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The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Water Extract from Cordyceps militaris in Murine Macrophage

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The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of hot water extract from Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies (CMWE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in RAW 264.7 cells. The treatment of macrophages with various concentrations of hot CMWE significantly reduced LPS-induced production as well as NO, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that CMWE have potent inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators.
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... Besides, the fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris were extracted by maceration and infusion as reported by Pachabadee Marsup et al. (2020) [5]. Cordyceps militaris contained many active compounds such as cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), ergosterol, Dmannitol γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and polysaccharides [6], which exhibits important biological activities known to protect and improve lung and kidney function [7], immunomodulation [8], anticancer [9], anti-diabetic [10], antioxidant [11], antifungal [12], and anti-inflammatory [13]. Because of those benefits it brings, the researchers have developed many commercial products such as drinks, capsules, instant tea and so on; however; these products are quite limited in Vietnam. ...
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The purpose of study was to find out a suitable formulation of instant tea product from Cordyceps militaris extract by using the convection drying method. The properties of product were influenced by maltodextrin concentrations (30%, 40%, 50% and 60% w/w), extract concentrations (5%, 6%, 7% and 8% w/w), drying time (15 h, 20 h and 25 h) and drying temperatures (60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C). Cordycepin content and sensory evaluation were chosen as the main outcomes. The suitable parameters of products were included maltodextrin, Cordyceps militaris extract, the drying time and the drying temperature with 40% (w/w), 6% (w/w), 15 h and 70 °C, respectively. The cordycepin content in the product was 97.274 g/g dry weight (DW) and sensory evaluation studies showed that the product was good with 16.4 of total 20 points according to TCVN 3215-79. Those results showed that using convection method combine maltodextrin as a drying agent get high effects on creating a uniform size powder and could apply in beverage industries.
... Phenolic compounds: Phenolic compounds (PCs) are considered to possess anti-inflammatory properties, they are used as alternative natural remedies to prevent or treat inflammatory diseases ( Sergent et al., 2010 ). By elucidation, mechanisms of action related to the antiinflammatory properties of the phenolic compounds include the upregulation of transcriptional factors (NF-B), inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators (interleukin IL-6), inhibition of activated immune cells (macrophages), inhibition of the production of NO in a concentrationdependent manner, and also the inhibition of iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages ( Jo et al., 2010 ). Also, the methanol and water extracts of T. magnatum showed anti-inflammatory potential by inhibiting COX-1 and 12-LOX pathway products synthesis ( Üstün et al., 2018 ). ...
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Background : Mushrooms include a wide variety of bioactive compounds that have been linked to therapeutic and nutritional benefits, making them a potential source of new medications and functional foods. Objective : This study reviewed the inhibitory effects of mushrooms on the inflammation process through the modulation of the pro-inflammatory mediators and associated signaling pathways. Methods : A literature search in PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted for the relevant original research and review articles on the anti-inflammatory effects of mushrooms. Related articles published in English were selected, studied and discussed. Results : As revealed by the selected articles, bioactive molecules which include peptides, polysaccharides, terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, and phenols have been extracted from the powder, concentrate, and different solvent extracts of edible mushrooms. These bioactive molecules have shown significant efficacy in inhibiting the major pro-inflammatory biomarkers and associated pathways in in vivo and in vitro settings. Conclusion : This review demonstrated that mushrooms significantly inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and can be developed for clinical use as anti-inflammatory agents. Further research is required to establish the comparative efficacy between mushrooms and NSAID especially in the in-vivo inhibitory activity against the production of cyclooxygenase and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
... Cordycepin has been known to exhibit many pharmacological properties, including antitumor, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, antioxidant, antiaging, and anticancer and has an ability to enhance immune functions [13][14][15][16]. Furthermore, the antiinflammatory potential of C. militaris and its active constituent cordycepin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)stimulated macrophages, inflammatory-associated diabetes regulating genes, and neuroinflammation was also documented [17][18][19][20]. Recently, the therapeutic potential of cordycepin as a strong antiviral agent against proteins with SARS-CoV-2 and in the treatment of COVID-19 has been reported [21,22]. ...
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Inflammaging in male reproductive organs covers a wide variety of problems, including sexual dysfunction and infertility. In this study, the beneficial effects of cordycepin (COR), isolated from potential medicinal fungi Cordyceps militaris, in aging-associated testicular inflammation and serum biochemical changes in naturally aged rats were investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into young control (YC), aged control (AC), and COR (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) treated aged rat groups. Aging-associated serum biochemical changes and inflammatory parameters were analyzed by biochemical assay kits, Western blotting, and real-time RT-PCR. Results showed a significant (p
... The beneficial effects of CM on intestinal microbiota and immune activity have been widely discussed using mice or in vitro models (Jo et al., 2010;Fan et al., 2018;Gamage et al., 2018), which are more or less unable to well convey the scenario in humans. Here, pigs, whose anatomical and physiological characters are much closer to human beings, were employed to explore the effects of CM on intestinal mucosal barrier function and colonic microbiota. ...
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This study investigated the effects of Cordyceps militaris (CM) on intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota in a pig model. A total of 160 pigs were randomly allocated to either a control group (fed the basal diet) or a CM group (fed the basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg CM). CM improved intestinal morphology and increased the numbers of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. CM also elevated the expression of zona occluden-1, claudin-1, mucin-2 and secretory immunoglobulin A. Furthermore, the mucosal levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were downregulated while the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were upregulated in the CM group. Mechanistically, CM downregulated the expression of key proteins of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway. Moreover, CM altered the colonic microbial composition and increased the concentrations of acetate and butyrate. In conclusion, CM can modulate the intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota, which may provide a new strategy for improving intestinal health
... In subsequent in vitro tests, the anti-inflammatory activity of C. militaris was confirmed to result from the inhibition of production of proinflammatory mediators, namely NO, TNF-α and IL-6, which were induced by LPS in murine macrophages. The group of bioactive compounds of C. militaris was not defined in the study [101]. ...
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Cordyceps spp. mushrooms have a long tradition of use as a natural raw material in Asian ethnomedicine because of their adaptogenic, tonic effects and their ability to reduce fatigue and stimulate the immune system in humans. This review aims to present the chemical composition and medicinal properties of Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies and mycelium, as well as mycelium from in vitro cultures. The analytical results of the composition of C. militaris grown in culture media show the bioactive components such as cordycepin, polysaccharides, -aminobutyric acid (GABA), ergothioneine and others described in the review. To summarize, based on the presence of several bioactive compounds that contribute to biological activity, C. militaris mushrooms definitely deserve to be considered as functional foods and also have great potential for medicinal use. Recent scientific reports indicate the potential of cordycepin in antiviral activity, particularly against COVID-19.
... Previous studies confirmed the effects on inflammatory responses of CM and SiO2NP. CM extract inhibited the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) [44]. Cordycepin also contributed to anti-inflammatory responses by suppressing Akt and NF-κB in RAW 264.7 [14]. ...
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Cordyceps militaris extract (CM) has been widely applied in folk and modern medicines due to the content of various therapeutic compounds. However, the administration of CM to promote wound healing has not been elucidated. Herein, we first evaluate the healing efficacy of CM and the potential of improving its efficiency through small silica nanoparticles (SiO2NP). SiO2NP was synthesized using a micelle formation approach and characterized by TEM and FTIR. CM was dissolved in SiO2NP (roughly 20 nm) suspension, evaluated the cytotoxicity in human fibroblasts, and further applied to second-degree skin burn in mice. The wound closure rate was kinetically recorded and the histopathological recovery was evaluated. The results showed that CM and its CM-SiO2NP mixture at small concentrations (0–160 μg/mL) were not toxic to human dermal fibroblasts. They showed similar effects on proliferating cells, accelerating wound closure, and recovering the skin structure. After 7 days of treatment, the wound closure rate in the CM group was approximately 2.4 times faster than the commercial form of sulfadiazine group and 4.1 times faster than the untreated group. The CM-SiO2NP mixture promoted the highest recovery of the epidermis and collagen deposition, resulting in the complete heal of skin structure after 15 days of treatments. These findings revealed the wound healing efficacy of the CM extract and the possibility of improving its therapeutic benefits through the combination with SiO2NP.
... 82 The anti-inflammatory activity of hot aqueous extract from C. militaris fruit bodies on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 release in RAW 264.7 cells has been investigated. 83 The treatment notably suppressed LPS-induced production as well as NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 secretions in a dose-dependent manner. ...
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A significant knowledge gap currently exists in the literature on the emerging interventions and bioactivity of aqueous extracts of mushrooms. Different solvents and techniques used in the extraction of mushroom metabolites have been discussed. Here, data obtained were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and presented in charts. The results showed that methanol was the most commonly reported extraction solvent (29.70%), followed by water (26.73%). Extracted metabolites of mushrooms were mostly reported for their antioxidant activity (33%). Investigations on the use of mushroom metabolites to treat tropical diseases, their application in novel coronavirus disease-COVID 19 management, and other beneficial effects (antiplasmodial, antimalarial, antityrosinase, analgesic, anticoagulation, and antiasthmatic) on health are emerging and reported rarely to date. It is a notable conclusion that water extracts from mushrooms are effective in the treatment of diverse health conditions, however, further studies are necessary. Modern water extraction techniques are essential for better yield and process optimization but are currently less applied and less frequently reported.
... Therefore, anti-inflammatory agents are claimed to be effective in the acute treatment of these burns. The water extract and constituents isolated from C. militaris were reported to be anti-inflammatory in the murine macrophage and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/ interferon (IFN)-γ stimulated macrophage cells 30,31 . The major active ingredient of C. militaris, cordycepin has been well documented to alleviate inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo 32 . ...
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