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Abstract

Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations that require divided attention and decision making under time pressure as reflected by their overrepresentation in at-fault crashes on intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) especially designed to support older drivers crossing intersections might counteract these difficulties. In a longer-term driving simulator study, the effects of an intersection assistant on driving were evaluated. 18 older drivers (M=71.44 years) returned repeatedly completing a ride either with or without a support system in a driving simulator. In order to test the intersection assistance, eight intersections were depicted for further analyses. Results show that ADAS affects driving. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the road center rather than the left and right, crossed intersections in shorter time, engaged in higher speeds, and crossed more often with a critical time-to-collision (TTC) value. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety.

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... The main parameters, driving performance and driving safety, were derived from a validated fixed based driving simulator located at the University Medical Center Groningen (ST Software Simulator Systems) (13). The simulator consisted of a projection screen stage and an open cabin mock-up standing within this stage and containing a force-feedback steering wheel, accelerator, clutch, brake pedals, and audio sound simulated driving sound. ...
... Mean age of the remaining 10 CD patients (5 females, 5 males) had a mean age of 56.8 years (SD 7.7, range 47-69) and a mean disease duration of 15.1 years (SD 11.7, range 1-36 years). Patients showed an average score of 9.7 (SD, 3.1, range [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] for the severity of dystonia as measured with the Tsui scale All patients showed a combination of deviating head postures. Eight patients had a rotational component as main direction of the deviating posture (4 patients rotated the left and 4 to the right). ...
... It was hypothesized that patients would compensate for their physical limitations by driving more carefully and slowly. Studies on compensatory driving behavior indicate that elderly and neurological patients tactically compensate for their limitations by driving slower, increasing the distance to the car in front, waiting longer at intersections, and selecting larger time gaps between the passing cars for merging (13,(18)(19)(20). This hypothesis is supported by the patient characteristics were healthy controls had significant more traffic fines mainly for violating the speed limit. ...
Article
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Objective: To explore driving performance and driving safety in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) on a simulated lane tracking, intersections and highway ride and to compare it to healthy controls. Design: This study was performed as an explorative between groups comparison. Participants: Ten CD patients with idiopathic CD, 30 years or older, stable on botulinum toxin treatment for over a year, holding a valid driver's license and being an active driver were compared with 10 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Main outcome measures: Driving performance and safety, measured by various outcomes from the simulator, such as the standard deviation of the lateral position on the road, rule violations, percentage of line crossings, gap distance, and number of collisions. Fatigue and driving effort were measured with the Borg CR-10 scale and self-perceived fitness to drive was assessed with Fitness to Drive Screening. Results: Except for a higher percentage of line crossings on the right side of the road by controls (median percentage 2.30, range 0.00-37.00 vs. 0.00, range 0.00-9.20, p = 0.043), no differences were found in driving performance and driving safety during the simulator rides. Fatigue levels were significantly higher in CD patients just before (p = 0.005) and after (p = 0.033) the lane tracking ride (patients median fatigue levels before 1.5 (range 0.00-6.00) and after 1.5 (range 0.00-7.00) vs. controls median fatigue levels before and after 0.00 (no range). No significant differences were found on self-perceived fitness to drive. Conclusion: In patients with CD there were no indications that driving performance or driving safety were significant different from healthy controls in a simulator. Patients reported higher levels of fatigue both before and after driving compared to controls in accordance with the non-motor symptoms known in CD.
... ADAS technologies may even contribute to strengthen road safety numbers of some specific population groups reporting considerably greater rates of traffic crashes, such as young and elderly drivers, since assisting features are designed to help drivers reacting properly to key critical events and difficult driving maneuvers [4,5]. In other words, safety of drivers using ADAS are expected to be increased over time, to the extent that this population gives more frequent and better use to them [6]. ...
... 3 Relative percentage of drivers using the ADAS feature (among those having it in their vehicles). 4 Valuation based in a 1 to 10 scale. ...
... As for the first objective, we found how, in accordance to the global trends observed along the last decade in most of European countries, some ADAS present a high availability, supported on the fact that -due to its proven utility and adaptation to transport dynamics-nowadays are easily involved in vehicle design trends (even in low ranges of vehicles), enhancing their demand by different groups of drivers but, at the same time, opening the discussion on potential implications for the road safety of vulnerable ones [1,4], such as younger and older drivers [3,5,32]. Overall, the most commonly available ADAS features were GPS navigation (40% of on-board availability and 91.3% of demand among drivers), followed by other common technologies such as automatic lighting (39% of availability and 83% of demand) and speed limiters (38.5% and 74%, respectively). ...
Article
Full-text available
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), created for enhancing the driving experience and actively preventing road crashes, have been progressively incorporated in vehicle designing essentially during the last decade. However, the literature has shown how some of these assisting technologies are not used by drivers in tandem with their potential. The aims of this study were, first, to examine the availability and demand of ADAS technologies among Spanish drivers and, secondly, to explore the perceived constraints and discouraging reasons for avoiding the use of ADAS available in their vehicles. For this national cross-sectional study, data from 1,207 Spanish drivers were analyzed. The results of this study show that, on one hand, GPS navigation, rain sensors and automatic lighting are the most frequently used ADAS features in Spain and, on the other, that gestural control, E-call and post-collision emergency braking are the less demanded. Also, there are age and gender-based differences in the valuation of certain ADAS features. Further, low perceived value, lack of confidence and potential distractibility constitute the main constraints perceived by drivers to actively use these assisting technologies while driving. In this regard, and jointly with a progressive vehicle automatization, a deeper emphasis on driver training, safety and efficiency-related benefits of ADAS technologies may strengthen its acceptance and progressive inclusion in everyday driving.
... Other ones such as intersection assistance systems are being researched. In a recent driving simulator study, an intersection assistant designed to give tailored support to older drivers taking into account age-related limitations in processing speed and divided attention, was studied (Dotzauer et al., 2013). Even though it is often assumed that support given to older drivers will be beneficial for young drivers as well, considering the underlying causations for crash involvement, the assumption can be questioned. ...
... The most typical crashes that older drivers are involved in are at-fault crashes at an intersection (McGwin and Brown, 1999; Davidse, 2007) struggling most with decision making under time pressure and divided/selective attention (Brouwer and Ponds,1994; De Waard et al., 2009; Musselwhite and Haddad, 2010). According to older drivers' specific crash characteristic, the ADAS used in the previous study (Dotzauer et al., 2013) was designed. It gave tailored support to older drivers providing relevant traffic information in advance countering difficulties with decision making under time pressure and divided/selective attention. ...
... It gave tailored support to older drivers providing relevant traffic information in advance countering difficulties with decision making under time pressure and divided/selective attention. Considering that young drivers' difficulties may mainly be based on inexperience and immaturity often resulting in inadequate speed choices and inaccurate anticipation of hazards, the question that rises is whether providing information about priority regulation and gap sizes in intersections (see Dotzauer et al., 2013) in advance might also be suitable for young drivers. Predominantly, young drivers are involved in single-vehicle crashes on rural roads rather than multiple-vehicle crashes in intersections. ...
Article
An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about the right of way regulation and safety to cross an upcoming intersection. Effects were studied in a longer-term study involving 18 healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 18 healthy young drivers between the ages of 20 and 25 years. Participants repeatedly drove 25 km city routes in eight sessions on separate days over a period of two months in a driving simulator. In each age group, participants were randomly assigned to the control (no ADAS) and treatment (ADAS) group. The control group completed the whole experiment without the ADAS. The treatment group drove two sessions without (sessions 1 and 7) and six times with ADAS. Results indicate effects of ADAS on driving safety for young and older drivers, as intersection time and percentage of stops decreased, speed and critical intersection crossings increased, the number of crashes was lower for treatment groups than for control groups. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety.
... In a recent driving simulator study, we proposed an assistance system, which provided relevant traffic information in advance (Dotzauer et al., 2013a). As drivers approached an intersection, they received information whether the gap size to crossing traffic was large enough to cross the intersection safely. ...
... As drivers approached an intersection, they received information whether the gap size to crossing traffic was large enough to cross the intersection safely. The system was tested with older healthy drivers (65 to 82 years) and young inexperienced drivers (20 to 25 years) in order to investigate the effectiveness of such system on intersection performance, to examine changes in behaviour over time due to exposure to ADAS, to gain more insight into the development of trust and acceptance, and to scrutinise the need for tailored support (Dotzauer et al., 2013a(Dotzauer et al., , 2013b. In the previous studies, performance of eight consecutive sessions spread out over three weeks was analysed. ...
... Providing information about gap sizes while approaching the intersection and continuously updating the information until the intersection is crossed, it is expected that after a longer period of exposure to the support system, drivers diagnosed with PD will show changes in performance as healthy older drivers did in the previous study (Dotzauer et al., 2013a(Dotzauer et al., , 2013b. Changes will manifest itself in changes in intersection time, speed on intersection, and time-to-collision (TTC). ...
Article
An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) supported drivers at intersections providing information about gap sizes to cross. Effects were studied in a longer-term driving simulator study including 12 repeated measures spread out over one month. Nine healthy older drivers (65 to 82 years) making up one group and nine older drivers diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) (68 and 82 years) making up a second group participated in the study. Groups completed ten sessions with ADAS and two sessions without ADAS. Results show over the longer-term period a decrease in time needed to pass the intersection and the number of stops before crossing an intersection, so they became less hesitant and more confident over time. It was also observed that healthy older drivers had a smaller minimum time-to-collision (TTC) value to crossing traffic and crossed more often with a critical TTC to crossing traffic than drivers diagnosed with PD, a reflection of smaller safety margins accepted. At the same time, they caused fewer crashes than drivers diagnosed with PD. Nevertheless, ADAS use might have prevented crashes from occurring as was found in previous studies
... Unlike teen drivers who are characterized by immaturity and lack of experience, older drivers usually struggle with physical vulnerability and age-related declines in cognitive capabilities, which may lead to reductions in driving performance and an elevated risk of fatal crashes (Bao & Boyle, 2009;Ni et al., 2010;Dotzauer et al., 2013). When the road environment exceeds the capacity of older drivers, ADAS and automated driving functions may provide tailored assistance by directing their attention to driving, informing them of the road users in their blind spots, providing prior knowledge of upcoming traffic, etc. (Caird et al., 1998;Shaheen & Niemeier, 2001;Davidse, 2006). ...
... When the road environment exceeds the capacity of older drivers, ADAS and automated driving functions may provide tailored assistance by directing their attention to driving, informing them of the road users in their blind spots, providing prior knowledge of upcoming traffic, etc. (Caird et al., 1998;Shaheen & Niemeier, 2001;Davidse, 2006). Dotzauer et al. (2013) found that an intersection assistant, which provided suggestions about whether it was safe to cross an intersection, enabled older drivers to pay more attention to the road center than to the side, pass through the intersection in shorter time with higher speeds and shorter TTC, reduced percentage of stops at intersections, and reduced number of crashes. In another simulator study, Davidse et al. (2009) also found when ADAS offered information about an unexpected one-way street, older drivers made fewer route errors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle automation promises to improve safety. However, it also raises concerns about human performance. Many current research and policy efforts address automation effects on operational levels of driving control. However, the driving task encompasses more than just operational control. So, in this paper, we ask whether a more holistic view of the driving task should be considered. Would such a framework imply that the human role is more than just a "fallback" mechanism for automation systems, especially for partial automation sys-tems? If the human role were conceptualized more as a "commander role" (than an "operator"), would it enable system-level performance to be optimized more effectively? If so, would this lead to changes in design of the vehicle and interface-as well as in skills needed by human users? New skills like strategic planning, delegation of control responsibility, tactical avoidance, and effective mediation of hazardous situations could become important. A more holistic approach for integrating automation may facilitate role change for human users while also improving safety.
... Studies were conducted in nine countries including the United States (n = 14) (Aksan et al., 2017;Aksan et al., 2015;Becic, Manser, Drucker, & Donath, 2013;Brown, He, Roe, & Schnell, 2010;Kidd & Buonarosa, 2017;Kramer, Cassavaugh, Horrey, Becic, & Mayhugh, 2007;Lester et al., 2015;D. C. Marshall, Wallace, Torner, & Birt-Leeds, 2010, 2011Mok, Johns, Gowda, Sibi, & Ju, 2016;Oh, Ko, & Ji, 2016;Reimer, Mehler, & Coughlin, 2016;Strayer, Cooper, Turrill, Coleman, & Hopman, 2016;Sullivan, Tsimhoni, & Bogard, 2008), Netherlands (n = 4) (Davidse, Hagenzieker, van Wolffelaar, & Brouwer, 2009;Dotzauer, Caljouw, de Waard, & Brouwer, 2013, 2015, Germany (n = 3) (Gelau, Sirek, & Dahmen-Zimmer, 2011;Haberstroh, Klingender, Ramakers, & Henning, 2010;Kazazi, Winkler, & Vollrath, 2015), Japan (n = 2) (Hibino, Caird et al., 2008;7 Davidse et al., 2009;8 Dotzauer, Caljouw, de Waard, & Brouwer, 2013;9 Dotzauer, Caljouw, de Waard, & Brouwer, 2015;10 Dotzauer, de Waard, et al., 2015;11 Gelau, Sirek, & Dahmen-Zimmer, 2011;12 Guo et al., 2015;13 Hibino, Kobayashi, Daimon, & Oda, 2013;14 Kazazi, Winkler, & Vollrath, 2015;15 Kidd & Buonarosa, 2017;16 Kramer, Cassavaugh, Horrey, Becic, & Mayhugh, 2007;17 Lester et al., 2015;18 D. C. Marshall, Wallace, Torner, & Birt-Leeds, 2010;19 Marshall et al., 2011;20 Novotny & Bouchner, 2011;21 Oh, Ko, & Ji, 2016;22 Strayer, Cooper, Turrill, Coleman, & Hopman, 2016;23 Sullivan, Tsimhoni, & Bogard, 2008;24 Yi, Lee, Parsons, & Falkmer, 2014. Kobayashi, Daimon, & Oda, 2013;Saito & Raksincharoensak, 2016), Canada (n = 1) (Caird, Chisholm, & Lockhart, 2008), United Kingdom (n = 1) (Guo, Blythe, Edwards, Pavkova, & Brennan, 2015), France (n = 1) (Bruyas & Simões, 2010), Australia (n = 1) (Yi, Lee, Parsons, & Falkmer, 2014), and Czech Republic (n = 1) (Novotny & Bouchner, 2011). ...
... Older drivers using time gap assistant performed left-turn maneuvers with shorter (2-5 s) and safer time gaps (Gelau, Sirek, & Dahmen-Zimmer, 2011). In addition, some older adults did not benefit from IVIS, specifically an in-vehicle intersection crossing assist system (Becic et al., 2013;Dotzauer, Caljouw, de Waard, & Brouwer, 2013) and a HUD (Oh et al., 2016). found HUD to be a safety risk when older drivers relied on displayed cues (e.g., traffic light signals), versus scanning the road. ...
Article
In-vehicle technologies may decrease crash risk in drivers with age-related declines. Researchers determined the impact of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) or advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) on driving. Through a scoping review, the effect of IVIS or ADAS on older drivers' convenience (i.e., meets one's needs), comfort (i.e., physical or psychological ease), or safety (i.e., absence of errors or crashes) was examined. Researchers synopsized findings from 28 studies, including driving simulators and on-road environments. Findings indicated that IVIS or ADAS enhanced safety and mitigated age-related declines. Notably, IVIS may reduce cognitive workload, but may jeopardize safety if the systems are overly complicated. The ADAS enhanced safety and comfort by increasing speed control, lane maintenance, and braking responses. However, no studies addressed convenience. In-vehicle technologies may enhance safety and comfort while driving, if one's cognitive workload is not compromised. Naturalistic studies are needed to elucidate the risks and benefits of IVIS and ADAS for older drivers.
... In order to investigate the benefits of specific characteristics of the system, namely the ''on-demand" concept and the advantage of using the speech modality, it was decided to compare it with manual driving as well as with a more conventional intersection assistance system. This conventional system was an ''always active visual assistance system" that used visual information presented via a head-up display (HUD) to inform the driver, similar to that described in Dotzauer et al. (2013). ...
... The decision for entering the intersection has to be made by the driver by combining the information from both directions (e.g. a yellow and a red arrow means it is not possible to enter the intersection). It was deliberately decided not to display a green arrow in the system state where no vehicles are in the sensor range of the system (in contrast to the system described in Dotzauer et al., 2013) for the same reasons that the AoD system does not announce ''right is free". Instead, the red or yellow arrow simply disappears, if the respective condition is valid. ...
Article
In a driving simulator study we evaluated a speech-based driver assistance system for urban intersections (called Assistance on Demand AoD system) which supports the driver in monitoring and decision making. The system provides recommendations for suitable time gaps to enter the intersection based on the observation of crossing traffic. Following an ‘‘on-demand”-concept, the driver activates the assistance only if support is desired. In one drive, drivers used the AoD system in every situation they experienced to guaran- tee that every driver had the same exposure to the system when evaluating it. During another drive, drivers were free to decide if they want to use the system or not. The exper- imental study compared the AoD system with driving manually and with driving sup- ported by a more conventional visual-based system which was always active at intersections (system showing colored arrows in a simulated head-up display (HUD) to visualize the crossing traffic). This resulted in four drives the drivers had to perform. Every drive consisted of several intersections with varying traffic conditions. The drivers had to turn left at every intersection. A total of 24 drivers took part in the study; one group with 14 middle-aged drivers and another group with ten high-aged drivers. Several questionnaires and online ratings were used to assess drivers’ acceptance, perceived usefulness, benefits and specific characteris- tics of both system variants. In addition, driving behaviour with regard to gap choice and drivers’ monitoring behaviour (using head tracking data) were analyzed. The results show that the AoD system reaches high acceptance ratings and is preferred compared to the visual, always active system. Using the speech modality for communica- tion and the on-demand concept were both highly appreciated by the drivers. With regard to driving behaviour, the AoD system is comparably safe as manual driving while at the same time making driving easier by facilitating the monitoring of vehicles while waiting at an intersection.
... Yet in many cases the driver might also benefit from support in the monitoring and decision making process before entering an intersection. In [5] information on safe gaps was presented via a HUD in a driving simulator. However, the system rather led to a focus of the driver's attention to the centre instead of to the left and right and to more risky driving. ...
... The decision for entering the intersection has to be made by the driver by combining the information from both directions (e.g. a yellow and a red arrow means it is not possible to enter the intersection). It was deliberately decided not to display a green arrow in the system state when no vehicles are in the sensor range of the system (in contrast to the system described in [5]) for the same reasons that led to the AOD system not announcing "right is free." Instead, the red or yellow arrow simply disappears, if the respective condition is valid. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present our recently introduced "assistance on demand (AOD)" concept, which allows the driver to request assistance via speech whenever he or she deems it appropriate. The target scenario we currently investigate is turning left from a subordinate road in dense urban traffic. We first compare our system in a driving simulator study to driving without assistance or with visual assistance. The results show that drivers clearly prefer our speech-based AOD approach. Next we investigate differences between drivers in the left-turn behaviour. The results of this driving simulator study show that there are large inter-individual differences. Based on these results we performed another driving simulator study where participants compared manual driving to driving with a default and a personalized AOD system. The results of this study show that the personalization very notably improves the acceptance of the system. Given the choice between driving with any of the AOD variants and manual driving, 87.5% of the participants preferred driving with the AOD. Finally, we present first steps towards the implementation of the AOD system into a prototype car.
... The task in driving can be distinguishable into three levels [12][13]: (i) the strategical (planning) level, (ii) the tactical (maneuvering) level, and (iii) the operational (control) level. Elderly drivers can avoid driving at night, during rush hour, and in highly complex situations [14] on the strategical level. On the tactical level, elderly drivers can be driving at a lower speed, and while keeping a larger gap between vehicles [14]. ...
... Elderly drivers can avoid driving at night, during rush hour, and in highly complex situations [14] on the strategical level. On the tactical level, elderly drivers can be driving at a lower speed, and while keeping a larger gap between vehicles [14]. Also at the operational level, elderly drivers can complement lateral and longitudinal control actions to avoid the risk of crashing. ...
Article
Ensuring a safe mobility for elderly drivers is one of the important issues to be addressed for supporting the daily life of elderly. Shared control of a risk predictive braking maneuver attempts to manage the potential risk of crashing with respect to hazards that cannot be seen by the driver. The assistance system performs a partial deceleration maneuver to achieve a referenced velocity in uncertain situations, such as one in which an unobserved pedestrian might initiate a road crossing. This paper presents the following: (1) an analysis of hazard-anticipatory driving for an expert driver; (2) a detailed description of risk predictive control; (3) the effectiveness and limitations of risk predictive control obtained through a numerical simulation; (4) the framework of the driver assistance system; and (5) experimental data for evaluation of proactive safety performance. Specifically, three questions will be investigated: 1) How would expert drivers drive in uncertain situations? 2) How can a reference velocity be determined? 3) How can a system be designed so that the relationship between the human and the machine is complementary? Based on this framework, this paper discusses a shared control system that dynamically shares control authority between the elderly driver and the ADAS.
... Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) have been designed to compensate for age-related weaknesses (Baldwin 2002;Caird et al., 2008;Gelau et al., 2011;Dotzauer et al., 2013). Instructions that are delivered by an in-vehicle navigation system (such as GPS) provide up-todate traffic information that is designed to improve car safety and lighten the cognitive load of drivers while maneuvering. ...
... We can hypothesize that older drivers can make good use of driving assistance systems, particularly those that are developed to reduce left turn conflicts at intersections. Dotzauer et al. (2013) recently showed that an intersection assistant facilitates changes in both the driving performance and driving behaviors of older drivers. Driving with ADAS in a simulator tended to improve intersection crossing, as intersections were crossed with higher speeds and smaller risk, indicating a reduced time to contact (TTC). ...
Article
Aims: Our purpose was to explore the effect of navigation instruction on older drivers' driving performance at left turn intersections. Left turns at intersections are particularly complex because they require many perceptive and cognitive abilities under considerable time pressure. Methods: Fifty-four participants were recruited: 18 drivers with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), 18 neurologically healthy older drivers and 18 younger individuals. Various cognitive processes were measured, and 9 left turn maneuvers with or without navigation instruction were evaluated during an in-traffic road test. The psychomotor, planning and decision-making components involved in left turn were also analyzed closely. Results: Only older drivers (both healthy drivers and those with AD) were negatively affected by navigation instruction during the maneuver. The planning and decision-making components were more likely to be affected by the navigation instruction. Conclusion: This finding highlights the importance of carefully considering the use of navigation instructions when developing navigation systems. Adapting this instruction is necessary to simplify our understanding of the real-world driving environment and to avoid increasing the cognitive load of older drivers.
... Countermeasures developed then tend to focus on separating road users rather than supporting their interaction (c.f. Johansson, 2009;Wegman et al., 2012), or adding technological systems, such as driver support systems, to provide additional information or automate specific safety critical tasks (Dotzauer et al., 2013;Habibovic et al., 2013). Despite reported efficiency and safety benefits (Dotzauer et al., 2013;Hilliard and Jamieson, 2008;Lee et al., 2006), the question is whether such countermeasures compensate for bad system design or augment system design? ...
... Johansson, 2009;Wegman et al., 2012), or adding technological systems, such as driver support systems, to provide additional information or automate specific safety critical tasks (Dotzauer et al., 2013;Habibovic et al., 2013). Despite reported efficiency and safety benefits (Dotzauer et al., 2013;Hilliard and Jamieson, 2008;Lee et al., 2006), the question is whether such countermeasures compensate for bad system design or augment system design? Furthermore, such systems have been largely driver focussed, e.g. ...
Article
While a safe systems approach has long been acknowledged as the underlying philosophy of contemporary road safety strategies, systemic applications are sparse. This article argues that systems-based methods from the discipline of Ergonomics have a key role to play in road transport design and evaluation. To demonstrate, the Cognitive Work Analysis framework was used to evaluate two road designs - a traditional Melbourne intersection and a cut-through design for future intersections based on road safety safe systems principles. The results demonstrate that, although the cut-through intersection appears different in layout from the traditional intersection, system constraints are not markedly different. Furthermore, the analyses demonstrated that redistribution of constraints in the cut-through intersection resulted in emergent behaviour, which was not anticipated and could prove problematic. Further, based on the lack of understanding of emergent behaviour, similar design induced problems are apparent across both intersections. Specifically, incompatibilities between infrastructure, vehicles and different road users were not dealt with by the proposed design changes. The importance of applying systems methods in the design and evaluation of road transport systems is discussed.
... Many studies have investigated the role of IVAs in line with the system perspective, such as in Joint Cognitive System (Hollnagel & Woods, 2006), Active Decision Support System (Dotzauer et al., 2013), and Collaborative Human-Computer Systems (Hale & Kasper, 1989). In general, sub-systems and components constitute a system, and the system operates by achieving system objectives through a systematic process. ...
Article
Intelligent agents are expected to become major computing systems in the near future. In-vehicle agents (IVAs) can be widely adopted and utilized in a driving environment. Despite their potential applicability, a holistic understanding of the functional objectives and design features of IVAs remains limited, which hinders the design of better IVAs. To this end, we aimed at a better understanding of the different functions of IVAs and analyzed the design features using a systematic review approach. A total of 61 articles were finally selected for review. The selected articles were analyzed according to the research questions. As a result, we provided functional categories of IVAs and elicited design space, variables, and levels. Our work contributes to the body of knowledge on the development and design of IVAs, particularly for both practitioners and researchers to conceptualize, implement, and develop their own IVAs.
... On one hand, because drivers in the current study reported significantly lower levels of mental and visual workloads, used less overall effort, had improved overall performance, and recorded faster intersection traveling speeds and acceleration at RICWS intervention versus control intersections, these findings suggest that less conservative crossing behaviors were adopted by drivers in the relevant scenarios. On the other hand, Dotzauer et al. (2013) argued that it was not yet conclusive whether such behavioral changes should be interpreted as safer and more efficient versus being characterized as riskier behavior, due to the implementation of a safety countermeasure. Furthermore, higher crossing speeds and accelerations consistently found among middleaged drivers contributed greatly to the overall increase in both measures across all age groups. ...
Article
Advanced Rural Intersection Conflict Warning Systems (RICWS) were deployed as countermeasures to reduce severe right-angle crashes at rural thru-STOP controlled intersections across the United States (U.S.). The simulator study designed and evaluated alternative RICWS designs to existing RICWS interventions, in varying rural driving scenarios, across age groups (N = 40 novice teenage, 40 middle-aged, and 40 older drivers). Each participant was randomly assigned to a RICWS design, either the original or an alternative, and drove through sequences of 17 thru-STOP controlled rural intersections (nine RICWS intervention and eight control intersections). Drivers’ gap acceptance performance, intersection driving performance, traffic violation behaviors and self-reported workload were evaluated between intervention and control intersections. Regression models, applying the Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE), enabled efficacy determination of each RICWS design and an aggregated RICWS intervention effect, averaged across all simulated RICWS designs, among different levels of moderating factors. The safety performance and possible risks associated with the use of different RICWS designs were identified. Specifically, the original RICWS design had a significantly greater risk of STOP-sign violations at clear-view intersections with low traffic volumes, compared with control intersections (Risk Ratio = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.03 to 4.64). Except for Alternative RICWS Design 1, the alternative RICWS designs did not appear to outperform the Original RICWS Design. The moderating effects of drivers’ ages and intersection types on aggregated RICWS intervention effects were also examined. This study provides important safety implications for development and evaluation of intelligent intersection warning systems, targeted to vulnerable driver populations at high-risk rural intersections.
... Uno de los aspectos funcionales más importantes de los ADAS es reducir la probabilidad de cometer errores de conducción (o actuar sobre ellos) por parte del conductor del vehículo, bien sea, por ejemplo, a través de avisos y alertas en tiempo real , o de acciones autónomas activas del vehículo que corrigen errores o déficits operativos del conductor (Reimer, 2014;Dotzauer, Caljouw, de Waard & Brouwer, 2013), especialmente en poblaciones en las que las limitaciones psicofísicas son habituales y se producen de manera considerablemente homogénea (Bauer et al., 2019;Ando, Mimura, Nishihori & Yang, 2018). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The objective of this report is to investigate and know the status of the art on scientific studies and research published in the international literature as well as European documents and directives that are related to ADAS systems and their relationship with road safety. La automatización de los vehículos constituye, en la actualidad, uno de los temas de mayor relevancia para la movilidad, la seguridad vial y el desarrollo sostenible de los países, y ofrece diferentes beneficios para el conductor y para el resto de usuarios de las vías, así como para la eficiencia y seguridad del tráfico El objetivo de este informe es investigar y conocer el estado del arte sobre estudios e investigaciones científicas publicados en la literatura internacional, así como documentos y directivas europeas que se encuentran relacionados con los sistemas ADAS y su relación con la seguridad vial.
... These studies show that some ADAS systems, including but not limited to-lane departure warnings, lane keeping support, automated cruise control, collision avoidance systems, pedestrian crash avoidance mitigation, night vision systems, driver fatigue warning systems, turning assist, surround view, and traffic sign recognition-could extend the older drivers' mobility and have the capacity to improve road safety. In a driving simulator study, Dotzauer et al. (2013) studied the effects of an intersection ADAS on driving in healthy older adults. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the center of the road and crossed intersections in shorter time, but also engaged in higher speeds and accepted more risk in taking left turns against oncoming vehicles. ...
Chapter
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Driving a motor vehicle is an important instrumental activity of daily living recognized across countries and cultures. Driving provides convenience, independence, and mobility. However, after a stroke, patients may exhibit visual, cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms that may negatively affect driving ability. Patients often ask healthcare providers when they can resume driving. It can be difficult to identify those who are fit to drive, those who are not, and those who would benefit from driving rehabilitation. The aim of this chapter is to present evidence to guide clinical decision-making in returning to drive after stroke. The authors are from three different continents and represent important disciplines involved in driving after stroke: medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and psychology. We first explain the importance of return to driving as a key rehabilitation goal in post-stroke care. We then present an evidence-based overview of key issues related to driving after stroke. Afterwards, we provide a framework for driving screening, assessment, and intervention based on best evidence and practice. An illustrative case study is presented to demonstrate the multiple factors involved in a driving assessment and rehabilitation after stroke.
... However, the increasing number of older drivers has increased the risk of fatal accidents on the road because physical ability is decreasing in association with the increasing of age [7]. Few studies have been conducted by focusing on the older drivers' medical condition and disabilities that affect their driving performance and increase the risk of accidents among them. ...
Article
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Aging of population has increased in most developed countries. In year 2030, the aging population in Malaysia will reach 15% of the population. This situation contributes to the increasing number of older drivers on the road. Thus, it is important to identify the needs and safety aspects of driving among the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of basic driving skills among older drivers and their driving behavior. An instrument adapted from Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) was used to collect survey data. A total of 240 car drivers aged 50 years and above completed the questionnaire. For observation data, 150 respondents were chosen in order to observe their driving skills especially at intersections and parking areas. A Correlation analysis and Chi-Square test were performed to study the relationship between their age and driving skills. Results showed majority of the respondents demonstrated that they had knowledge of basic driving skills. Observation study at parking areas showed that selection of parking space, in and out parking skills, time taken to park, vehicle position and number of passengers were significant towards gender. While, observation at intersections showed that only vehicle distance was significant towards gender. Three variables (the older drivers being comfortable driving on the left lane, older drivers were often honked during driving and older drivers being slow responding to hazards such as pedestrians at the crossing) were correlated and significant at p<0.05 . This study recommended providing older drivers with priority lanes, special parking areas and car sticker tagging “older driver” in addition to supervising their licenses, conducting driving class sessions and undergoing medical examination for them.
... Two scenarios in an advanced driving simulator were used to measure risky decision-making behavior: (1) the swing drive, a scenario without the presence of direct dangerous situations and (2) the intersections drive, a scenario involving anticipating direct dangerous situations. The driving simulator used for the current study has also been used in previous studies (e.g., Dotzauer, Caljouw, De Waard, & Brouwer, 2013;Dotzauer, De Waard, Caljouw, Pöhler, & Brouwer, 2015). The configuration of the driving simulator consists of a projection screen stage and an open cabin "mock-up" standing within this stage. ...
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Objectives Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Huntington’s disease, inevitably lead to impairments in higher-order cognitive functions, including the perception of emotional cues and decision-making behavior. Such impairments are likely to cause risky daily life behavior, for instance, in traffic. Impaired recognition of emotional expressions, such as fear, is considered a marker of impaired experience of emotions. Lower fear experience can, in turn, be related to risk-taking behavior. The aim of our study was to investigate whether impaired emotion recognition in patients with NDD is indeed related to unsafe decision-making in risky everyday life situations, which has not been investigated yet. Methods Fifty-one patients with an NDD were included. Emotion recognition was measured with the Facial Expressions of Emotions: Stimuli and Test (FEEST). Risk-taking behavior was measured with driving simulator scenarios and the Action Selection Test (AST). Data from matched healthy controls were used: FEEST ( n = 182), AST ( n = 36), and driving simulator ( n = 18). Results Compared to healthy controls, patients showed significantly worse emotion recognition, particularly of anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. Furthermore, patients took significantly more risks in the driving simulator rides and the AST. Only poor recognition of fear was related to a higher amount of risky decisions in situations involving a direct danger. Conclusions To determine whether patients with an NDD are still fit to drive, it is crucial to assess their ability to make safe decisions. Measuring emotion recognition may be a valuable contribution to this judgment.
... It is also considered as a non-parametric alternative to a t-test of independent samples [34]. This test has been widely used in studies that involve low-sample size, such as 14 [35], 18 [36], 20 [37] and less than 30 [38,39] as well as high sample size. ...
... Drivers with PD had longer minimum time to collision (TTC) to crossing traffic and crossed less often with a critical TTC to oncoming traffic than older drivers. 44 In the speed and headway control experiment, the speedometer changed color when drivers exceeded the speed limit by more than 10% or 15%. Headway warnings showed up on the screen when drivers were following too close to the lead vehicle. ...
Article
Driving is impaired in most patients with Parkinson disease because of motor, cognitive, and visual dysfunction. Driving impairments in Parkinson disease may increase the risk of crashes and result in early driving cessation with loss of independence. Drivers with Parkinson disease should undergo comprehensive evaluations to determine fitness to drive with periodic follow-up evaluations as needed. Research in rehabilitation of driving and automation to maintain independence of patients with Parkinson disease is in progress.
... Yet, in many cases the driver might also benefit from support in the monitoring and decision making process before entering an intersection. In (12) information on safe gaps was presented via a HUD in a driving simulator. However, the system rather led to a focus of the driver's attention to the centre instead of to the left and right and to a more risky driving behaviour. ...
Article
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In this paper, we present our recently introduced "assistance on demand (AOD)" concept, which allows the driver to request assistance via speech whenever he or she deems it appropriate. The target scenario we currently investigate is turning left from a subordinate road in dense urban traffic. We first compare our system in a driving simulator study to driving without assistance or with visual assistance. The results show that drivers clearly prefer our speech-based AOD approach. Next, we investigate the differences between drivers' left-turn behaviour in a driving simulator. The results of this investigation show that there are large inter-individual differences. Based on these results, we present another driving simulator study, where participants can compare manual driving to driving with a default and a personalized AOD system. The results of this second study show that the personalization very notably improves the acceptance of the system. Given the choice between driving with any of the AOD variants and manual driving, 87.5% of the participants preferred driving with the AOD. Finally, we present an evaluation of the AOD system in a prototype vehicle in real urban traffic. KEY WORDS: electronics and control, advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), speech-based system, on-demand, user study, critical gap, personalization [E1]
... That might explain the reason of focusing on approaching intersections in a large number of studies that explore the drivers' performance or behavior at intersections (e.g. (Dotzauer et al. 2013;Dotzauer et al. 2015;Zhang et al. 2009;Zhang et al. 2015). Left/mixed-handed participants did not show superior in cognitive flexibility when exiting both roundabout (U = 76.000 ...
Conference Paper
Driving under unfamiliar conditions, such as unfamiliar traffic system and unfamiliar vehicle configuration during overseas holidays, might cause fatality, injury or property damage. In these cases, a driver needs to apply their prior knowledge to a new driving situation in order to drive safely. This ability is called cognitive flexibility. Prior research has found that left/mixed-handed people show superior cognitive flexibility in tasks required such ability than right-handed people. This paper aims to explore the relationships among cognitive flexibility, handedness and the types of errors drivers make, specifically at roundabouts and intersections in an unfamiliar driving condition. We conducted an experiment using a right-hand driving simulator and a left-hand simulated traffic scenario as a driving condition to collect the related data to driving at roundabout and intersection. All participants were not familiar with that condition. We found that left/mixed-handed drivers show a significantly superior cognitive flexibility at a turn-left roundabout and intersection. Also left/mixed handed drivers make a significantly fewer number of errors than right-handed drivers when entering the roundabout and approaching the intersection.
... Older drivers have been shown to underperform compared with younger drivers in a number of neuropsychological tests associated with cognitive declines that, in turn, affect driving performance (Andrews & Westerman, 2012;Owsley, Ball, & McGwin, 1998;Shanmugaratnam, Kass, & Arruda, 2010). Older drivers especially experience difficulties in driving scenarios requiring divided attention and decision making under time pressure, which were reflected by their high involvement in intersection crashes (Dotzauer, Caljouw, de Waard, & Brouwer, 2013). The primary concern in older drivers is the decline in executive functioning, which encompasses the higher order operations to organize information and regulate one's behavior, such as prioritizing, planning ahead and following rules (Salthouse, 2004;Salthouse, Atkinson, & Berish, 2003). ...
Article
Background Negotiating intersections is one of the principal concerns for older drivers as it requires precision and efficiency in visual-motor coordination (VMC). The complex intersection manoeuvre places high demands on visual perception, attention, motor control and executive functioning. Understanding the relationship between VMC and cognitive abilities in older drivers is important, but yet to be systematically explored. Methods We recorded 38 older adults’ driving manoeuvre at intersections using eye tracking and advanced surveying positioning technologies. VCM performance of the participants were indexed using multiple parameters of visual and motor behaviors with a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. Participants also performed a battery of cognitive tests of visual attention, spatial abilities, visual-motor speed and executive functions. Results Significant correlations were identified between VMC performance and eight cognitive measurements: UFOV 2 and 3, Block Design, Benton’s JLO, D-KEFS TMT 1, 2, 3 and 4. Cognitive tests measuring selective attention, spatial ability and executive function were found to be the best predictors for VMC performance. Conclusions Specific cognitive abilities in older drivers were associated with poorer VMC at intersections. VMC assessment can be used to identify risky older drivers and their problematic behaviors. In the future, tailored VMC evaluations and intervention programs may be developed to improve older drivers’ safety behind the wheel.
... In rural settings, maneuvering across intersections during the winter season was problematic as snow banks along the pavements would hinder visibility. Dotzauer et al. [39] tested intersection assistance system on older drivers and found that it reduced crossing time, and increased allocation of attention to the center of the road. Collision warning systems such as the Collision Avoidance/Warning System, Intersection Collision Avoidance System, and Reverse Collision Warning systems can also be useful as they are designed to alert drivers if there is an imminent collision with vehicles ahead, at intersections, and with rear objects [40]. ...
Article
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Along with age-related factors, geographical settings-urban, suburban, and rural areas-also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS), and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.
... Yet in many cases the driver might also benefit from support in the monitoring and decision making process before entering an intersection. In [3] information on safe gaps was presented via a HUD in a driving simulator. However the system rather led to a focus of the driver's attention to the centre instead of to the left and right and to more risky driving. ...
Conference Paper
We evaluated a system to support the driver in urban intersections (called "Assistance on Demand" AoD system). The system is controlled via speech and supports the driver in monitoring and decision making by providing recommendations for suitable time gaps to enter the intersection. This speech-based control of the system allows the implementation of an "on-demand"-concept where the driver can activate the assistance only if he desires support. 24 drivers took part in the study, performing three drives each. A comparison with a manual condition without system support showed that the AoD system was highly accepted, decreased workload and facilitated monitoring of traffic. In addition, subjective acceptance highly correlated with objective acceptance measured by the actual usage of the system. This clearly justifies the "on-demand"-concept.
... Despite this, some preliminary evidence of their effects is available from simulator studies. Dotzauer, Caljouw, de Waard, and Brouwer (2013) evaluated an intersection assistant that gave advice whether it was safe to cross an 125 intersection by displaying a green, amber or red light in the head-up display (HUD). The experimental sample consisted of older drivers who either drove with or without the assistant. ...
Article
Recently, connected vehicle (CV) and advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) technologies, including retrofit ADAS products, have been introduced in the real-world market. This study focuses on pedestrian collision warning (PCW) as an intensive function of the ADAS, which operates when a vehicle is at a collision risk with a vulnerable road user (VRU). Although several studies have been conducted on surrogate safety measures for crashes against VRUs, none of these studies used real-world CV data with collision warning information. Thus, the current study aims to i) develop a safety performance function (SPF) for crashes against VRUs at unsignalized intersections, where the PCW information was acquired using connected advanced probe vehicles (APVs), and ii) assess the effectiveness of a traffic-safety treatment implemented at an unsignalized intersection based on the developed SPF. In particular, this study proposes a two-step empirical Bayesian estimation based on the SPF model (2-step EB-SPF) to consider the issue regarding the limited number and vehicle types of APVs that can obtain PCW information. Based on the APV data, the vehicle–VRU crash-count negative binomial (NB) models were separately estimated using the actual PCW incidence rate and the EB estimate of PCW incidence rate, respectively. Although the actual PCW incidence rate was not statistically significant in the former model, the EB estimate of the PCW incidence rate was statistically significant and positively related to the crash count in the latter model. Moreover, a traffic-safety treatment was implemented at an unsignalized intersection and subsequently assessed as a case study based on the estimated 2-step EB-SPF model. Consequently, the model with the EB estimate of PCW incidence rate revealed that the vehicle–VRU crash risk was reduced by approximately 70%, and it was statistically significant at the 99% confidence level, which diminished the confidence interval in comparison to the model without the PCW incidence rate. Thus, the APV data including collision warning information can improve the estimation accuracy of determining the effect of the traffic-safety treatment, which can considerably contribute toward traffic safety assessment, especially for short after-treatment periods such as that prevailing in this case study.
Chapter
In addition to the characteristic motor dysfunction, Parkinson’s disease (PD) also impairs cognition, vision, and alertness, resulting in decreased driving safety. Drivers with PD perform worse on driving simulators and road tests compared to their healthy peers. Their driving problems worsen with multitasking or under low visibility. They also may be at increased risk for crashes. Although driving simulation studies and retrospective surveys have demonstrated increased crash rates in drivers with PD, this has not yet been confirmed by community-based, prospective, controlled studies. Drivers with PD use more compensation strategies and cease driving earlier than their healthy peers, which could partially explain lack of increased crash rates in PD. Periodic multidisciplinary evaluations in close cooperation with the patient, caregivers, and state authorities are needed to assess driving fitness and to offer alternative transportation methods in appropriate cases.
Article
The connected environment provides surrounding traffic information to drivers via different driving aids that are expected to improve driving behavior and assist in avoiding safety-critical events. These driving aids include speed advisory, car-following assistance, lane-changing support, and advanced information about possible unseen hazards, among many others. While various studies have attempted to examine the effectiveness of different driving aids discretely, it is still vague how drivers perform when they are exposed to a connected environment with vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication capabilities. As such, the objective of this study is to examine the effects of the connected environment on driving behavior and safety. To achieve this aim, an innovative driving simulator experiment was designed to mimic a connected environment using the CARRS-Q Advanced Driving Simulator. Two types of driving aids were disseminated in the connected environment: continuous and event-based information. Seventy-eight participants with diverse backgrounds drove the simulator in four driving conditions: baseline (without driving aids), perfect communication (uninterrupted supply of driving aids), communication delay (driving aids are delayed), and communication loss (intermittent loss of driving aids). Various key driving behavior indicators were analyzed and compared across various routine driving tasks such as car-following, lane-changing, interactions with traffic lights, and giving way to pedestrians at pedestrian crossings. Results suggest that drivers in the perfect communication scenario maintain a longer time-to-collision during car-following, a longer time-to-collision to pedestrian, a lower deceleration to avoid a crash during lane-changing, and a lower propensity of yellow light running. Overall, drivers in the connected environment are found to make informed (thus better) decisions towards safe driving.
Article
Problem: Previous research have focused extensively on crashes, however near crashes provide additional data on driver errors leading to critical events as well as evasive maneuvers employed to avoid crashes. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study contains extensive data on real world driving and offers a reliable methodology to study near crashes. The current study utilized the SHRP2 database to compare the rate and characteristics associated with near crashes among risky drivers. Methods: A subset from the SHRP2 database consisting of 4,818 near crashes for teen (16-19 yrs), young adult (20-24 yrs), adult (35-54 yrs), and older (70+ yrs) drivers was used. Near crashes were classified into seven incident types: rear-end, road departure, intersection, head-on, side-swipe, pedestrian/cyclist, and animal. Near crash rates, incident type, secondary tasks, and evasive maneuvers were compared across age groups. For rear-end near crashes, near crash severity, max deceleration, and time-to-collision at braking were compared across age. Results: Near crash rates significantly decreased with increasing age (p < 0.05). Young drivers exhibited greater rear-end (p < 0.05) and road departure (p < 0.05) near crashes compared to adult and older drivers. Intersection near crashes were the most common incident type among older drivers. Evasive maneuver type did not significantly vary across age groups. Near crashes exhibited a longer time-to-collision at braking (p < 0.01) compared to crashes. Summary: These data demonstrate increased total near crash rates among young drivers relative to adult and older drivers. Prevalence of specific near crash types also differed across age groups. Timely execution of evasive maneuvers was a distinguishing factor between crashes or near crashes. Practical Applications: These data can be used to develop more targeted driver training programs and help OEMs optimize ADAS to address the most common errors exhibited by risky drivers.
Article
Objective: Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) has been recognized as one of the prominent countermeasures to reduce angle crashes at intersections, which constitute 22 percent of total crashes in the US. Utilizing vehicle-based sensors, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2░V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, IMA offers extended vision to provide early warning for an imminent crash. However, most of IMA related research implements their methods and strategies only in simulations, test tracks, or driving simulator studies that have quite a few assumptions and limitations, and hence the effectiveness evaluations reported may not be transferable or comparable. Methods: This study seeks to develop a generalized evaluation scheme that can be used not only to assess the effectiveness of IMA on improving traffic safety at intersections, but also to facilitate comparisons across similar studies. The proposed evaluation scheme utilizes the concepts of traffic conflict in terms of Time-to-collision (TTC) as a crash surrogate. This approach avoids the issue of having insufficient crash frequency data for system evaluation. To measure the effectiveness of IMA on reducing traffic conflicts, a relative risk is calculated for comparing the risk of with/without using the IMA. As a proof-of-concept study, this study applied the proposed evaluation scheme and reported the effectiveness of IMA on improving traffic safety in a Field Operation Test (FOT). Seven test scenarios were conducted at four intersections, and a total of 40 participants were recruited to use the IMA for six months. Results: It was estimated that IMA users have 26 percent fewer conflicts with TTC less than five seconds, and have 15 percent fewer conflicts with TTC less than four seconds. However, the results vary across different sites and different definitions of conflicts in terms of TTC. Conclusions: Overall, IMA is promising to effectively reduce angle crashes related to sight obstruction, and has potential to reduce not only crash frequency but also crash severity.
Conference Paper
- In modern society, a variety of things or systems have been proposed for easy living. However, if you do not produce it based on human characteristics in such a system, users will find it inconvenient to use high-technology design products. The same is true when designing an in-vehicle system. It is not necessary unless it know the driver's cognitive physiological characteristics. In this research, driving assistant methods considering the cognitive characteristics of elderly drivers were proposed. Furthermore, the driving characteristics of young people and the elderly were examined. Such approaches and ideas will help researchers who design advanced systems was conceivable.
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The present study aimed at identifying factors for traffic safety support in older drivers. This was achieved by studying the co-operation between older drivers and their ordinary front seat passenger (co-driver). The knowledge emerging from such study can enhance the understanding of what kind of support an older driver needs and also help facilitate proper design of in-vehicle support systems and intervention training programs for older drivers. A within group field study was carried out, using a mixed-methods evaluation design. Four elderly couples participated in the study. The drivers included in the study requested and received on-going directional support, traffic -and driving strategic help, help with look-out and reminding of current speed limit. It was evident from comparisons between interview data and field data that how the participants themselves described their need of support differed from what support they requested (drivers) and gave (co-drivers) in real driving. Furthermore, data revealed that three out of four drivers were given a score of 2 in the Useful Field Of View test (UFOV). It was evident that there are areas in which older drivers need and request support. The results from the present study could be used in the design process, and in evaluation of, in-vehicle support systems as well as in developing intervention training programs customised for older drivers.
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This article reviewed both studies on general smart car technologies and human–computer interaction (HCI)/human–vehicle interaction studies that were published in journals and conferences so that the current status of research can be identified and future research directions can be suggested. Furthermore, previous studies on elderly drivers were reviewed, as these drivers could be the most vulnerable social group in terms of new technology acceptance. A total of 257 articles for HCI research and 45 articles for elderly drivers were selected and reviewed from 11,267 collected articles (2010–2014). According to the results, most articles were mainly related to safety and adaptive features (e.g., driver’s state recognition, vehicle surrounding monitoring, driver action-suggestion), and infotainment research in terms of HCI (e.g., information technology devices–vehicle interaction, vehicle–vehicle interaction) was relatively insufficient despite its high research demand. According to the results of the literature review and technological trends analysis based on previous technical road maps, from HCI/human factors engineering (HFE) perspectives, research related to “Assistance systems,” “Physiological & mental state recognition,” “Position sensor technology,” “Behavior recognition,” and “Infotainment” was suggested to HCI/HFE researchers for further research. In particular, HCI/HFE researchers need to focus on research on acceptable levels of automation, observing new driving behaviors, investigation of driver characteristics to develop personalized services, and new technology acceptance to develop and improve smart cars in the future.
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Many contend that driving an automobile involves multiple-object tracking. At this point, no one has tested this idea, and it is unclear how multiple-object tracking would coordinate with the other activities involved in driving. To address some of the initial and most basic questions about multiple-object tracking while driving, we modified the tracking task for use in a driving simulator, creating the multiple-vehicle tracking task. In Experiment 1, we employed a dual-task methodology to determine whether there was interference between tracking and driving. Findings suggest that although it is possible to track multiple vehicles while driving, driving reduces tracking performance, and tracking compromises headway and lane position maintenance while driving. Modified change-detection paradigms were used to assess whether there were change localization advantages for tracked targets in multiple-vehicle tracking. When changes occurred during a blanking interval, drivers were more accurate (Experiment 2a) and ~250 ms faster (Experiment 2b) at locating the vehicle that changed when it was a target rather than a distractor in tracking. In a more realistic driving task where drivers had to brake in response to the sudden onset of brake lights in one of the lead vehicles, drivers were more accurate at localizing the vehicle that braked if it was a tracking target, although there was no advantage in terms of braking response time. Overall, results suggest that multiple-object tracking is possible while driving and perhaps even advantageous in some situations, but further research is required to determine whether multiple-object tracking is actually used in day-to-day driving.
Article
Objective: An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about speed limits, speed, speeding, and following distance. Information was presented to the participants by means of a head-up display. Methods: Effects of the information on speed and headway control were studied in a longer-term driving simulator study including 12 repeated measures spread out over 4 weeks. Nine healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 9 drivers between the ages of 68 and 82 years diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) participated in the study. Within the 4 weeks, groups completed 12 consecutive sessions (10 with ADAS and 2 without ADAS) in a driving simulator. Results: Results indicate an effect of ADAS use on performance. Removing ADAS after short-term exposure led to deterioration of performance in all speed measures in the group of drivers diagnosed with PD. Conclusions: These results suggest that provision of traffic information was utilized by drivers diagnosed with PD in order to control their speed.
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Motor vehicle crash risk in older drivers has been associated with visual acuity loss, but only weakly so, suggesting other factors contribute. The useful field of view is a measure that reflects decline in visual sensory function, slowed visual processing speed, and impaired visual attention skills. To identify whether measures of visual processing ability, including the useful field of view test, are associated with crash involvement by older drivers. Prospective cohort study with 3 years of follow-up, 1990-1993. Ophthalmology clinic assessment of community-based sample. A total of 294 drivers aged 55 to 87 years at enrollment. Motor vehicle crash occurrence. Older drivers with a 40% or greater impairment in the useful field of view were 2.2 times (95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.1) more likely to incur a crash during 3 years of follow-up, after adjusting for age, sex, race, chronic medical conditions, mental status, and days driven per week. This association was primarily mediated by difficulty in dividing attention under brief target durations. Reduction in the useful field of view increases crash risk in older drivers. Given the relatively high prevalence of visual processing impairment among the elderly, visual dysfunction and eye disease deserve further examination as causes of motor vehicle crashes and injury.
Article
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A field experiment was conducted to investigate the benefits and costs of using an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) when the driver is confronted with unexpected situations. The IVIS used in this study included 3 in-vehicle subsystems that provided signing, navigation, and warning information. Three research questions were investigated, each involving the use of an IVIS and response to unexpected situations: (a) Do drivers derive a benefit from using an IVIS? (b) What impact does IVIS information density have on driver behavior and performance? and (c) What impact does driver age have on system use and driving behaviors? As drivers traveled a prescribed route, they were confronted with 6 unexpected situations, including a car approaching from a hidden entrance, an ambulance approaching from the rear, and a crash scene. Results indicated a clear benefit for drivers receiving in-vehicle warning information prior to being confronted with these situations.
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This study was designed to investigate driver acceptance of traffic sign information provided by an in-vehicle terminal (IVT). Specifically, four message conditions were compared in an on-road field study: (a) visual sign (b) visual sign and auditory message, (c) visual sign and auditory feedback based on driver behaviour and (d) visual sign and complete instruction provided for all subjects after the driver passed a test sign. The main results showed that the subjects accepted the integration of traffic sign information. For example, the subjects assessed that many aspects of the system were useful; they would like to include these aspects in the IVT if purchased; and the IVT information was reported to increase the effect of traffic signs and to improve traffic safety. The most preferred message condition was the visual sign. However, many subjects reported driving problems while using the IVT. The most frequently reported problems included unintentional speed decreases and late detection of another road user, vehicle or obstacle on the road. The main implication of this study is that integration of traffic sign information is a promising approach. Further research is needed to investigate the various effects of this kind of systems on driver behaviour.
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This research uses grounded theory to assess the driving needs of 29 older car drivers using four data collection techniques (two waves of focus groups, an interview and a driver diary). Findings suggest that older drivers view themselves as having better driving skills and attitude towards driving compared to when they were younger and compared to other drivers. In addition, they have a good ability to adapt to their changing physiology. Nevertheless, they report difficulty in assessing their own driving ability and cite they would like help to increase self-awareness about the driving task. In addition, the participants report having increasing difficulty in not having enough time to read, compute and comprehend road signs, maintaining a constant speed at the speed-limit, increased tiredness and fatigue and increased sensitivity to glare. The findings suggest given an iterative, qualitative methodology where driving issues are focused upon, older drivers can become more self-aware of their driving limitations and discuss these aspects in the context of ageing physiology. KeywordsAgeing-Driver behaviour-Travel behaviour-Social psychology-Self-awareness-Older people
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Eye-movement measures were found to be highly sensitive to the demands of visual and auditory in-vehicle tasks as well as driving task demands. Two newer measures, Percent road centre and Standard deviation of gaze, were found to be more sensitive, more robust, more reliable, and easier to calculate than established glance-based measures. The eye-movement measures were collected by two partners within the EU project HASTE to determine their sensitivity to increasingly demanding in-vehicle tasks by means of artificial, or surrogate, In-vehicle Information Systems (S-IVIS). Data from 119 subjects were collected from four routes: a motorway in real traffic with an instrumented vehicle, a motorway in a fixed base simulator, and from rural roads in two different fixed base simulators. As the visual task became more difficult, drivers looked less at the road centre area ahead, and looked at the display more often, for longer periods, and for more varied durations. The auditory task led to an increasing gaze concentration to road centre. Gaze concentration to the road centre area was also found as driving task complexity increased, as shown in differences between rural curved- and straight sections, between rural and motorway road types, and between simulator and field motorways.
Conference Paper
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Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) are assumed to support drivers in critical traffic situations. This is especially important for older drivers and also drivers with disabilities, whose physical and cognitive resources are limited. An electronic intersection assistant was developed and implemented in a driving simulation setting. Independent variables were users’ age and output modality. The utility of visual and auditory interfaces was examined and com pared to a control group which was not assisted. Dependent variables were speed control, accuracy of lane tracking and users’ acceptance. Older adults drove significantly slower, but equally accurate than younger drivers. When no assistance was present, driving performance was superior than in both assis tance conditions. The visual interface had a lower detrimental effect than the auditory ADAS which had the strongest distracting effect. In contrast to per formance outcomes, the auditory interface was rated as more helpful by older drivers compared to the visual interface.
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This study examined the extent to which driving performance of 10 older (70-88 years old) and 30 younger participants (30-50 years old) improves as a result of support by a driver assistance system. Various studies have indicated that advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) may provide tailored assistance for older drivers and thereby improve their safe mobility. While drivers followed an urban route in a driving simulator, an ADAS provided them with prior knowledge on the next intersection. The system was evaluated in terms of effects on workload and safety performance. Messages informing drivers about the right-of-way regulation, obstructed view of an intersection, and safe gaps to join or cross traffic streams led to safer driving performance. A message regarding an unexpected one-way street led to fewer route errors. In general, effects were the same for all age groups. Workload was not reduced by the support system. The evaluated support system shows promising effects for all age groups. Longer evaluation periods are needed to determine long-term effects. The messages provided by the evaluated system are currently not provided by existing ADAS such as advanced cruise control and navigation systems, but they could possibly be added to them in the future.
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Older drivers are overinvolved in intersection crashes compared with younger drivers, but the reasons are not clearly understood. The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors that lead to older drivers' intersection crashes. Study participants were composed of two groups of older drivers -- ages 70-79 (n = 78) and 80 and older (n = 76) -- and a comparison group of drivers ages 35-54 (n = 73); all were at fault in intersection crashes involving nonfatal injuries. Police crash reports, telephone interviews with at-fault drivers, and photographs of intersections were used to determine the kinds of driver actions and errors that led to the intersection crashes. Drivers 80 and older had fewer rear-end crashes than drivers ages 35-54 and 70-79, and both groups of older drivers had fewer ran-off-road crashes than drivers ages 35-54. Crashes where drivers failed to yield the right-of-way increased with age and occurred mostly at stop sign-controlled intersections, generally when drivers were turning left. The reasons for failure-to-yield crashes tended to vary by age. Compared with drivers ages 35-54 and 80 and older, drivers ages 70-79 made more evaluation errors -- seeing another vehicle but misjudging whether there was adequate time to proceed. In contrast, drivers 80 and older predominantly failed to see or detect the other vehicle. Drivers ages 35-54 also tended to make search errors, but theirs were due more often to distraction. Factors leading to intersection crashes vary with age, even between two age groups of older drivers. Because the number of older drivers is projected to increase, it is important to identify ways to reduce the frequency and severity of their intersection crashes. Roundabouts and protected left turn lanes at signalized intersections may help to reduce failure-to-yield crashes at intersections, especially among older drivers. Crash avoidance systems may help to reduce crashes for drivers of all ages, but most systems have not been thoroughly investigated using real-world crash data.
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Older drivers are currently over-represented in severe injury crashes at intersections due in part to increases in frailty and functional disabilities that occur with age. Moreover, this rate is expected to increase as older people drive more and the population ages. Road design plays a major role in road safety and is likely to contribute to the driving difficulties of the elderly because of the general lack of consideration of the needs of older road users. Intersections, in particular, stand out as a major problem for older road users. This paper reviews age-related performance deficits that affect driving and describes a crash ‘black-spot’ site analysis that examined the relationship between intersection design features (believed to influence the safety of older drivers) and the older driver crash experience in Australasia. A number of intersection design problems for older drivers were identified and recommendations for changes in road design features and traffic management practices that have the potential to reduce crash and injury risk for older drivers at intersections are made.
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An experimental study was conducted to determine if intersection behaviour benefited from advanced in-vehicle signs presented to older and younger drivers in a head-up display (HUD) format. The University of Calgary Driving Simulator (UCDS) was used to evaluate intersection performance. Measures of those who were able to stop or ran the yellow light, speed over the span of the intersection, perception response time, and eye movements were analyzed to determine if performance improved or whether undesirable adaptive behaviours occurred. In-vehicle signs facilitated an increase in the frequencies of stopping for both younger and older drivers at intersections with relatively short yellow onsets. The speed at the yellow light onset for both those who stopped and those who proceeded through the intersection was reduced by the presence of the in-vehicle signs. The primary behavioral influence of the in-vehicle signs was to cause the drivers’ to reduce their velocity in advance of an intersection. Eye movement analyses indicated that younger drivers looked at the in-vehicles signs more often and for longer overall durations than older drivers. Older drivers had slower intersection approach speeds, stopped more accurately, and were more likely to not clear the intersection before the traffic light turned to an all-red phase than younger drivers. The implications of the in-vehicle sign results are discussed in terms of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) design guidelines and evaluation methods.
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In-vehicle displays offer a promising alternative to road signs; however, little human factors research exists to guide their design. In this study, the authors examined message style, the physical grouping or location, and visual as opposed to auditory messages to identify how such message characteristics affect driving safety and compliance. Variables such as driver self-confidence, trust in the system, situation awareness, and workload helped explain the influence of in-vehicle messages on driving behavior. Data collected from 16 older and 16 younger drivers using a driving simulator suggest that message style may be an important design characteristic influencing both compliance and safety. Results indicate that command messages promote greater compliance but may also reduce safety. Results also suggest that message style merits further consideration along with more commonly studied design parameters of display modality and location. In-vehicle messages without redundant roadway signs led to lower levels of safety; this was probably due to drivers distributing their attention inappropriately as opposed to in-vehicle messages exceeding their information-processing limits.
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This research evaluated the effect of providing advanced left turn information to individuals faced with deciding whether or not it is safe to turn at a signalized intersection. Younger (mean age 37 years) and older (mean age 71 years) drivers were tested in simulations of approaching an intersection with and without advanced cueing. Experiment 1 used a featureless background; Experiment 2 used an animated presentation of traffic control displays. In both experiments the subjects had to determine whether or not they had right-of-way to make a left turn. Exaggerated error rates and increased decision latencies for displays conveying unprotected turn status occurred in both studies. Cueing drivers with advanced notice of the decision rule through a redundant upstream posting of sign elements improved both accuracy and latency of younger and older drivers' decisions.
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Older drivers form a growing segment of the driving population which in comparison to most other modes of transportation, is relatively user-friendly for older people. There are two important problems. The first is the increase of physical vulnerability with age which means that the same accident often leads to much more severe injury in an older than a younger adult driver. The second problem is the decline of sensory, perceptual-motor and cognitive abilities (impairments) because of ageing-related degenerative processes and diseases. As a result, processing of and responding to traffic information is slowed and activities cannot well be performed simultaneously. Much of this may be compensated by behavioural changes. However, studies of accident characteristics and driving skill in relation to ageing suggest that compensation breaks down in complex and ambiguous traffic situations and in individuals with strongly impaired perceptual and cognitive function. Possible changes to reduce ageing-related accidents, and which make driving more user-friendly for older drivers, are discussed.
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Risk of fatal crash involvement was calculated for older drivers relative to drivers aged 40-49 in the United States during the years 1994-1995. The results indicated that drivers ages 65-69 were 2.26 times more at risk for multiple-vehicle involvements at intersections compared with 1.29 times more at risk in all other situations. The comparable figures for drivers aged 85 and older were 10.62 for multiple-vehicle involvements at intersections compared with 3.74 for all other situations. The relative crash risk was particularly high for older drivers at uncontrolled and stop sign-controlled locations; when traveling straight or when just starting to enter the intersection; and when the specific behavioral error in the crash was failure to yield. Countermeasures will likely involve reducing or simplifying the need to detect and evaluate moving traffic coming from the left and right when at intersections. This can be accomplished by traffic signals with protected left turns, four-way stop signs, and one-way streets. Whereas such devices involve significant cost in terms of dollars and travel delay, their cost-effectiveness may have to be revisited as the United States population continues to age.
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The Reason and Brand Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (MSSQ) has remained unchanged for a quarter of a century. The primary aims of this investigation were to improve the design of the MSSQ, simplify scoring, produce new adult reference norms, and analyse motion validity data. We also considered the relationship of sickness from other nonmotion causes to the MSSQ. Norms and percentiles for a sample of 148 subjects were almost identical to the original version of this instrument. Reliability of the whole scale gave a Cronbach's standardised item alpha of 0.86, the correlation between Part A (child) and Part B (adult) was r = 0.65 (p < 0.001), and test-retest reliability may be assumed to be better than 0.8. Predictive validity of the MSSQ for motion sickness tolerance using laboratory motion devices averaged r = 0.45. Correlation between MSSQ and other sources of nausea and vomiting in the last 12 months, excluding motion sickness itself, was r = 0.3 (p < 0.001), migraine was the most important contributor to this relationship. In patients (n = 101) undergoing chemotherapy, there were significant correlations between MSSQ and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Migraine also appeared as a predictor of chemotherapy-induced sickness. It was concluded that the revised MSSQ can be used as a direct replacement of the original version. The relationship between motion sickness susceptibility and other causes of sickness, including migraine and chemotherapy, points to the involvement of the vestibular system in the response to nonmotion emetogenic stimuli. Alternatively, this relationship may reflect individual differences in excitability of the postulated final common emetic pathway.
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An overview of the characteristics of traffic crashes among young, middle-aged and older drivers is presented. The results suggest that the youngest and the oldest drivers were more likely to be considered at-fault. With respect to crash characteristics, older drivers were less likely to have crashes involving driver fatigue, during the evening and early morning, on curved roads, during adverse weather, involving a single vehicle, and while traveling at high speeds. Conversely, older drivers were over-represented in crashes at intersections and/or involving failure to yield the right of way, unseen objects, and failure to heed stop signs or signals. Crashes occurring while turning and changing lanes were also more common among older drivers. Alcohol was less likely to be a factor in traffic crashes involving older adults. Synthesizing these results led to the conclusion that the primary problem with the young is risk-taking and lack of skill. The strength of older drivers lies in their aversion to risk, but perceptual problems and difficulty judging and responding to traffic flow often counterbalance this attribute.
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To better understand the characteristics of crashes involving senior drivers 65 and older, studies of these crashes were reviewed. The review focused primarily on North American studies published since 1990. Studies point to important differences between the crashes of senior drivers and those of younger drivers. Numerous studies have found that senior drivers' crashes are much more likely than crashes of younger drivers to occur at intersections. Senior drivers have particularly high rates of involvement in intersection crashes when they are turning, and even more so when they are turning left. Senior drivers are more likely than younger drivers to have been at fault in these situations, typically because they failed to yield the right-of-way, disregarded the traffic signal, or committed some other traffic violation. Studies also suggest that the extent of overinvolvement of senior drivers in certain types of crashes generally increases with advancing age. The extent to which the distinctive characteristics of senior drivers' crashes may be due to changing travel patterns associated with aging, or physical or cognitive impairments related to the aging process, is unclear. Further research is needed to understand the pre-crash circumstances of older drivers' intersection crashes.
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