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The Role of Transportation in Sustainable Development

Conference Paper

The Role of Transportation in Sustainable Development

Abstract and Figures

There is now broad agreement that present trends in world transportation system are not sustainable. Many have concluded that fundamental changes in technology, operation, design, and financing are needed. In all societies, including developed and developing, regardless of their development in various fields, New technologies will have different negative consequences in long term. Concerns about environmental quality, social equity, economic vitality, and treatment of climate change due to increasing CO2 have converged to produce a growing interest in the alternative approach to sustainable development. Development of sustainable is very important in every pattern especially in this century, so in the discussion of sustainable development is very important. Sustainable development at the transportation sector can be divided into three major sections: society, economy, and environment. Transportation sustainable development requires balancing to achieve the minimum expectations in these three sectors. For increasing the role of transportation in sustainable development, we need to use some strategies for increasing sustainability. These strategies include promoting public transportation, demand management, improving road management, pricing policies, vehicle technology improvement, using clean fuels, cultural enhancement, and transportation planning. This paper evaluates the role of transportation and the effect of using these strategies in sustainable development. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/9780784412688.053
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The Role of Transportation in Sustainable Development
M.A.Mosaberpanah1, S.Darban Khales2
Islamic Azad University, Chaloos Branch (IAUC), Department of Civil Engineering;
email: mosaberpanah@iauc.ac.ir
Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU), Department of Civil Engineering; email:
sina.khales@students.emu.edu.tr
Abstract
There is now broad agreement that present trends in world transportation
system are not sustainable. Many have concluded that fundamental changes in
technology, operation, design, and financing are needed. In all societies, including
developed and developing, regardless of their development in various fields, New
technologies will have different negative consequences in long term. Concerns about
environmental quality, social equity, economic vitality, and treatment of climate
change due to increasing CO2 have converged to produce a growing interest in the
alternative approach to sustainable development. Development of sustainable is very
important in every pattern especially in this century, so in the discussion of
sustainable development is very important. Sustainable development at the
transportation sector can be divided into three major sections: society, economy, and
environment. Transportation sustainable development requires balancing to achieve
the minimum expectations in these three sectors. For increasing the role of
transportation in sustainable development, we need to use some strategies for
increasing sustainability. These strategies include promoting public transportation,
demand management, improving road management, pricing policies, vehicle
technology improvement, using clean fuels, cultural enhancement, and transportation
planning.
This paper evaluates the role of transportation and the effect of using these
strategies in sustainable development.
Introduction
Concerns about environmental quality, social equity, economic vitality, and
treatment of climate change due to increasing CO2 have converged to produce a
growing interest in the alternative of sustainable development. Sustainable
development is very important in every pattern especially in this century; the one
basic definition of sustainable development was by the Brundtland Commission
1
in
1987. This statement the sustainable development “seeks to meet the needs and
1
The Brundtland Commission was created by the United Nations in 1983 to reflect about ways to
save the human environment and natural resources and prevent deterioration of economic and social
development.
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aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the
future.” Also for reducing of Carbon dioxide there are agreements like Kyoto
Protocol, UN Rio de Janeiro 1992 Earth Summit, and the 1995 European Conference
of Ministers of Transport [2]. Sustainable development enhancement efforts have
been started in all patterns. In the developed countries, there is special attention to
sustainable development in the field of transportation. Sustainable transportation
preserves human health and their environment, in the way that economy progression
will be continued, and community balance will be met.
This paper first considers the means of Sustainable development then it
explains the role of transport in 3 section, society, economy, and environment. At the
end it evaluates the strategies such as promoting public transportation, demand
management, improving road management, pricing policies, vehicle technology
improvement, using clean fuels, cultural enhancement, applying incentives &
disincentives, and transportation planning for having a sustainable transportation.
Sustainability
Sustainability is a characteristic of a process that it can be maintained at a
certain level differ. From an environmental stance, the term refers to the potential
longevity of vital human ecological support systems, such as the planet’s climatic
system, systems of industry, forestry, agriculture, and fisheries, and human
communities in general and the various systems on which they depend.
Essentially I see sustainability as a process that is not time definite or time
constrained: Sustainability requires that a process has an inherent capacity to last
over time. Let’s take for example fixed income earners who spend more than they
earn and finance this via past saving or borrowing. At some point in time this process
come to an end as saving may run out and access to further borrowing no longer
exist. This process, overtime clearly becomes unsustainable. However, the process
itself cannot be solely looked at one has to consider the bigger picture. That is,
economic development in particular (how to improve one’s or to a large extent
society’s well-being or quality of life)
Sustainability becomes important when issues of ecology and the
environment are imported into the development debate and when development
covers not one but many generations, by combining the concept of sustainability with
economic development, the term Sustainable Development is derived.
Sustainable Development (SD)
Development that meets the needs of the present generation without
comprising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable
Development is not a fixed state of harmony, but rather a process of change in which
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the exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the orientation of
technological development and institutional change are made consistent with future
as well as present needs.” (UNICED 1978)
The basic definition of sustainability has been expanded to include three
major points:
Society. Relates to conditions favoring a distribution of
resources among the current generation based upon comparative levels of
productivity. This implies that individuals or institutions are free to pursue
the ventures of their choice and reaps the rewards for the risk they take and
the efforts they make. Social should not be confused with welfare programs
(socialism) where the productive segment of the population agrees or is
coerced to support a nonproductive segment; this is not equity but
redistribution. Thus, central planning and socialism are much at odd with the
concept of social equity.
Economy. Concerns conditions permitting higher levels of
economic efficiency in terms of resource and labor usage. It focuses on
competitiveness, flexibility in production and providing stuffs and services
that supply a market demand. Under such circumstances, factors of
production should be freely allocated and markets open to trade.
Environment. Involves a "footprint" which is lesser than the
capacity of the environment to accommodate. This includes the supply of
resources (soil, food, water, energy, etc.), but also the safe disposal of
numerous forms of wastes. Its core tenets include the conservation and reuse
of resources.
Figure 1 shows the definition of sustainable with tree bases, Environment,
society, Economy:
Figure 1. Definition of Sustainable[2]
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Sustainable Development and Transportation
Although there is still no single definition for sustainable transportation. But
what is clear is that to achieve sustainable transportation require knowledge of the
effects of transportation on economy, environment, and society.
It is clear that Transportation is unsustainable, because there are several reasons for
this. The principal ones are (1) the limited nature of petroleum reserves, (2) the
excessive number of fatalities and injuries due to motor vehicles, (3) urban sprawl
(4). the negative impacts of petroleum-based emissions on air quality, Of less
importance, but certainly not insignificant, (5) traffic congestion, bordering on
gridlock in many cities which are problems related to noise pollution, structural
damage due to vibration from motor vehicles, water pollution attributable to runoff
from streets and highways, the loss of wetlands, open spaces, and historic facilities,
ocean pollution due to oil spills and secondary impacts (Black, 1997).
Transportation and Economy
Economy and transportation are two members of a body that they can't
separate from each other. With careful planning and suitable foresight can increase
the economic progress, and impact favorable effects on the economy of community.
Transportation and economic factors interact easily with each other; the transport
sector is an important component of the economy impacting on development and the
welfare of populations. When transportation systems are efficient, they provide
social and economic opportunities and benefits that result in positive multipliers
effects such as better accessibility to markets, employment and additional
investments. When transportation systems are incomplete in terms of capacity or
reliability, they can have an economic cost such as decreased or missed
opportunities. Efficient transportation reduces costs, while inefficient transportation
increases costs. Transportation also carries an important social and environmental
load, which cannot be neglected. Thus, economy has two impacts on transportation;
direct, and indirect:
Direct impacts related to accessibility change where transport
enables larger markets and enables to save costs, time, and safety.
Indirect impacts related to the economic multiplier effects
where the price of commodities, stuffs or services drop and/or their variety
increases.
Business and trade growth, improve agricultural, extension services and
products, thereby it has increasing transportation demand in the community.
Efficiency of the transportation sector has effect on increasing productivity in the
economic system of community, these two boost each other continuously. In
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reviewing countries' macroeconomic, investment in transportation sector has a big
role at increasing of GDP and value added.
Transportation and Society
Since the transportation system come to acquit human needs, the Performance
of it should be careful in order to meet these needs, so it should not discriminate
between humans and between generations, and great efforts should be done in social
justice, with considering of facilities such as policy making in areas receiving costs,
service levels, and etc. Sustainable in the transportation sector can help lower median
income part of the community to satisfy their transport needs. Expansion of
infrastructure in this sector can create new and more employment opportunities and
thus the unemployment levels in the community will be reduced. Changes in
consumption patterns and habits and social structures of society can affect transport
easily.
Transportation and Environment
The issue of the environment and transportation is paradoxical in nature.
From one side, activities of transportation support increase mobility demands for
passengers and goods, and this ranging is from urban areas to international trade. On
the other side, transportation activities have resulted in growing levels of congestion
and motorization. Consequently, the transportation sector is becoming increasingly
linked to problems of environment. With a hydrocarbons (any chemical compound
that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H)) combusting
technology, especially with the internal combustion engine, the impacts of
transportation over environmental systems has increased with motorization. This has
reached a point where transportation activities are a commanding factor behind the
emission of most pollutants and thus have effect on environment. These effects, like
all environmental effects, can fall within three categories:
Direct effects: The immediate consequence of transportation
activities on the environment where the cause and effect relationship is
generally clear and well understood.
Indirect effects: The secondary (or tertiary) impacts of
transport activities on environmental systems. They are often of higher
consequence than direct effects, but the involved relationships are often
misunderstood and difficult to establish.
Cumulative effects: The additive, multiplicative or synergetic
consequences of transport activities. They consider the different impacts of
direct and indirect effects on an ecosystem, which are often unpredicted.
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The most important impacts of transport on the environment is related to
climate change, air quality, noise, water quality, soil pollution, extinction of
biodiversity, and land take, ground-level ozone have negative impacts on human
health, visibility, and safety. The most important issue is climate change as well.
Climate change is a result of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The climate
change contributes to increasing “greenhouse” effect, which cause global warming.
The greenhouse effect results from carbon dioxide, the most important of the
greenhouse gases, which acts like a thickness blanket around the earth, keeping
surface temperatures at warm levels. Increasing the CO2 concentration in the earth’s
atmosphere effectively adds another blanket which warms the Earth’s surface even
more (Hare, 1997).
As a result of this warming, world temperatures have risen by about 0.5
degrees Celsius in the past century (Hare, 1997). If the trend of increasing CO2
emissions continues, scientists predict that the global temperature will increase by 3
degrees Celsius in the next century (some US agencies assume an even higher
increase of 4-5 degrees Celsius; Seuss, 1993). The results of this temperature
increase would also mean a global average increase in sea-level of 0.66 m due to
melting of the polar icecaps, causing a loss of some coastal areas. There may also be
desertification the conversion of formerly productive land to desert- in some areas
which would contribute to poverty, famine, and food insecurity (Cunningham et al,
2006; Suess, 1993).
It is estimated that approximately 50% of these impacts are caused by CO2.
More importantly, about 20% of carbon dioxide emissions for example in the US
come from motor vehicles.
For having a sustainable transportation, we need to build some transportation
strategies for SD, these strategies include promoting public transportation, demand
management, operation management, pricing policies, vehicle technology
improvement, using clean fuels, cultural enhancement, integrated land use, and
transportation planning.
Transport Strategies for having a sustainable transportation in roadway system
Figure 2 presents a list of transportation strategies in the roadway system that
has been key in support for sustainable development. These strategies are grouped
into several categories based on the component of the transportation system
addressed: Vehicle, Human, and Road.
The first category would reduce adverse environmental effects of motor
vehicle use through technological change in vehicles and fuels, second category of
strategies involves improvements of Urban and Suburban ways, human is a third
category of strategies for managing the transportation system.
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Several subcategories of human strategy group are in use. Modal substitution,
Telecommunication Substitution, Pricing, Responses to Government Regulation and
Incentives, and Proper implementation of traffic rules strategies all can thought of as
forms of Human strategy group.
Vehicle
Road
Human
Figure 2. Strategies for Transportation Management in Roadway System
Conclusion:
Given that transportation is known as one of the most important foundations
of modern life, and also it has a deep link with community, it is evident that
transportation has a big role in sustainable development and it is clear that
Strategies for
Sustainable
Transportation in
the Roadway
System
oImproved Efficiency of Conventional Vehicles
(Manufacturer Innovation, Responses to consumer
Demand,
oNew Vehicle Technologies (Hybrid car, Electrical
car)
oNew Fuel (Green Fuel)
oSmart Vehicle
oTraffic Flow Improvement (Traffic Signal Timing,
Ramp Metering, Bottleneck Removal)
oITS Improvement (Smart Highway, Routing and
Scheduling Enhancement)
oRegular maintenance
oCultural Enhancement:
Modal Substitution (Transit, Walking,
Biking, Rail Substitute for Truck)
Telecommunication Substitution
(Telecommuting, Teleshopping,
Teleconferencing
oIncentives/Disincentives
Pricing (increasing Gas Tax,
Checking Technical Examination)
Proper Implementation of Traffic
Rules
Responses to Government Regulation
and Incentives: CAFE Standards,
R&D Partnerships, Taxes, Rebates,
Subsides)
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transportation is unsustainable. There are several reasons for this. The principal ones
are (1) the limited nature of petroleum reserves, (2) the excessive number of fatalities
and injuries due to motor vehicles, (3) the negative impacts of petroleum-based
emissions on climate, (4) urban sprawl. Of less importance, but certainly not
insignificant, (5) traffic congestion.
In this paper some strategies has been suggested for increasing the role of
transportation in sustainable development such as promoting public transportation,
demand management, improving road management, pricing policies, vehicle
technology improvement, using clean fuels, cultural enhancement, applying
incentives & disincentives, and transportation planning for have a sustainable
transportation.
These strategies require more studies, and since each one of these categories
have different effects on society, such as consumer responses to sustainability
strategies, the result of these should be considered for society, environment, and
economy. Also the effects of these strategies have to be taken into apart in
sustainable development.
References
Akinbami, K., Fadare, S.O. Fadare.(1997). “Strategies for sustainable urban and
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Banister, D.(2000). “Sustainable urban development and transport a Eurovision for
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Black, J. A., Paez,A., and Suthanya, P. A._2002_. “Sustainable urban transportation:
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Black, W.R.(1997). “North American transportation: perspectives on
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Button, K.,Nijkamp, P.(1997). “Social change and sustainable transport.”
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Lund, H., Clark, W.W.(2008). Sustainable energy and transportation systems
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Sharma, S., Mathew, T.V.(2011). “Multiobjective network design for emission and
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... According to literature, environmental sustainability means the effects of environmental footprint are relatively lesser than the capacity of the environment can accommodate. One of major contributors to the environmental sickness is transportation [34]. The transportation mainly contributes to negative effects through their ICE which produces (i) GHG emissions which contains CO2 and NO2 [34,35], (ii) other hydrocarbon particles [34] and (iii) noise, dust, water and ocean pollutions [34,36]. ...
... One of major contributors to the environmental sickness is transportation [34]. The transportation mainly contributes to negative effects through their ICE which produces (i) GHG emissions which contains CO2 and NO2 [34,35], (ii) other hydrocarbon particles [34] and (iii) noise, dust, water and ocean pollutions [34,36]. Meanwhile, social sustainability in the context of logistics and supply chains are (i) process or products which affect the safety and welfare of people [37], (ii) "the management of social issues such as equity, safety and health, product responsibility, human rights, and philanthropy throughout the supply chain" [38] and (iii) "the health and wellbeing of people in the supply chain and impact on society" [39]. ...
... One of major contributors to the environmental sickness is transportation [34]. The transportation mainly contributes to negative effects through their ICE which produces (i) GHG emissions which contains CO2 and NO2 [34,35], (ii) other hydrocarbon particles [34] and (iii) noise, dust, water and ocean pollutions [34,36]. Meanwhile, social sustainability in the context of logistics and supply chains are (i) process or products which affect the safety and welfare of people [37], (ii) "the management of social issues such as equity, safety and health, product responsibility, human rights, and philanthropy throughout the supply chain" [38] and (iii) "the health and wellbeing of people in the supply chain and impact on society" [39]. ...
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By the middle of the 21st century, ambient air pollution will be responsible for premature death every five seconds, mainly in urban areas (OCDE, 2016a). According to the WHO, air pollution attributable to particulate matter is responsible for nearly 7 million premature deaths a year, of which 4.2 million for outdoor pollution and 2.6 million for indoor pollution. Air pollution has been identified as a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) because of the burden that it poses on human health. In a context marked by the explosion of world demography and the acceleration of rural-urban migration, especially in emerging and developing countries, urban populations are subject to economic, environmental and health tensions, especially among the most vulnerable populations (the youngest and the oldest) and low-income socioeconomic status. Our initial assumption emphasizes the role of urban morphology in urban air quality, influencing the ’chain of transmission’ of air pollution from emission sources, to environmental concentrations, up to the exposure of urban populations. Thus, our work takes place in a specific context of relative inefficiency of air pollution control policies, despite a tightening of environmental regulations which has allowed pollutant concentrations to be lowered without reducing the exposure of air pollutants for people (HEI, 2018). Through this study, we sought to better understand the impacts of urban form on air pollution and on human health, of which particulate matters (PM2.5) are the main culprits, with economic, environmental and health consequences particularly heavy for the populations of the metropolises. For this, we first presented the main stylized facts of air pollution, urban form and health impacts. We focused on two-way interactions between air pollution and greenhouse gases responsible for climate change. We also discussed issues of equity and social and environmental justice regarding the spatial distribution of air pollution, with low-income populations overexposed to air pollution, facing cumulative risk factors and to an environmental poverty trap risk. Then, we highlight joint strategies for multipollutant management of air and climate change, at the level of the urban area. Finally, we carried out an assessment of the burden of air pollution and the economic cost involved for a set of cities belonging to OECD member countries. In order to study the effects of urban morphology, socio-economic inequalities or the economic performance of cities on the exposure of urban populations, we carried out an empirical study of 26 cities belonging to the member countries of the OECD over the period 2000-2014, with a pooled linear regression model and an individual and temporal fixed effects model (within). To settle the debate on compactness / urban sprawl duality, we obtained that the population density is associated with an increase in exposure to PM2.5 ambient pollution. The results for polycentricity show an inverse relationship with PM2.5 exposure, which seems to confirm our assumption that polycentricity could be a sustainable urban configuration favorable to the environment (reduction of pollutant concentration), the economy (economic efficiency linked to a certain degree of urban compactness) and human health (decrease in exposure). Our model also allowed us to estimate the burden of air pollution for these 26 cities in OECD countries with nearly 34,000 premature deaths per year for a total population of 115 million and an economic cost estimated about nearly $ 135 billion in constant 2010 dollars a year. Therefore, with more than 95% of the world’s population living in areas with a concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) that exceeds the WHO guidelines (HEI, 2018), the ’clean air’ challenge is therefore more than ever one of the most important environmental challenges of the 21st century, including in developed countries.
Book
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