total
Men
Women
Follow up
after training
Not Follow up
after training
Targeted population
Back to school
Not back to school
Rocha & Neer 19
Figure 7: Young back to secondary school after YF Program according to educational situation,
in%
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
The Program was designed to give quality training options to young people outside the
schooling system and encourages them to resume secondary studies and to complete them. Far
from stating a false contradiction between formal education and experience-based training, the
opinion of those who finished the practice shows the value of both aspects at the same time.
When analyzing the interviewees' discourses, two main mechanisms can be identified that
operate as boosts. The most direct mechanism refers to the follow-up of the beneficiaries'
education system by the training company which, mainly through appointed tutors, encouraged
youths to resume their studies and to sit for pending subjects.
In other cases, the stimulus was not so direct and was not so much based on the demand for
tutors but on the youths being convinced that it is necessary to have a secondary degree to
access quality jobs. This does not mean that youths are not aware of it, but after having had the
experience of working in a formal company, something banned through that moment, may have
modified their incentives to reach it. In other words, having had a positive experience, having
seen a place for them, may have reduced fatalistic beliefs, such as "What am I going to study
for? There is no employment for me”. This makes it possible to articulate efforts and
achievements successfully.
iii. Effects on short and medium-term expectations
Focusing on the effects of the Program's participants’ subjectivity, this section aims at showing
their perception as regards their short and medium-term expectations. The results obtained offer
the possibility of comparing the different groups analyzed in order to see if the qualifying
practice has meant a change in future perspectives about the beneficiaries’ socio-labor and
education situation now and in five years’ time.
43.6%
41.5%
46.4%
45.9%
49.4%
41.1%
10.5%
9.1%
12.5%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Total
Men
Women
Finished Secondary school
At Secondary sc hool
Abandone d Secondary School
Rocha & Neer 20
Firstly, we must highlight that considering the value youths give to the YF Program as an
improvement instance, short and medium-term expectations are comparatively high. Therefore,
the Program may be awarded a positive effect over young beneficiaries’ expectations, both in
terms of getting the job they like and of getting a registered position, due to the difference
between those who finished the qualifying practice and those who did not take part in the YF
Program: the 27% of youths who have not taken part in the Program claims not to have any
possibility of accessing a job they like. That figure declines to 12% in the case of those who
have participated and to 6% in those who are currently doing their qualifying practice.
Something similar is shown when dealing with the perception about the chances to get a
registered job. Although all of them start from a lower level, those whose practice is underway
or who have finished it are more optimistic than those who have not taken part in the YF
Program yet. The 31% of young people who have not carried out the practice thinks they have
no chances to get a registered job. This figure is almost nil for those in training development
and it increases to 21% as they finish the period of practice.
Figure 8: Perception by youths of their labor future in five years' time, in %
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
On the other hand, when considering the young beneficiaries’ perception about their medium-
term future (in five years’ time), especially as regards their labor future, results are similar to
those about the value they give to the possibilities of getting a job. Beneficiaries mostly depict
high expectations to improve their working life. However, those who have not participated in
the practice yet are not as optimistic as those who have finished it or are currently participating
in the Program. Perspectives as regards finishing secondary studies in five years keep the same
trend. There are also differences in this perception when it comes to gender: women are much
more optimistic than men, especially about a possible access to college studies.
92.5%
92.4%
100.0%
84.4%
7.5%
7.6%
15.6%
75%
80%
85%
90%
95%
100%
Total
Participated in YF
Program
Participates in YF
Program
Not participated in
YF Program
Occupied or in a registered job
Unoccupied or in an informal job
Rocha & Neer 21
Figure 9: Perception by youths of their educational future in five years' time, in %
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
From a qualitative point of view, interviewed youths show a significant optimism. The big
difference between interviewed youths and the results of research into comparable groups is a
greater optimism. Most surveys on popular sector youths showed an increasing fatalism about
the future, especially the approach to a hostile labor world in few cases. Expecting difficulties in
future insertion, young people also had difficulties imagining themselves in other projects,
either family or personal. Therefore, current surveys have pointed out that the disjunction
between education and employment is an important issue: young people see a great difference
between the education world as a land of rights, beyond access problems, and the labor world,
as a land of lack of rights, instability and few horizons (UNDP, 2009).
This survey shows that those who have taken part in the experience have a greater optimism
about their future and the possibility of getting a quality job than those who have not taken part
in the Program yet, and than the information found in previous studies. In previous years,
surveys on this topic used to focus on the reduction in youths’ expectations of increasing social
mobility (Filmus and Miranda, 2000; Konterllnik and Jacinto, 1996). It was explained by means
of proving a juvenile unemployment rate that has been up threefold since the 1990s on those of
other age groups (Beccaria, 2005), and by the precarious labor condition that affects them more
than extended unemployment. Besides, other studies observed that the rise in education
coverage was not consistent with better labor opportunities (Salvia and Lépore, 2005).
Of course, the results of this report refer to a reduced number of cases related to a concrete
public policy experience. Anyway, they are compatible with more recent interpretations about
the change of a homogeneously fatalistic horizon due to positive signs registered in the last
years. It may partly be a reply to a generational turning point: this generation has matured after
48.6%
47.3%
56.0%
46.7%
42.0%
44.2%
44.0%
28.9%
9.4%
8.5%
24.4%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Total
Participated in YF Program
Participates in YF Program
Not participated in YF
Program
Targeted population
With university studies initiated
With secondary school completed
With secondary school incomplete
Rocha & Neer 22
the massive unemployment arising from the neoliberal reforms of the nineties and has lived
through the period of economic growth after 2003, with a sustained rise in quality jobs.
Therefore, although the situation cannot be applied to the rest of youths with a similar social
localization, developing a qualifying practice in a formal company seems to have generated
wider expectations. Even recognizing the place they have in the social stratification and the
need to finish secondary school, the results do not reflect that the “long-lasting precariousness
horizon” approach (Kessler 2004), which the previous generation showed mainly when
researching into the youth at the end of the last decade.
The possibility of developing an experience in a formal company, where youths have learned
about the different qualities related to decent work, has such an impact that it lets them
incorporate those expectations into their future chances. This is especially true among those
who could stay in the company after their practice period, even more when they can combine
work and study.
In other cases, when young people could not stay in the company, the idea of reaching certain
goals seems to arise, such as finishing their secondary school or starting a family. One way or
another, most sights on the future had an optimistic hue.
Statements made during these deep interviews by young people who experienced the Program
point out the importance of analyzing the impact of youth policies on their subjectivity and,
particularly, on the possibility of framing a future, of fixing goals, such being a condition -
necessary but not enough- to deploy their management capacity to achieve them. This type of
impacts features one of the most relevant connections between professional training programs
and their contributions to the juvenile human development.
iv. Factors associated with the improvement of employability conditions
The information above describes the achievement over employability conditions of beneficiaries
after being trained at the company; but it says nothing about the factors that would explain such
achievements.
To look into these relationships, a selection was made of a series of independent variables
impacting the determination of employability conditions of those youths who participated in the
Program, and they were grouped into three levels of occurrence: a) the beneficiary’s individual
attributes, b) the beneficiary’s home attributes, and c) the attributes of the formation project in
which the beneficiary took part.
The first level focuses on gender, age group, education level and the existence of family
responsibilities. The second one considers the education level of the head of household, access
to Internet in the house and its being placed in a poor neighborhood. Finally, the third level
includes the duration of the training in months, the number of beneficiaries per tutor, scope of
the degree other than the certificate of participation- and the training company’s follow-up.
They are indicators associated with the achievements of the beneficiaries after finishing the
Program.
In order to analyze the influence degree of these independent variables over the indicators of
achievement abovementioned, four models of linear regression were applied over dichotomic
variables. In each case, the achievement indicators selected were dependent variables to be
explained, while the mentioned variables on demographic and socio-economic characteristics of
beneficiaries and training projects were independent, explanatory and foresee the beneficiaries’
achievements.
Rocha & Neer 23
The analysis of regression rates arising from such models allows accurate information on the
factors that mostly boost or hinder attaining goals.
Figure 10: Factors impacting the chances of youths to improve their employability conditions
after the YF Program, estimations based on lineal regressions
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
Firstly, it is shown that the likelihood of resuming secondary school studies is greater among
women, the younger beneficiaries and those who have made greater advances in the schooling
system. The origins of a household with a more intense schooling environment also impacts on
greater probabilities of resuming school. As regards the characteristics of the training projects,
the follow-up carried out by the training company after the qualifying practice is the factor that
most contributes to increasing such possibilities.
Secondly, if a more demanding schooling achievement indicator is analyzed, such as the
completion of secondary school, the chances are higher among those youths who had made
more progress in their secondary school, and thus were nearer to completing the course. The
factor related to the characteristics of the training project that most influences on the better
chances to complete studies is the proximity of a tutor; this reassures the importance of a
personalized encouragement to reach the end of secondary school.
These results may also show a certain stress between coming back to school and the effective
completion of secondary school, as a consequence of the inefficient performance of many of
young beneficiaries that resumed studies during or at the end of the practice. The assessment of
factors related to labor insertion after training indirectly provides information about this
possible disruption, also shown by the evaluations on the impact of programs of conditioned
admission transfers.
Thirdly, it is evident that chances of getting a job are comparatively higher among those
beneficiaries who are behind in their secondary education level; this may indicate the
difficulties faced by less educated people in completing their studies. Although these people
have rejoined the schooling system, most of their experiences were deemed as failures.
Likewise, and as mentioned before when referring to the inclusion in the formal education
system, the follow-up of the social, labor and schooling situation of beneficiaries carried out by
B Sig B Sig B Sig B Sig
Sex 0.140 0.130 0.081 0.327 0.069 0.489 0.048 0.602
Age group -0.154 0.081 -0.065 0.410 0.031 0.738 -0.030 0.729
Education 0.216 0.024 0.244 0.005 -0.160 0.117 0.012 0.901
Family responsibility -0.102 0.306 -0.076 0.393 -0.043 0.689 0.043 0.664
Education of the chief 0.164 0.096 0.149 0.092 0.102 0.329 0.118 0.225
Internet in the hous e 0.136 0.015 0.022 0.797 -0.073 0.469 0.028 0.763
Housing in villa -0.036 0.711 -0.056 0.526 -0.149 0.106 -0.165 0.090
Previous labor experience 0.035 0.689 0.004 0.961 0.065 0.492 -0.007 0.932
Month duration of the practice -0.015 0.528 -0.003 0.867 0.004 0.861 -0.004 0.874
Number of beneficiaries per tutor -0.002 0.503 -0.004 0.102 -0.001 0.827 0.001 0.799
Diploma, title or certificate 0.008 0.932 0.025 0.750 0.077 0.416 0.102 0.243
Follow up after training 0.114 0.096 0.053 0.505 0.243 0.011 0.378 0.000
Back to school
Finished secondary
school
Currently works
Has a registered job
Rocha & Neer 24
the training company, after the qualifying practice, is a factor that boosts chances of labor
insertion. However, it is worth highlighting that living in slums or low income neighborhoods,
independently from other factors considered, reduces the possibilities of reaching such insertion
and introduces a “neighborhood effect” associated to sociospatial segregation mechanisms
operating on the labor market.
Finally, the analysis of factors associated to quality employment for those youths who have
finished the Program shows that the individual differences, in terms of gender, age and even
schooling level are not so influential due to the existence of other explanatory factors. Even
though trials on youths who have not passed the Program show that such characteristics are
essential at the time of getting a quality job, especially secondary school credentials, what must
be highlighted is that the participation in the Program puts the advantages related to such
characteristics on a level. In that sense, we must say that the follow-up of the training company
is the most determining aspect when accessing a quality job; this result shows how important
those actions are in the participants' careers.
On the other hand, living in a slum or in a low income neighborhood reduces such chances,
independently from the rest of variables considered.
v. Net effects on employability conditions
Although the comparison between the situation before and after taking part in the Program
shows promising results as regards improved employability of the YF’s beneficiaries, it is
crucial to take into account that such results should be compared with those of a social group
with similar characteristics and who have not been trained. This way, the aim is to isolate the
effect of the Program or at least to suspend the effect of the context over the beneficiaries’
achievements, in order to determine the net impact of the Program over improving
employability conditions.
That is why the assessing models of action impacts, either in their experimental or quasi-
experimental versions, go further in creating control groups or in comparing individuals who
have not received treatment and with statistically similar qualities to the beneficiaries. In this
study, the beneficiaries cohort who have completed the qualifying practice constitutes a
treatment group, while those youths who have not started their qualifying practice, because the
project for which they were chosen was not carried out, still constitute a control group.
Following recommendations on methodology, a quantitative method of measuring the Program
impacts was applied in order to strengthen the results observed (Abdala, 2004; Betcherman,
2007; Diez de Medina, 2004; Jones, 2010). Among available techniques, tests of mean
differences and binomial logistic regression models were prioritized. With the former one, it is
possible to establish the statistical significance of differences in estimations of impact variables
in each of the groups defined; with the latter, it is possible to get the magnitude and the effect
produced by participating in the YF over the employability conditions, setting other factors
influence aside.
From an operative point of view, the aim is to determine the impact of the Program over the
employability conditions of youths as regards two aspects. On one hand, the objective is to
know about the impact of education factors over the improvement of objective employability
conditions by means of a quality indicator of labor insertion. On the other hand, the goal is to
determine the impacts over subjective employability conditions by measuring the lack of
fatalistic beliefs.
Rocha & Neer 25
Although in assessments on impact it is useful to measure variables before the treatment, it is
worth noting that if randomization was properly done, such estimations are not necessary,
because a random allocation guarantees that both groups have the same average initial value of
impact variables. This way, post-treatment differences may be attributed to the effect of the
treatment.
As, by definition, youths contacted were unemployed and have not completed their secondary
school before joining the Program, it was the priority to measure the quality of labor careers
through that moment by means of a retrospective observation that allowed us to determine
whether youths had at least one experience in formal employment at the time they were
contacted to join the Program.
These statements made, the Schedule first shows the results of the analysis of statistical
significance of mean differences and then the results of binomial logistic regression models.
Conclusions from these analysis are as follows: 1) the Program means an improvement in
objective conditions of beneficiaries' employability with a significant increase in their chances
to have a formal labor experience, 2) the Program produces a balance by putting opportunities
on the same level; this is achieved by reducing, on the formal labor market, the selectivity
effects of employability conditions achieved by youths on the grounds of their previous labor
experience and their age, 3) no alterations are observed to the selection effects associated to
position-related factors in the social structure of youths, such as the degree of progress made
and/or accreditation in the formal education system or, widely, to the position of their household
in the socio-economic stratification, and 4) there is a reduction in fatalistic beliefs regarding the
possibilities to get into the formal labor market in the medium term.
Appendix I shows the methodology and results of comparing the treatment group to the control
group in order to setting aside the possibility of attributing the differences found between both
groups to the inadequate size of sampling.
d. Effects on Corporate Organizations
This section aims to describe the main strengths and positive aspects of the Program and the
weaknesses and difficulties it had to face during its implementation, under the perspective of
those involved directly in training young beneficiaries. Likewise, its goal is to inform about the
sustainability of the Program in time and about lessons learned as Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR), incorporated in participating companies.
i. Difficulties confronted
Among the main difficulties stated by tutors and those responsible for the training of YF, we
mention the following:
· Relationship with trade unions: for many companies, undertaking the Program meant
negotiating with union representatives at the company. According to some companies,
negotiations dealt with the design of recruitment procedures and with the number of benefits
and fees received by beneficiaries. Trade unions made their stand to avoid confrontations
with the company’s employees, while protecting the youths’ interests. These considerations
should not omit the active cooperation of trade unions in many projects, especially those
related to education in classrooms: they provided trainers and the facilities to develop such
activities.
· Outlays: two aspects were causes for concern. On one hand, the lack of synchronization
between payment on non-remunerative aid by the MLE&SS and the payment of benefits by
the company was a reason for complaint by beneficiaries and, to a lesser extent, for pressure
Rocha & Neer 26
over those responsible for the training, as the “visible face” of the Program. On the other
hand, certain discomfort was shown as regards payment methods because youths received
their benefits from the company through one debit card and that of the MLE&SS through
another one.
· Handling beneficiaries' expectations: since the beginning of qualifying practices, a recurrent
concern among youths was associated to the possibilities of being hired by companies once
the training period was over. Tutors in charge were informed about this worry at all times
and it was more intense as the date of ending the Program approached. According to tutors,
this meant a discouragement in those candidates that received no concrete responses from
trainers.
· Internal Communications and tutors' training: some flaws were detected in the internal
training process for youths as a consequence of the “inexperience in the implementation of
this kind of projects”. In general, this turned into a virtue because it meant more fluent
contacts between tutors and those in charge of human resources in order to seek solutions to
those problems arising as the Program was going ahead. Yet, it is still necessary to
strengthen selected tutors' training, awareness and involvement.
· Lack of basic behavior guidelines: one of the recurrent difficulties stated by tutors has to do
with the cultural aspect. “We started from the assumption that some youths already handled
some basic behavior guidelines and during the training many of them proved not to have
been incorporated”. This is especially related to respect for timetables, behavior in working
environments, informing about absences, avoiding assigned responsibilities and other
problems about personal hygiene and fitting. Many companies fitted out their psychological
departments to tackle these issues, sometimes with the support of social workers specially
hired for that purpose. On certain occasions, numerous absences meant making these
beneficiaries redundant according to Program’s operative regulations.
ii. Positive aspects
Though in general no assessments of results have been made by each company, tutors and those
responsible for training state a series of strengths and lessons left by participating in the
Program and that are worth highlighting.
· Mobilization of resources: the capacity to mobilize human resources shown as from the
implementation of the Program is worth mentioning as it was not known how they would
react to an unprecedented experience. Those in charge of training and other collaborators
showed great willingness, involvement and sensibilization and they devoted many hours of
their regular working timetable to providing personalized support to young participants.
Many of them claimed to be thankful for the opportunity they had as tutors in such a
rewarding experience.
· Strengthening the internal communications and team work: the skills developed towards a
more fluent relationship between managements and departments involved in the program
must be highlighted, especially when an organizational coordination was essential to solve
operative problems.
· Impact on staff selection policy: despite not producing formal modification in staff selection
policies, the Program is explicitly said to have provided the chance to sensibilize those in
charge of the human resources department as regards removing certain prejudices rooted
mainly in connection with the workers’ social and geographical origins.
Rocha & Neer 27
· Articulation with the public sector: the Program is said to have consolidated or initiated a
cooperative relationship between the company and a state organ -usually deemed, within the
corporate opinion, as confronted bodies- when dealing with common interest issues.
· Articulation with the civil society and the community: the Program is praised for providing
the possibility to draw the company closer to organizations of the civil society at the time of
"recruiting" youths (Cáritas, AMIA, NGOs and schools near the companies’ primary
influence area), as well as for allowing a direct contact with poor neighborhoods next to the
sites where practices were carried out.
· Results obtained: they highlight in all sense. For third parties, because according to tutors,
the application of the Program went forward in the education of youths and their chances of
employability. For the company, it meant the chance to consolidate the commitment with
the CSR policies, articulating its work with a national public body.
· Sustainability: there is no complete evaluation on sustainability during the Program but a
unanimous certainty about its importance. In many cases, the chances to continue with the
Program are said to be very high, even if it is deprived of the MLE&SS’s support; this
shows the decision made to incorporate this practice in the company’s Human Resources
policy. In this sense, the assessment made on cost-benefits has been satisfactory.
7. SUCCESS FACTORS
Sustainable development as the objective and public-private coordination, social dialogue,
systematization, annual balance sheets and accountability as strategies are the keys to success of
this program that has brought together the public sector, leading companies and NGOs for the
last six years in on-going joint efforts.
The specific success factors of this program are the following:
· Challenging and Innovative Objective. Understanding the structural aspect of youth poverty
and its influence on formal labor insertion, the program means a multidimensional response
as it observes not only working experience but also formal education, the procurement of
qualifications by practicing in working areas and the exercise/learning quality labor culture,
pushing the youth’s personal values and expectations up.
· Strategy of innovative articulation. Understanding decent work as an individual’s
constructive and dignifying bond and the company as the main space to develop such bond
in the society, the program calls for a wide social participation. It involves a multisector
alliance (state, companies and NGOs) that provides a solid social infrastructure. The quality
of training in the working environment is assured by the participation of the human
management areas and relevant technical areas of the companies taking part and by the
participation of high level tutors and corporate volunteers, completely necessary for the
successful development of the program.
· Integration between dynamic sectors and social objectives such as poverty reduction and
exclusion. The capacity to create tools to reduce poverty and social exclusion is also a novel
contribution. The creation of these mechanisms is based on the construction of bridges
between dynamic economic sectors and the vulnerable segments excluded by the society.
Deactivating usual individual and organizational barriers among these social universes, it is
possible to transmit the working values of the formal corporate environment to the most
vulnerable sectors, and to add the social perspective to the economic one in employability
Rocha & Neer 28
corporate strategies. This vital success factor is at the baseline of strategies of personal
interests alignment, organizational objectives and social needs (Rocha, 2006a; 2008).
· Human and technical training. Education for employment should not be just technical but,
apart from impacting on the generation of working competences (how to look for a job, how
to present a CV, digital basic literacy, etc) it must give way to an emphasis on people, their
values and life expectations.
· The participation of human management areas and relevant technical areas of the companies
involved assures the quality of training and its practical application in the working
environment.
· The participation of high level tutors and corporate volunteers contributes to generating
confidence and to deactivating individual and organizational barriers sometimes connected
with SR aspects.
8. CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND THE CHALLENGES AHEAD.
The assessment of results and impacts of the YF program over the youths' employability
conditions is undoubtedly positive, both in terms of the quality of post-training labor insertion
and of the encouragement to resume schooling and to complete secondary studies. The
satisfaction shown by beneficiaries with the Program, and also by tutors and other people
responsible for the training in companies, support the evidence presented by this research report.
The quali-quantitative results are thus consistent as regards the identification of the main effects
of the Program over the different aspects of human development of young participants, which
are not just about working aspects.
Undoubtedly, learning the quality employment practice by means of the articulation of training
in labor competences and the experience in a real working environment, is the first achievement
to highlight as a success factor of the Program. It implies a combination of different contents,
from learning the interaction codes in formal organizations to the development of city
integration capacity, including the exercise of acquired technical competences in connection
with the job they were trained in.
A second achievement refers to the time dimension of the effects produced by the Program,
which projects beyond present times as it boosts the construction of a future working project. At
the same time, there is an additional motivation among young participants to complete
secondary school left behind and, even, to plan their higher studies. The participation in these
places gives value -here we highlight there is no discrimination- and this increases personal self-
esteem and confidence in their own capacities. All this lets them overcome the external effects
of stigmatization and reassure the integrating role of the qualifying practices in the corporate
environment.
These trends are far from the usual statements about the increased fatalism and the lack of
opportunities for popular sector youths in studies on youth culture, schooling and labor
insertion. To the contrary, the experience of the YF Program shows that in a macroeconomic
and institutional context characterized by the creation of quality jobs, qualifying practices
underway in first line companies mean displacing the horizon of young people expectations,
projecting a more optimistic vision of the future based on understanding the contextual process.
Here we find the main responsibility of government organs, private sector companies and
different organizations of the civil society associated as synergies as that developed by the YF
Program: to recreate the necessary conditions so that those expectations turn into opportunities
of social inclusion and mobility.
Rocha & Neer 29
For now, we must emphasize that the effects produced by the YF Program over the socio-
working and education situation of beneficiaries, after leaving, show a successful transition
towards the world of formality, which seems to have saved youths at least in the short and
medium term- from the dynamics of the instable insertion that characterizes their concern. Later
research will be necessary to prove for certain to which extent such interventions are enough to
guarantee the sustainability of the achievements in the long term. Meanwhile, the evidence on
this issue helps to assure that getting formal education credentials and accessing a first stable
job with social protection are real protective factors against possible risks of coming back to
informality contexts.
For the time being, we end this report with a general recommendation to widen and repeat
competence-training interventions in corporate environments, such as the YF Program. We
provide three suggestions as from the experience analyzed in this report. Here follow some
suggestions to be considered while making possible reformulations to this Program.
Firstly, access requirements to the Program should be more specifically stated. Currently it only
states the non-completion of secondary school as a specific condition but it does not consider
the definition about the social vulnerability condition. Making this aspect more operative would
allow a higher degree of the Program’s progress, focusing more on those sectors with higher
social risks. So far it has proved to be very good, but it is only attributed to the expertise of
those in charge of the technical aspects of recruiting. Focusing on the impact of the so-called
“neighborhood effect” on the possibilities of labor insertion of young people, we could state it is
more critical to focus on young people living in poor neighborhoods or slums. In that same
sense, it would be proper to prioritize the access to those youths that not only left secondary
studies incomplete but also deserted during the first years of the cycle or at least two years ago.
Secondly, based on the results that show a better performance of those youths that were
supported by training companies, it is advisable to introduce a follow-up stage after finishing
the qualifying practice. It is therefore suggested that this stage offer follow-up possibilities to
foster possible access to quality employment and the completion of secondary school, as well as
the articulation with other social programs that consider the different dimensions of youth
human development (physical and mental health, prevention of addictions, access to housing,
among other issues).
Finally, as regards the possible problems that may arise between widening the Program’s
coverage scale and the consolidation of quality of procedures, results and impacts within a
framework of the private-public intervention related to the CSR principles, it is vital to fix an
intermediate pathway consisting of the generalization of the YF Program, among those
companies members of the CSR and Decent Work Net, supported by the activation of incentives
for hiring young people in those companies that are part of the supply chain of the big chips, by
means of promoting synergies with public instruments of job promotion.
In any case, it is fundamental to highlight the participation of companies in the design and
implementation of job interventions for young people and the importance of those
encouragement strategies for CSR areas. The YF Program shows important characteristics of
sustainability either because they let it provide the labor competences that the formal education
system does not provide or because they let it interact with other social sectors, which would
otherwise remain unconnected. Such sustainability is mainly shown by the decision made by
many companies member as regards incorporating qualifying practices in their training and
human resources development policies.
The future challenge is to expand the program’s coverage while consolidating its quality and the
results it achieves. This coverage reaches three dimensions:
- The county dimension, that is, to expand the program to more youth in the same region
in order to consolidate the results
Rocha & Neer 30
- The regional dimension, that is, extend the program to other regions both in Argentina
and in regions of Latin-American countries with similar challenges
- The industrial and sectorial dimension, that is are convoking small and medium-sized
companies (SMEs) in the respective value chains of the founding companies. SMEs are
the main source of employment in Argentina (Rocha, 2011) and sectorial and cluster
strategies are showing positive results in terms of creation of new companies and jobs in
general (Rocha, 2004) and in Germany (Rocha and Sternberg, 2005), Latin America
(Rocha, 2006b;) and Argentina (Rocha, Reynolds, Donato and Haedo, 2004;
McDermott and Rocha, 2010) in particular.
Rocha & Neer 31
APPENDIX I Results: Methodology
a. Evidence of media differences
The comparison of the impact variables mean between treatment and control groups, after
treatment, results in a first proof about the net effect of the YF Program over improving the
youth’s employability. Such evidence allows setting aside the possibility of attributing the
differences found between both groups to the inadequate size of sampling.
Therefore, the student’s t-test for independent sampling is usually used to compare the null
hypotheses that samples come from two subpopulations in which the mean of variable X is the
same. We must observe that if the impact variable means in both groups were the same, the
difference would be zero and so the effect produced by the treatment would be nil. However,
before assessing the statistical significance of the mean differences, it is vital to contrast the
variances equality in the impact variable in both groups, as the statistical contrast for the
student’s t-test for both independent samples may acquire two expressions, depending on the
subpopulations showing the same variance or not.
Figure 1: Test of means differences in access to formal employment after the YF Program.
Treatment Group vs. Control Group
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
The tables above show that the p value associated to F contrast statistical value is below 0.05.
Then at the 0.05 significance level, the nil hypotheses of variances equality is rejected, and the t
statistical value is adequate to contrast the nil hypotheses of variances equality. The t statistical
value is proper to contrast the hypotheses of mean equality, which does not imply variances
equality. In this case the p value associated with the statistical contrast value is below 0.05; this
allows to state that, at the significance level of 0.05, the nil hypotheses of mean equality are
rejected. Consequently, it can be affirmed that the improvement in global relationship of the
target population with the formal labor market is a consequence of the better relationship of the
youths that took part in the Program.
A similar conclusion can be drawn from the analysis of results of mean tests carried out on the
estimations of the variable on the absence of fatalistic beliefs in treatment and control groups, as
an indicator of subjective employability conditions. Tests show that the difference in means is
statistically significant at a level of 0.05, so the hypotheses of means equality are discarded. As
Group Statistics
N Mean
Std.
Deviation
Std. Error
Mean
Control Group
100 0.356 0.480 0.039
Treatment group
150 0.527 0.501 0.041
Independent Samples Test
F Sig t df
Sig.(2-
tailed)
Mean
Differenc
e
Std.Errro
r
Differenc
e
Lower Upper
Equal variances assumed
12.193 0.001 -3.022 297.989 0.003 -0.171 0.057 -0.283 -0.060
Equal variances not assumed
-3.022 297.460 0.003 -0.171 0.057 -0.283 -0.060
Levene´s Test for
Equality of
Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
95%Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Rocha & Neer 32
a consequence, it is possible to state that the lower absence of fatalistic beliefs is due to a
reduction among the youths that took part in the Program.
Figure 2: Test of means differences in the absence of fatalistic beliefs after the YF Program.
Treatment Group vs. Control Group
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
b. Models of binary logistic regression
Although the results of tests on means differences make it possible to conclude that the YF
Program generates an advantage in possible improvements of employability conditions of
beneficiaries as regards those youths that have not taken part in this experience, it is not possible
to set the extent to which these advantages increase. Therefore, the application of models of
binary logistic regression aims at determining the size of advantages generated in improving
employability conditions of young people taking part in the Program, against those who did not.
A formal experience and the absence of fatalistic beliefs are, consequently, the dependent
variables. Having participated in a training project or not in the YF Program framework is the
independent variable. This explains a greater or lower likelihood of improving employability
conditions. We must note that at this point the participation in the Program will be deemed an
homogeneous boost for participants.
Such an assessment does not allow the idea that the differences in estimations of result variables
in treatment and control groups are a consequence of factors outside the participation in the
Program. For that reason, some independent variables are incorporated to the analysis. These
variables are to monitor the comparability between both groups to estimate the net effect of the
variable of participation in the YF Program on result variables.
The control variables incorporated to the model were selected according to their influence of
youth employability conditions, and may be classified into two levels: those related to socio-
demographic characteristics and socio-economic characteristics. The former ones include:
gender, age, family responsibilities, schooling level and labor experience accumulated before
taking part in the Program. The latter includes: education of head of household and access to
Internet at home. All these variables are relevant to understand the employability and are
included under the assumption of a relationship with the dependent variable.
The comparison of results of the application of a binary logistic regression model over a sample
of the target population, after and before treatment, shows that the participation in the Program
Group Statistics
N Mean
Std.
Deviation
Std. Error
Mean
Control Group
100 0.511 0.502 0.041
Treatment group
150 0.839 0.368 0.030
Independent Samples Test
F Sig t df
Sig.(2-
tailed)
Mean
Difference
Std.Errror
Difference
Lower Upper
Equal variances assumed
126.635 0.000 -6.458 297.989 0.000 -0.328 0.051 -0.428 -0.228
Equal variances not assumed
-6.458 273.563 0.000 -0.328 0.051 -0.428 -0.228
Levene´s Test for
Equality of Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
95%Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Rocha & Neer 33
creates a statistically important positive effect on the probability to be linked to the formal labor
market through quality employment positions.
It is thus observed that before entering the Program the chances of young participants to have a
formal job were lower than those in the comparison group. After the Program, the advantages
were just the opposite way. As a consequence, comparing with the situation before the Program,
the chances of young participants to hold a formal job are up fivefold on those who did not take
part; the rest of variables of the model being constant.
As a complement, analyzing the change in reasons for the advantages of other variables results
in predicting a reduction in the net effect they have over the capacity of being linked to the
formal labor market, the age differences and previous labor experiences. In this case, those that
have occurred until the time of getting in contact with the Program. However, it must be said
that there are no significant changes in the effects on youth’s education or the schooling
situation in their homes.
Figure 3: Factors impacting the chances of youths to access a formal job before the YF
Program, estimations based on logistic regressions
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
Figure 4: Factors impacting on the chances of youths to access a formal job after the YF
Program, estimations based on logistic regressions
B Wald Sig Exp (B)
Se x -0.465 2.103 0.147 0.628
Age group 1.109 12.772 0.000 3.031
Edu ca ti on 0.656 3.606 0.058 1.926
Fa mi l y res pons i bi li ty 0.237 0.486 0.486 1.267
Edu ca ti on of the chi ef 0.586 2.793 0.095 1.797
Inte rnet i n the hous e 0.125 0.147 0.701 1.133
Previous la bo r e xperience 1.445 17.357 0.000 4.244
Participation in YF -0.968 10.224 0.001 0.380
Cons ta nt -2.274 12.906 0.000 0.103
Rocha & Neer 34
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
On the other hand, the comparison of results of the application of a second binomial logistic
regression model on a sample of target population shows that the participation in the YF
Program has a statistically significant positive effect on the average possibility of the absence of
fatalistic beliefs. The Program thus introduces a reduction in fatalistic beliefs over the chances
of getting a formal job in the coming months and over the expectations of a stable job and
completed secondary studies in the future, in the medium term.
Figure 5: Factors impacting the chances of youths of not having fatalistic beliefs after the YF
Program, estimations based on logistic regressions
Source: YF Program survey- MLE&SS/ ILO
B Wald Sig Exp (B)
Se x -0.293 1.1 0.292 0.746
Age group 0.456 2.7 0.069 1.577
Edu ca tion 0.655 4.9 0.027 1.926
Fa mi l y respons i bi li ty 0.410 1.9 0.168 1.506
Edu ca tion of the chi e f 0.680 5.4 0.020 1.973
Inte rne t i n the hous e -0.177 0.4 0.536 0.838
Previous l a bor experience 0.796 8.6 0.003 2.216
Participation in YF 0.696 7.4 0.007 2.006
Consta n t -1.844 11.9 0.001 0.158
B Wald Sig Exp (B)
Se x 0.086 0.080 0.778 1.089
Age group 0.676 4.747 0.029 1.967
Edu ca tion 0.605 3.446 0.063 1.830
Fa mi ly res pons i bi l i ty -0.157 0.216 0.642 0.855
Edu ca tion of the chi ef 0.176 0.297 0.586 1.192
Interne t in the hous e 0.559 2.687 0.100 1.749
Previous la bor e xperi ence -0.149 0.258 0.612 0.861
Participation in YF 1.621 31.068 0.000 5.058
Consta nt -0.786 2.012 0.156 0.456
Rocha & Neer 35
APPENDIX II: Projects of YF Program: The cases of Microsoft and Acindar- Acerol Mittal
Actors/ Institutions Involved
Number of Youths: 20
Duration (months): 3
Microsoft
Fundación Equidad (Equidad Foundation)
Training
Hours/ Curricular Contents
118 hours
At the Foundation:
Schooling and professional orientation
Induction to the activity sector and the company
IT Courses
Practice in Job Positions
Hours/Specific Technical Formation
272 hours
At the Foundation:
Positions:
Technical support
PC Restorers with Office knowledge
Tasks:
Reading specifics
Identification of internal hardware components
Planning an installation
Preventive support
Use of remote assistance
Solution to mechanical and configuration problems
Start-up and restoration of the operative system
Net Safety
Tutors/Trainers
Personalized follow-up in completing studies and no desertion from the Program
Post-graduation
Boosting the development of their own job undertaking project
Acquiring tools for a formal job in an industry company
Rocha & Neer 36
Other Relevant Data
Launching the Program during the academic recess and ending up at the time of starting the new lessons cycle to make it easy for
youths to carry out the tasks stated while finishing their schooling studies.
Rocha & Neer 37
YF Program - MLE&SS
Actors / Institutions Involved
Editions: 4 (2008 to 2011)
Number of Youths by Edition: 20
Duration (months): 4
ACINDAR S.A.
Unión Obrera Metalúrgica - Professional Formation Center
(La Matanza District)
Employment Management of La Matanza District
Training
Hours/Curricular Contents
186 hours
At the company
- Schooling and professional orientation
- Support to labor insertion
- Induction to the activity sector and to the company: institutional presentation, management model, presentation of processes and products
- Training in safety and hygiene criteria (quality management, environment, safety and occupational health)
- Training in quality, continued improvement and exposure to ISO norms
At the trade union:
- IT course
Practice in Job Positions
Hours/Specific Technical Formation
366 hours
At the company:
Training in specific technical competences: lathe operators, welders, back-office assistants, metalworkers and maintenance workers.
- Engines and electrical boards, and water pumps maintenance.
- Introduction to pneumatics and hydraulics.
- Maths operations related to lathe operations, Metrology
- Tools for cutting metals, making cones and screws.
- Back-office assistance, writing, administrative circuits, basic accountancy
Tutors/Trainers
Tutors and training staff belonging to the Human Resources, Production, Administrative and Safety areas. Proximity and personalized
follow-up make it possible to remain in time and to be sustainable. Besides, it is vital that young people have a solid experience.
Post-graduation
Delivery of young beneficiaries data to Acindar’s consultancy agencies and suppliers for labor insertion
Rocha & Neer 38
Other Relevant Data
- Tripartite Execution of the Program: participation of the Unión Obrera Metalúrgica in training courses
- 90% permanence of beneficiaries in the Program.
- Voluntary participation of the human resources, production, administration and safety staff in practices.
- Monitoring and personalized follow-up of youths by a human resources team together with tutors.
Rocha & Neer 39
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Chapter
This chapter investigates the multiplicity of the social deficits occurring in most Arab countries. It also assesses the extent and magnitude of such deficits and looks at their interactions. Further needs for human development and social cohesion1 are discussed as means and policies that can alleviate these shortages and create new avenues for enhanced and coordinated development. The Millennium Development Goals pursued by developing countries, represent a promising framework that is targeting 2015 for the attainment of the objectives. This chapter identifies the main directions of social deficits as they relate to health, education, and poverty, with a focus on the Arab economies. The potential provided by the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the coordination of the alleviation of the social deficits are also discussed. ICTs are then recognized as important sources for the improvement of identification, extent, and the use of the policy tools for poverty reduction. The framework of social cohesion is also placed in parallel with human development through a discussion of policies needed to reduce deprivation.
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