Carotid intima media thickness in type 2 diabetes mellitus with ischemic stroke

Department of Endocrinology, Medwin Hospitals, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism 07/2013; 17(4):716-22. DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.113767
Source: PubMed


Diabetes mellitus is associated with high cardiovascular risk. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is used commonly as a noninvasive test for the assessment of degree of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to find out the cut-off point for CIMT for ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to correlate CIMT with various parameters like smoking, hypertension, lipid profile and duration of T2DM.
A total of 80 subjects in the age group of 30-75 years (M:F = 57:23) were selected and divided into three groups, i.e. diabetes with ischemic stroke, diabetes and healthy subjects. All the participants were subjected to B-mode ultrasonography of both common carotid arteries to determine CIMT, along with history taking, physical examination and routine laboratory investigations including included fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood sugar, blood urea, serum creatinine, lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin, and microalbuminuria.
Patients with T2DM with or without ischemic stroke were found to have significantly higher prevalence of increased CIMT and a value greater than 0.8 mm was found to be associated with the occurrence of stroke. The mean carotid IMT of the group as a whole was 0.840 ± 0.2 mm. The mean carotid IMT was not significantly different between T2DM patients with or without ischemic stroke (1.06 ± 0.2 vs. 0.97 ± 0.26 mm, P = 0.08). However, the mean CIMT was significantly higher in diabetic subjects compared to healthy subjects (1.01 ± 0.28 mm vs. 0.73 ± 0.08, P = 0.006). Other parameters like higher age, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, low HDL cholesterol, the glycemic parameters and the duration of diabetes were independently and significantly related to CIMT.
A high CIMT is a surrogate and reliable marker of higher risk of ischemic stroke amongst type 2 diabetic patients. Our study demonstrates the utility of carotid IMT as a simple non-invasive screening test for the assessment of atherosclerosis risk/prognosis in type 2 diabetics.

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