Reference ranges for sonographic dimensions of the liver and spleen in preterm infants
Department of Pediatrics, The Ministry of Health Tepecik Teaching and Research Hospital, Gaziler Street, Yenisehir, Izmir, Turkey. Pediatric Radiology
(Impact Factor: 1.57).
08/2013; 43(11). DOI: 10.1007/s00247-013-2729-7
Preterm infants usually have multiple comorbidities that affect spleen and liver. Ultrasonographic measurement of organ sizes is an important and reliable parameter in evaluation of spleen and liver pathology in preterm newborns.
The purpose of this study was to determine reference values of ultrasonographic measurements of the liver and spleen in preterm newborns.
We prospectively performed sonography on 498 preterm newborns in the first week of life. We measured spleen and liver dimensions and statistically analyzed relationships between the dimensions and gender, gestational age (based on mother's last menstrual period), height and weight. Reference ranges of dimensions were defined.
Longitudinal and anteroposterior dimensions of the liver and spleen were statistically significantly different between the boys and girls (P < 0.05) and showed high correlation with the gestational age, weight and height. Weight was the parameter best correlated with the dimensions.
Nomograms from these data are useful for sonographic evaluation of the liver and spleen in preterm newborns.
Available from: Bayram Kahraman
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to compare and make correlations between age and Doppler parameters of the interlobar arteries, including synchronously obtained plasma renin and aldosterone levels and to obtain new normative data regarding acceleration time in healthy children from neonates to 16 years.
One hundred sixty-nine healthy children (72 girls and 97 boys) were classified into four groups: group 1 (< 1 year; n = 34), group 2 (range, 1-6 years; n = 48), group 3 (range, 6-12 years; n = 50), and group 4 (range, 12-16 years; n = 37). Blood samples from the renin and aldosterone were collected in the morning after bed rest and fasting. The resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), and the acceleration time of the renal interlobar arteries with duplex Doppler sonography, including both kidney longitudinal lengths with grayscale sonography, were evaluated. One-way analysis of variance with the least significant difference post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation test were used to compare the differences between groups and to make correlations, respectively. An independent-sample t test was used to evaluate the differences between all parameters based on sex and to compare the left and right kidney longitudinal lengths in each group.
The RI, PI, and acceleration time were statistically significant in between-group comparisons. Only in group 4 was acceleration time not statistically significant compared with groups 2 and 3. Plasma renin levels were significantly higher in group 1 compared with groups 2 (p < 0.03) and 4 (p < 0.0001); in group 2 compared with group 4 (p < 0.05); and in group 3 compared with group 4 (p < 0.01). The plasma aldosterone levels were significantly higher only in group 1 compared with groups 2 (p < 0.001), 3 (p < 0.008), and 4 (p < 0.0001). The RI correlated linearly with the PI, plasma renin levels, and aldosterone levels and correlated inversely with acceleration time. Age had a negative correlation with the RI, PI, plasma renin levels, and aldosterone levels and correlated positively with acceleration time. There were no statistically significant differences between all parameters based on sex and no significant difference found between the right and left kidney longitudinal lengths in each group.
The RI in children up to 54 months old is higher than in adults. Therefore, the adult mean renal RI criterion of 0.70 should be applicable to children 54 months old and older. We showed that the age dependency of the RI was directly related to that of plasma renin and aldosterone levels in healthy children in whom Doppler parameters and blood analysis were evaluated synchronously.
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ABSTRACT: Background and aims To determine reference values of ultrasonographic measurements of the liver and spleen in newborns and to provide a reference chart to use easily in daily practice.
Methods In this prospective study, spleen and liver dimensions were evaluated in 384 healthy newborns with a gestation age ≥37 weeks in obstetrics clinic and neonatal intensive care unit with sonography within the first week of life. Relationships of all dimensions with sex, gestational age, height and weight were statistically analysed.
Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two sexes in all dimensions of liver and spleen (p > 0.05). Longitudinal and anteroposterior dimensions of liver and spleen showed no correlation with the gestational age. All dimensions of liver and spleen showed a high correlation with the height and weight. Weight was the best correlated with all dimensions.
Conclusions The reference values of spleen and liver lengths and diagrams from this study may be useful in the sonographic evaluation of spleen and liver in newborns.
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements.
To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children.
In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences.
Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial measurement was 2.0 mm; the mean coronal measurement of the pancreatic duct was 0.9 mm and the axial measurement was 0.8 mm.
Our study provides normative measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct for children up to age 10 years. The upper limits of the CBD and pancreatic duct increase with age, and the values range 1.1-4.0 mm for the CBD and 0.6-1.9 mm for the pancreatic duct.
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