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Abstract

The interests in the consumption of pepper fruits (Capsicum annum L.) is, to a large extent due to its content of bioactive compounds and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Peppers are used as a colourant, flavourant, and/or as a source of pungency. Peppers can be used fresh, dried, fermented, or as an oleoresin extract. It has both nutritional and nutraceutical importance. It contains an anticoagulant that helps prevent the blood clots that can cause heart attacks. Bell Pepper is good source of vitamin C. The benefits resulting from the use of natural products rich in bioactive substances has promoted the growing interest of food industries. Among the antioxidant phytochemicals, polyphenols deserve a special mention due to their free radical scavenging properties. Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant activity in 4 different colored (green, yellow, orange, and red) sweet bellpeppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were investigated.The free radical scavenging abilities of peppers determined by the 2, 2~-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Natural antioxidants are preferred because synthetic antioxidants are considered carcinogenic. Antioxidants present in the (Capsicum annuum L.), protect the food or body from oxidative damage induced by free radicals and reactive oxygen.
PAK. J. FOOD SCI., 21(1-4), 2011:45-51
ISSN: 2226-5899
Antioxidant Potential of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annum L.)-A Review
Muhammad Nadeem*, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Asad Riaz
National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan
Corresponding Author:
mnadeem11@gmail.com
Abstract
The interests in the consumption of pepper fruits (Capsicum annum L.) is, to a large extent due to its content of bioactive
compounds and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Peppers are used as a colourant, flavourant, and/or as a source of
pungency. Peppers can be used fresh, dried, fermented, or as an oleoresin extract. It has both nutritional and nutraceutical
importance. It contains an anticoagulant that helps prevent the blood clots that can cause heart attacks. Bell Pepper is good
source of vitamin C. The benefits resulting from the use of natural products rich in bioactive substances has promoted the
growing interest of food industries. Among the antioxidant phytochemicals, polyphenols deserve a special mention due to
their free radical scavenging properties. Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant activity in 4 different colored (green,
yellow, orange, and red) sweet bellpeppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were investigated.The free radical scavenging abilities of
peppers determined by the 2, 2~-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Natural antioxidants are preferred because
synthetic antioxidants are considered carcinogenic. Antioxidants present in the (Capsicum annuum L.), protect the food or
body from oxidative damage induced by free radicals and reactive oxygen.
Key words: Bell Pepper, Capsicum annum, Natural Antioxidants, Health benefits, dietary antioxidants
Introduction
Capsicum has its beginning since the beginning of
civilizations. It is a part of human diet since 7500 BC. It
was the ancient ancestors of the native peoples who took
the wild chili Piquin and selected for the many various
types known today. Native Americans had grown chili
plants between 5200 and 3400 BC. This places chilies
among the oldest cultivated crops of the Americas
(Bosland, 1996). The genus Capsicum is one of the first
plants being cultivated in the New World with beans
(Phaseolus spp.), maize (Zea mays L.), and cucurbits
(Cucurbitaceae) (Heiser, 1973). In the sixteenth century,
Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens were widely
distributed from the New World to other continents via
Spanish and Portuguese traders while the other species
are little distributed outside South America (Andrews,
1995). Capsicum annuum is mostly used commercially.
Genus Capsicum is a member of family Solanaceae and
has five species that are commonly recognized as
domesticated: Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum,
Capsicum chinense, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum
pubescens. However there are approximately 20 wild
species that have been documented (Heiser, 1973). The
classification system for this genus is somewhat
confusing in the literature. In Spain, the Castilian word
‘pimiento’ refers to any Capsicum species, but in the
USA, ‘pimiento’ or ‘pimento’ refers only to thick-walled,
heart-shaped, non-pungent fruits from the species
Capsicum annuum. The Hungarians call all Capasicum
annuum fruits ‘paprika’, but paprika is defined in the
world market as a ground, red powder derived from dried
fruits with the desirable colour and flavour qualities. The
word ‘chile’ is the common name for any Capsicum
species in Mexico, Central America and the Southwestern
USA. In Asia, the spelling ‘chilli’ is more common and is
always associated with highly pungent varieties of
Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens, while the
non-pungent sweet bell peppers are referred to as
‘Capsicums’ and it is native to Maxico. In American
English, it is commonly known as the Chili Pepper or
Bell Pepper. In British English, they are all called
Peppers, whereas in Australian and Indian English, there
is no commonly used name encompassing all its forms,
the name Capsicum being commonly used for bell
peppers exclusively. In Pakistan, it is locally known as
Shimla Mirch (Grubben and Denton, 2004). Pungent
fruits of all cultivated Capsicum species as a collective
class are called ‘chillies’ in the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) Yearbook (Anon, 1997). Bird’s eye
chillies are grown primarily in East Africa, but they are
merely small-fruited, highly pungent forms of Capsicum
annuum or Capsicum frutescens. Different varieties of the
genus Capsicum are widely grown for their fruits, which
may be eaten fresh, cooked, as a dried powder, in a sauce,
or processed into
oleoresin (Poulos, 1993). Three major products traded on
the world market for use in food processing are paprika,
oleoresin, and dried chilli (both whole and in powdered
form).
• Oleoresin: A viscous liquid derived by polar solvent
extraction from ground powder of any Capsicum species;
there are three types of oleoresin: paprika (used for
colour), red pepper (used for colour and pungency), and
Capsicum (used for pungency).
• Paprika: A ground, bright red, usually non-pungent
powder used primarily for its colour and flavour in
processed foods; all paprika varieties are C. annuum;
paprika fruits are used to produce paprika oleoresin.
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• Chilli: Any pungent variety of any Capsicum species,
but primarily C. annuum; chilli varieties may be used to
produce red pepper oleoresin or Capsicum oleoresin.
• Pepper(s): Generic term describing the fruits of any
Capsicum species, both pungent and non-pungent.
Peppers are used as a colourant, flavourant, and/or as a
source of pungency. Peppers can be used fresh, dried,
fermented, or as an oleoresin extract. They can be used
whole, chopped, coarsely ground, or finely ground, with
or without seeds. Various types of processed products
containing primarily peppers include pickled fruits, chilli
sauce, chilli powder (also known as cayenne powder),
crushed red pepper flakes, fermented mash, paprika, and
three types of oleoresin. Other processed products that
contain a significant proportion of peppers include fresh
and processed salsas, curry powders, barbecue
seasonings, chili powder (a mixture of chilli powder,
oregano, cumin, and garlic powder), and many other
foods (Govindarajan, 1986).
The main source of pungency in peppers is the chemical
group of alkaloid compounds called capsaicinoids
(CAPS), which are produced in the fruit. The atomic
structure of CAPS is similar to piperine (the active
component of white and black pepper, Piper nigrum) and
zingerone (the active component of ginger, Zingiber
officinale). Capsaicin (C18H27NO3), trans-8-methyl-N-
vanillyl-6-nonenamide), is the most abundant CAPS,
followed by dihydrocapsaicin, with minor amounts of
nordihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin,
homodihydrocapsaicin, and others. Capsaicin is a white
crystalline, fat-soluble compound formed from
homovanillic acid that is insoluble in water, odourless,
and tasteless (Andrews, 1995). Varieties of chilli differ
widely in CAPS content. The amount of CAPS in a given
variety can vary depending on the light intensity and
temperature at which the plant is grown, the age of the
fruit, and the position of the fruit on the plant. The first
test developed to measure pungency was the Scoville test,
first developed in 1912 by Wilbur Scoville. It measures
‘heat’ as Scoville heat units (SHU) in a given dry weight
of fruit tissue. Sweet peppers have 0 SHU, chillies with a
slight bite may have 100 to 500 SHU, and the blistering
habaneros have between 200,000 and 300,000. The red
colour of mature pepper fruits is due to several related
carotenoid pigments, including capsanthin, shown in
Figure, capsorubin, cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which
are present as fatty acid esters. The most important
pigments are capsanthin and its isomer capsorubin, which
make up 30–60% and 6–18% respectively, of the total
carotenoids in the fruit. The intensity of the red color is
primarily a function of the amount of these two pigments;
the Hungarian and Spanish varieties used for paprika
have very high amounts of capsanthin and capsorubin
compared to other varieties (Govindarajan, 1985).
CAPS in oleoresins are very stable compounds and
generally do not break down, even during processing at
high temperatures and during long storage periods. CAPS
in dry products (fruits, powder, etc.) are not as stable as
in oleoresins. The temperature at which the fruits are
dried affects the CAPS content. For example, drying ripe
fruits at 60ºC to a final moisture content of 8% decreases
CAPS content approximately 10%. If the fruits are held
for extended periods of time at 60ºC after reaching 8%
moisture content as much as 50% of the CAPS may be
lost. Once the fruits are dried, they typically lose 1–2%
CAPS/month under cold (~16ºC) storage, and even more
when stored under ambient conditions. Ground powder
can lose as much as 5% CAPS/month depending on the
fineness of the grind and the storage temperature
(Bensinger, 2000). The red colour of paprika and chilli
powder, on the other hand, is not as stable as oleoresin
and CAPS, and much work has been done to optimize the
processing and storage conditions for dried chillies and
paprika to maximize the colour intensity for the longest
period of time (Garcia-Mompean et al., 1999).
Peppers in food processing are used as food colorant, as
source of pungency in food, as source of flavour, as
source of pain relief for pharmaceutical use and as
repellent. In many cases two or more of these properties
are included in the same product; for example, paprika
may be a source of color, pungency, and flavor.
People whose diets are largely colourless starches, such
as rice or maize, use peppers to add color to their bland,
achromatic diets. In various processed products paprika,
paprika oleoresin, red pepper oleoresin, and dried chilli
may all serve as a source of red color, but paprika and
paprika oleoresins are the primary source of red color.
Paprika is used in many products where no pungency is
desired, but only the color, flavor, and texture of a finely
ground powder is desired. These include processed
lunchmeats, sausages, cheeses and other dairy products,
soups, sauces, and snacks such as potato chips. Paprika
oleoresin is used as a color and flavor additive in many
products where the texture is important and small
particles of paprika powder would be undesirable
(Govindarajan, 1986).
Paprika is also important for its flavor in many products
in addition to its color. Dried chilli is also valued for its
contribution to flavor in chilli sauces and chilli powders.
The flavoring principle is associated with volatile
aromatic compounds and color. As a general rule, when
the color of paprika or chilli powder fades, the flavor also
disappears.
Peppers are well-known for their health benefits.
Herbalists have long promoted peppers for their health-
enhancing effects. These include clearing the lungs and
sinuses, protecting the stomach by increasing the flow of
digestive juices, triggering the brain to release endorphins
(natural painkillers), making your mouth water, which
helps to neutralize cavity-causing acids, and helping
protect the body against cancer through antioxidant
activity (Andrews, 1995).
CAPS stimulate sensory neurons in the skin and mouth
cavity, creating a sensation of warmth that increases to
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severe pain (type C nociceptive fibre pain) with higher
doses. The neurons produce the neuropeptide Substance P
(SP), which delivers the message of pain. Repeated
exposure of a neuron to capsaicin depletes SP, reducing
or eliminating the pain sensation in many people
(Caterina et al., 1997). Thus the use of CAPS in pain
relief has two modes of action: the sensation of heat,
which may help sore muscles and arthritic joints feel
better, and the depletion of SP, which reduces the pain
sensation in the exposed area. Peppers have been reported
to contain an anticoagulant that helps prevent the blood
clots that can cause heart attacks (Andrews, 1995). Foods
containing CAPS increase the thermic effects of food
(TEF). The TEF is the slight increase in the body’s
metabolic rate after consumption of a meal. A meal
containing foods with CAPS can increase the body’s TEF
up to 25% for three hours (Andrews, 1995). The role of
CAPS in triggering the brain to release endorphins
(natural painkillers) is well-known. As more CAPS are
consumed, the body releases more endorphins, causing
one to feel a mild euphoria – a natural high. Regular
consumption has only a slight desensitizing effect. The
Hungarian scientist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi won the 1937
Nobel Prize for isolating ascorbic acid, better known as
vitamin C, from peppers. Peppers are also high in vitamin
A, vitamin E, and potassium, and low in sodium. One
hundred grams of fresh red chilli pepper has 240 mg of
vitamin C (five times higher than an orange), 11,000 IU
of vitamin A, and 0.7 mg of vitamin E. Vitamin C is
sensitive to heat and drying but vitamin A is very stable,
and paprika and dried chilli both contain relatively high
amounts of this important nutrient (Govindarajan, 1986).
The chemical composition of foods is highly complex
and comprises both volatile and non-volatile substances.
Some of these substances contribute to the flavour of
foods. Since the aroma component (volatile flavour) is
usually responsible for the characteristic flavour of foods,
the volatile compounds have received most attention (van
Ruth et al., 2003). In the bell pepper 63 compounds were
identified and included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones,
acids, esters and sulphur- and nitrogen-containing
compounds. The five most abundant compounds were 3-
methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutyric acid,
acetone and hexanal (Chitwood et al., 1983).
Chemical constituents with antioxidant activity found in
high concentration in plants (Velioglu et al., 1998)
determine their considerable role in the prevention of
various degenerative diseases (Diplock et al., 1998). Bell
Pepper is good source of vitamin C and E, provitamin A,
ascorbic acid and carotenoids (5.8 µgm/gm of fresh green
wt.) (Materska and Perucka, 2005). Sweet peppers
contain a very rich polyphenol pattern, which includes
hydroxycianmates, flavonols and flavones (Marin et al.,
2004). All these have great antioxidant activity. Natural
antioxidants are preferred because synthetic antioxidants
are considered carcinogenic (Branen, 1975).
Nutrition and health benefits
A wonderful combination of tangy taste and crunchy
texture, bell peppers are the Christmas ornaments of the
vegetable world with their beautifully shaped glossy
exterior that comes in a wide array of vivid colors
ranging from green, red, yellow, orange, purple, brown to
black. Although peppers are available throughout the
year, they are most abundant and tasty during the months
of August and September (GMF, 2008).
Bell peppers offer a number of nutritional values. They
are excellent sources of vitamin C and vitamin A. They
also are a source of vitamin B6, folic acid, beta-carotene,
and fiber. Red peppers also contain lycopene, believed
important for reducing risk of certain cancers (GMF,
2008).
The proximate chemical composition of green bell pepper
include dry mater (9.92%), total fat (0.33g), protein (0.99
g) , carbohydrate (10.63g), dietary fiber (2.73g) , vitamin
C (133.00mg), calories (46.79cal), energy (195.58kj)
(Durucasu and Tokusoglu, 2007).
Bell pepper have many health benefits like the protect us
against free radicals, reduce risk of cardiovascular
disease, promote optimal health, promote lung health,
protect us against rheumatoid arthritis and seeing red may
mean better eyesight (Ensminger and Esminger, 1986).
Essential oil functionality
The chemical composition of foods is highly complex
and comprises both volatile and non-volatile substances.
Some of these substances contribute to the flavor of
foods. Since the aroma component (volatile flavor) is
usually responsible for the characteristic flavor of foods,
the volatile compounds have received most attention
(Taylor et al., 2001). The fruits of Capsicum species have
a relatively low volatile-oil content which has been
reported to range from about 0.1 to 2.6% in paprika and
similar large forms of C. annutn. The initial volatile-oil
content of the freshly picked fruit is dependent largely
upon the species and cultivar grown and the stage of
maturity at harvest. The eventual volatile- oil content of
the dried product, however, may be lower and is
dependent upon the drying procedure, the duration and
condition (whole or ground) of storage. Paprika powder,
for example, usually contains less than 0.5% of volatile
oil (van Ruth et al., 2003).
In the early stages of aroma research, most emphasis has
been on development of methods to establish the
chemical identity of the aroma constituents. The
analytical task is rather complicated, as the fraction of
aroma compounds of a simple food may be composed of
50–200 constituents, and these compounds are present in
trace quantities. The large number of aroma chemicals
complicates the task even further. Aroma science has
benefited from the progress in the analysis techniques
over the last decades, which led to long lists of volatiles
(>6000) determined in foods (Maarse and Visscher,
1991).
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Initially, the total volatile composition of a food was
measured, for which extraction and distillation methods
were employed, in combination with gas chromatography
(GC). Later it appeared that the concentration of volatile
compounds in a food does not necessarily reflect their
concentration in air, as the concentration in air not only
depends on the concentration in the food product but also
on the interactions between the food matrix and the
volatiles. The sensory perception of aroma is determined
by the concentration of volatile compounds in the air
phase. Therefore, headspace concentrations usually relate
better to sensory properties than concentrations in the
food product. Analysis methods, therefore, shifted from
analysis of the compounds in the food to analysis of the
volatile compounds in the air around the food (the
headspace). Static and dynamic headspace measurements
have become extensively used. This type of analysis
developed further with the use of in-mouth analogues and
in-mouth and in-nose measurements (van Ruth, 2001).
Indications that only a small fraction of the large number
of volatiles occurring in food actually contributes to the
aroma (Guth and Grosch, 1999) led to an interesting
technique: gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O).
The technique involves the sniffing of the gas
chromatographic effluent by assessors in order to
associate odour activity with eluting compounds,
sometimes with a part of the effluent split to an
instrumental detector. It is well known that many
detectors are not as sensitive as the human nose for odour
active compounds (Acree and Barnard, 1994)
The last few years have seen research groups developing
methods to measure the change of the aroma profiles of
foods during the time course of eating. Collection of air at
the nostril(s) of subjects is the usual practice. Initially,
these time–intensity measurements were conducted by
trapping volatile compounds for short time intervals (e.g.
15 s). Absorbents and cryo-trapping have been used
success-fully in combination with GC–mass spectrometry
(GC–MS) (Taylorand and Linforth, 2000).
Color and pungency are the main quality parameters for
assessing Capsicum varieties (Govindarajan et al., 1987).
However, the majority of research has been focused on
using aroma as an important parameter for assessing the
quality of fresh fruits and vegetables (Guadayol et al.,
1997). In the bell pepper 63 compounds were identified
and included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters
and sulphur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. The
five most abundant compounds were 3-methylbutanal, 2-
methylbutanal, 3-methylbutyric acid, acetone and hexanal
(van Ruth et al., 2003). The volatile compound fractions
of the pepper species have previously been isolated and
more than 200 compounds were identified after hydro
distillation and dynamic headspace sampling (purge and
trap) procedures (Pino et al., 2006),
Later on characteristic volatile flavor compounds in
healthy peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were evaluated
using a solvent-free solid injector coupled with a-gas
chromatography-flame ionization detector (SFSI-GC-
FID) and the results of evaluation were confirmed using
GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These compounds
were compared with those obtained from peppers that
were naturally infected or artificially inoculated with
Colletotrichum spp. Parameters influencing the
vaporization efficiency, including the injector
temperature, pre-heating time and holding time, were
optimized to improve the analytical efficiency. A total of
96 compounds (excluding eight capillary compounds), 17
of which were identified in healthy peppers, 49 of which
were found in naturally infected peppers, and 61 of which
were identified in artificially inoculated peppers, were
separated and identified under the optimal conditions of
an injector temperature of 250~C and 7-min preheating
and holding times. Acetic acid and 2-furanmethanol were
the major compounds detected in the volatiles of the
healthy and diseased peppers. The major compound
detected in both the healthy and naturally infected
peppers was 3-hydroxypyridine, while hexadecanoic acid
was the primary compound identified in the artificially
inoculated peppers (In-Kyung Kim et al., 2007).
Antioxidants potential of Bell Pepper
Antioxidant means "against oxidation." Antioxidants
work to protect lipids from peroxidation by radicals. They
inhibit or delay the oxidation of other molecules by
inhibiting the initiation or propagation of oxidizing chain
reactions. Antioxidants are effective because they are
willing to give up their own electrons to free radicals.
When a free radical gains the electron from an
antioxidant it no longer needs to attack the cell and the
chain reaction of oxidation is broken (Dekkers et al.,
1996). There are two basic categories of antioxidants,
namely, synthetic and natural. In general, synthetic
antioxidants are compounds with phenolic structures of
various degrees of alkyl substitution, where as natural
antioxidants of plant region are classified as vitamins,
phenolic compounds, or flavinoids (El-Ghorab et al.,
2007).
Antioxidants protect the food or body from oxidative
damage induced by free radicals and reactive oxygen
species by (1) suppressing their formation; (2) acting as
scavengers; and (3) acting as their substrate. Synthetic
antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and
butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) have been used as
antioxidants since the beginning of this century.
Restrictions on the use of these compounds, however, are
being imposed because of their carcinogenicity (Ito et al.,
1983).
There are two lines of antioxidant defense within the cell.
The first line, found in the fat-soluble cellular membrane
consists of vitamin E, beta-carotene, and coenzyme
(Kaczmarski et al., 1999). Of these, vitamin E is
considered the most potent chain breaking antioxidant
within the membrane of the cell. Inside the cell water
soluble antioxidant scavengers are present. These include
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vitamin C, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase
(SD), and catalase (Dekkers et al., 1996).
Natural antioxidants are extensively studied for their
capacity to protect organism and cells from damage
induced by oxidative stress (Dorman et al., 2008).
The supplementation of human diet with spices or herbs,
containing especially high amounts of compounds
capable of deactivating free radicals. The benefits
resulting from the use of natural products rich in
bioactive substances has promoted the growing interest of
food industries (El-Ghorab et al., 2008).
Cultivars and growing conditions seem to play an
important role in affecting the metabolism of antioxidant
components and antioxidant capacity. Red sweet pepper
(Capsicum annuum L.) is a vegetable known for its rich
antioxidant content. Fresh sweet peppers have
exceptionally high ascorbic acid, a 100 g serving
supplying 100% of the current RDA of 60 mg/ day
(Simmone et al., 1997).
Bell peppers, among vegetables, have become extremely
popular for the abundance and the kind of antioxidants
they contain. Among the antioxidant phytochemicals,
polyphenols deserve a special mention due to their free
radical scavenging properties. These compounds whose
levels vary strongly during growth and maturation are
also important because of their contribution to pungency,
bitterness, colour and flavour of fruits (Estrada et al.,
2000).
The attractive red color is due to the various carotenoid
pigments, which include β-carotene with pro-vitamin A
activity and oxygenated carotenoids such as capsanthin,
capsorubin and cryptocapsin, which are exclusive to this
genus and are shown to be effective free radical
scavengers (Matsufuji et al., 1998). Red peppers also
contain moderate to high levels of neutral phenolics or
flavonoids, namely quercetin, luteolin and capsaicinoids
(Hasler, 1998).
Ten cultivars of red sweet peppers grown over two
consecutive years were compared with regard to ascorbic
acid, total reducing content, β-carotene, total antioxidant
activity and free radical scavenging activity. Cultivar
Flamingo had the highest ascorbic acid content followed
by cultivars Bomby and Parker. All cultivars fulfilled
100% RDA requirement for vitamin C. Torkel and
Mazurka excelled in terms of β-carotene. Flamingo had
the highest total reducing content and antioxidant
activity. There was no effect of harvest year on
antioxidant activity; however, ascorbic acid, total
reducing content (mainly phenolics) and β-carotene
differed significantly. A weak correlation was observed
between total reducing content and antioxidant activity as
measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)
and free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, or
DPPH) scavenging assays (Deepaa et al., 2006).
Changes in total phenolics, antioxidant activity (AOX),
carotenoids, capsaicin and ascorbic acid were monitored
during three maturity stages in 10 genotypes of sweet
pepper (green, intermediate and red/ yellow). All the
antioxidant constituents (phenolics, ascorbic acid and
carotenoids) and AOX, when expressed on fresh weight
basis in general, showed an overall increasing trend
during maturity in all the genotypes studied. On dry
weight basis, phenolic content declined in majority of the
genotypes during maturity to red stage. With maturation,
most of the cultivars showed a declining trend with
regard to capsaicin content while total carotenoids and β-
carotene content increased significantly (Deepaa et al.,
2007).
Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant activity in 4
different colored (green, yellow, orange, and red) sweet
bellpeppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were investigated.
The total phenolics content of green, yellow, orange, and
red peppers determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method
were 2.4, 3.3,3.4, and 4.2 µmol catechin equivalent/g
fresh weight, respectively. The red pepper had
significantly higher total phenolics content than the green
pepper. Among the 4 different colored peppers, red
pepper contained a higher level of β-carotene (5.4 µg/g),
capsanthin (8.0 µg/g), quercetin (34.0 µg/g), and luteolin
(11.0 µg/g). The yellow pepper had the lowest β-carotene
content (0.2 µg/g), while the green one had undetectable
capsanthin and the lowest content of luteolin (2.0 µg/g).
The free radical scavenging abilities of peppers
determined by the 2,2~-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
(DPPH) method were lowest for the green pepper (2.1
µmol Trolox equivalent/g) but not significantly different
from the other 3 peppers (Sun et al., 2007).
Conclusion
Nutritionally, sweet peppers are good source of mixture
of antioxidants including ascorbic acid, carotenoids,
flavonoids and polyphenols it is essential that
compositional studies in plant food be carried out to take
into account various factors such as cultivars, seasons and
pre- and post-harvest conditions that may affect the
chemical composition of plant foods.
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... They have both nutritional and nutraceutical importance. They contain anticoagulants that help to prevent blood clots that can lead to heart attacks (Muhammad et al., 2011). In addition, several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of peppers (Cichewicz and Thorpe, 1996;Wahba et al., 2010). ...
... Genus Capsicum has five species that are commonly recognized as domesticated: C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens. C. annuum is mostly used commercially (Muhammad et al., 2011). Fruits from the pungent hot type pepper plant are historically employed in traditional medicine and are currently being used in modern herbology and conventional medicines. ...
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The present study investigated the effects of sun-drying on the antioxidant potential of three pepper varieties: Capsicum annuum var, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum annuum. Fresh fruits of the pepper varieties were collected, washed under distilled water and were divided into two parts: one for fresh sample and the other for the dried sample. Dried and fresh samples of the pepper varieties were homogenized and extracted with methanol. The concentrations of total phenolics and flavonoids were evaluated; DPPH-radical scavenging activity and the FRAP potential of the extracts were also determined. The results revealed that sun-drying process significantly reduced the total phenolic content of C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum from 5.91 ± 0.22 mg/g GAE, 6.9 ± 0.23 mg/g GAE, 6.67 ± 0.99 mg/g GAE to 3.31 ± 0.72 mg/g GAE, 3.59 ± 0.89 mg/g GAE, 3.01 ± 0.17 mg/g GAE respectively and flavonoid content from 3.80 ± 0.02 mg/g QE, 3.91 + 0.08 mg/g QE, 3.84 ± 0.08 mg/g QE to 1.26 ± 0.90 mg/g QE, 1.95 ± 0.07 mg/g QE, 1.23 ± 0.04 mg/g QE respectively. The result also revealed that the fresh samples of C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum exhibited higher percentage inhibition of DPPH-radical at 59.4 ± 0.5%, 61.2 ± 0.6%, 58.9 ± 0.2% respectively and were significantly different from the percentage inhibition by the dried samples: 39.2 ± 0.5%, 42.4 ± 0.4%, 38.6 ± 0.6% respectively.The FRAP potential of the fresh samples of C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum: 588.56 ± 29.4 ìmol Fe(II)/g, 691.34 ± 20.46 ìmol Fe(II)/g and 598.9 ± 23. 82 ìmol Fe(II)/g respectively were significantly different from the dried samples: 370.22 ± 14.75 ìmol Fe(II)/g, 392.34 ± 45.74 ìmol Fe(II)/g and 358.6 ± 30.08 ìmol Fe(II)/g respectively. The three Capsicum species are very rich in antioxidants. However, the sun drying method reduced the antioxidant capacities of the peppers, thus further studies should be carried out on the best method for the preservation of Capsicum species. Key Words: Capsicum. annuum var, C. chinense, C. annuum, Antioxidant, Sun-drying, methanolic extract
... Зеленый болгарский перец содержит каротин и ликопин. Фиолетовая окраска обусловлена флавоноидными пигментами антоцианами (Nadeem et al., 2011). Разные системы генов и клеточные механизмы контролируют синтез антоцианов и каротиноидов в плодах перца (Liu et al., 2018;Ohmiya et al., 2019). ...
... Ранее проведенные исследования показали, что антиоксидантный потенциал плодов перца определяется концентрацией аскорбиновой кислоты, а также фракциями водо-и жирорастворимых соединений, содержание которых может существенно варьировать между различными сортами перца и зависит от стадии зрелости плода, его цвета и условий произрастания (Lee et al., 1995;Howard et al., 2000;Fox et al., 2005;Sun et al., 2007;Frary et al., 2008;Nadeem et al., 2011). В данном исследовании была проведена оценка концентрации водорастворимых пигментов антоцианов, относящихся к фракции фенольных соединений, которые, согласно A.K. Blanco-Ríos с коллегами (2013), вносят наибольший вклад в антиоксидантный потенциал перцев по сравнению с фракцией жирорастворимых антиоксидантов. ...
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Wart (a disease caused by Synchytrium endobioticum) and golden cyst potato nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), which parasitize the roots of the host plant, cause significant damage to potato crop. Both of these disease factors are quarantined in the Russian Federation, and each registered variety is tested for resistance to their most common races and pathotypes. The main method of opposing such diseases is by the development of resistant varieties. An important step in this process is the selection of resistant genotypes from the population and the estimation of the resistance of hybrids obtained by crosses during the breeding process. Conducting a permanent phenotypic evaluation is associated with difficulties, for example, it is not always possible to work with pathogens, and phenotypic evaluation is very costly and time consuming. However, the use of DNA markers linked to resistance genes can significantly speed up and reduce the cost of the breeding process. The aim of the study was to screen the GenAgro potato collection of ICG SB RAS using known diagnostic PCR markers linked to golden potato cyst nematode and wart resistance. Genotyping was carried out on 73 potato samples using three DNA markers 57R, CP113, Gro1-4 associated with nematode resistance and one marker, NL25, associated with wart resistance. The genotyping data were compared with the data on the resistance of the collection samples. Only the 57R marker had a high level of correlation (Spearman R = 0.722008, p = 0.000000, p < 0.05) between resistance and the presence of a diagnostic fragment. The diagnostic efficiency of the 57R marker was 86.11 %. This marker can be successfully used for screening a collection, searching for resistant genotypes and marker-assisted selection. The other markers showed a low correlation between the presence of the DNA marker and resistance. The diagnostic efficiency of the CP113 marker was only 44.44 %. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (Spearman R = –0.109218, p = 0.361104, p < 0.05) did not show significant correlation between resistance and the DNA marker. The diagnostic efficiency of the NL25 marker was 61.11 %. No significant correlation was found between the NL25 marker and resistance (Spearman R = –0.017946, p = 0.881061, p < 0.05). The use of these markers for the search for resistant samples is not advisable.
... Green peppers are fully developed and unripe, while the other variations are ripe with colors, depending on the type of cultivar grown. The red color of pepper fruits is due to the presence of carotenoid pigments capsanthin, capsorubin, cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin; among them capsanthin (30-60%) and its isomer capsorubin (6-18%) are more prominent and their balance determines the intensity of red color (Nadeem et al. 2011). The typical aroma of the pepper fruit is because of volatile oils (a mixture of methoxypyrazines, aliphatic alcohols and esters), present in the mesocarp cells which increases in quantity during fruit ripening. ...
... Integration of biofortified peppers with improved nutrients such as vitamins A, B and C into daily diets could help to address nutrient deficiencies by adding a substantial serving of recommended daily nutrients. To unravel the biochemical properties and beneficial effects of secondary metabolites, many studies has been conducted (Nadeem et al. 2011;Sun et al. 2007). Recently, Kantar et al. (2016) examined diverse genotypes of pepper for their nutrient content and reported that some genotypes were high in vitamins A and C, highlighting the opportunities of nutrient supplementation and food fortification through pepper breeding programs to combat vitamin deficiency. ...
Chapter
Bell pepper belongs to the Solanaceae family and is in high demand as a vegetable in India, Middle East, USA, Europe and Southeast Asian countries. It has gained the attention of progressive farmers, consumers and international market traders because of its rich nutritional profile and ever-increasing export potential (USD 4.9 billion in 2017). Thirty-eight Capsicum taxa are currently documented in the USDA Genetic Resources Information Network (GRIN), including the five under commercial cultivation. In the sixteenth century, bell pepper was introduced to the Asian continent. Currently, China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia shares over 70% of the world’s bell pepper production. The World Vegetable Center in Taiwan holds the world’s largest Capsicum collection of 8165 accessions, and covers 11% of global diversity. Besides traditionally-important traits like earliness and higher yield, bell pepper breeding is now challenged by the emergence of new pests and diseases. New varieties are needed with desirable fruit color, pungency, shape and nutritional quality, along with resistance to phytophthora, anthracnose, bacteria, viruses, powdery mildews, root-knot nematodes, heat, cold, drought and salinity tolerance; all of these characteristics represent major breeding goals along with higher yields. Conventional breeding methods like introduction, pure line selection, pedigree selection, mutational and heterosis breeding, and backcross breeding are now being assisted by new breeding approaches like rootstock breeding along with modern genomic tools to break down existing barriers, and to speed up traditional breeding programs. Development and implementation of hybrid cultivars are key aspects of bell pepper production, for which the genetic male sterility system is being exploited commercially in both the public and private sectors. However, in comparison of chili pepper, utilization of the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system in bell pepper is restricted, owing to high instability of male sterility expression at low temperature, and poor fertility restoration (Rf) ability. This chapter describes recent advances in genetic improvement of bell pepper by using various cultivated and wild species as sources of important traits.
... Its origin has been traced to the Americas as Native Americans have been cultivating Capsicum annuum since between 5200 and 3400 BC. It was distributed to other continents of the world by the Spanish and Portuguese traders (Nadeem et al. 2011). It has been used traditionally in folk medicine as relieve for gastric ulcer, toothache, diabetes and rheumatism. ...
... Some reports showed that some species of capsicum with more flavonoids than capsaicinoids had better antioxidative potential than species with more capsaicinoids (Chavez-Mendoza et al. 2015). The carotenoids capsanthin, capsorubin and cryptocapsin possess very strong free radical scavenging activity, so also does the flavonoids luteolin and quercetin it contains (Nadeem et al. 2011). ...
Chapter
Across several civilisations of the world, spices have played a very important role. They are used not only for their culinary benefits but also for their medicinal values. In Africa as well, spices are special part of the cuisine and also a huge part of the traditional medicine system of the continent. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and ageing. Spices have been touted as rich sources of dietary natural antioxidants after vegetables and fruits. Some notable spices which are indigenous to Africa include Tamarindus indica, Trachyspermum ammi and Piper guineense. These spices possess important bioactive components responsible for their biological activities. Some of these compounds are Capsaicin (Capsicum annuum), Piperine (Piper guineense) and Carvacrol (Origanum syriacum). These compounds have been reported to possess biological activities ranging from anticancer, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and antineurodegenerative. They have also been reported to be instrumental in plant–microbe interactions. These review attempts to look into some indigenous African spices, their bioactive antioxidant components and biological activities and their role in plant–microbe interactions.
... Peppers (Capsicum annum L.) is a part of the human diet since ancient times about 7500 BC [27]. Peppers have valuable nutrients due to a large number of bioactive compounds, for instance, red sweet peppers contain vitamin C double than the vitamin C of oranges, which play important role in maintaining healthy teeth and gums, also, peppers contain higher dietary fibers, and antioxidants [28]. ...
Article
Vegetable crops represent essential components of the dietary diet, it is considered a rich source of numerous phytochemicals that play important role in maintaining human health. All vegetable crops are nutritious, while, there are some crops that have higher phytochemicals and nutritional ingredients than other varieties, like tomatoes, sweet potato, broccoli, potatoes, asparagus, carrots, peppers, and dark leafy greens that contain different beneficial nutrients. Vegetable crops are considered one of the main sources of vital nutrients that include antioxidants, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, flavonoids, minerals, carbohydrates, and dietary fibers, which have a protective impact and reduce the negative effects of oxidative damage induced by free radicals. There are several health benefits of vegetable crops such as decreasing inflammation due to their phytochemical components particularly carotenoids, which are attributed to their higher contents of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, vitamins, minerals, etc. Therefore, the consumption of vegetable crops as a part of a healthy diet plays a useful role for humans in the maintenance of body health and preventing various chronic diseases. Eating vegetable crops is considered one of the main relevant strategies to prevent the human body from different health complications particularly cardiovascular disease and infection of non-communicable diseases. All vegetable crops are nutritious and contain different beneficial ingredients, but there are some crops varieties rich with phytochemicals and nutritional ingredients than other varieties like potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, peppers, carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, taro, and dark leafy greens. Consequently, there are numerous roles of these crops in preventing chronic disease, enhancing cognition, and protecting heart-healthy.
... A study by revealed protective role of caraway seed oil via reduction of increased level of myeloperoxidase, AST, ALT levels in septic rats [101]. From a previous research investigation it is observed that fruit of bell pepper exhibit the property to scavenge free radicals and suppress the formation of reactive oxygen species [104]. Some previous studies showed that rhizome and tubers of Curcuma longa contained antioxidant acid and protein that inhibited lipid peroxidase and protected Ca 2+ ATPase inactivation. ...
Article
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The growing number of deaths related to sepsis has become a major concern for past few years. Sepsis is a complex pathological reactions that is explained by series of host response to microbial insult. The resulted systemic reactions are manifested by early appearance of proinflammatory cytokines leading to hyperinflammatory phase which is followed by septic shock and death of the patient. The present study has revealed that antibiotics are not self-sufficient to control the complex mechanism of sepsis. Moreover prolonged and unnecessary administration of antibiotics may lead to antibiotic resistance to pathogens. In addition to this, immunosuppressive medications are selective and have targeted approach to certain study population. Drugs from herbal origin have shown to possess a mammoth of immunomodulatory potential by suppressing proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines exhibiting no or minimal unwanted secondary responses. Concomitantly, herbal plants tend to modulate oxidative stress level and haematological imbalance during inflammatory diseased conditions. Natural compounds have gained much attention for the treatment of several clinical complications. Considering the promising responses of medicinal plants with less/no side effects and easy procurement, comprehensive research on herbal plants to treat sepsis should be contemplated.
... Chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens) from the family Solanaceae is one of the important commercial crops in Malaysia, with a total production of 35,695 mt in 2018 (DOA, 2018). Approximately 20 wild chilli species have been documented (Nadeem et al., 2011) to be highly in demand and consumed by the worldwide community in terms of daily cooking, either for fresh consumption or processed into pickles, spice or sauce. It has valuable source of antioxidants, as well as vitamins, especially vitamins A, B and C. ...
... The color of each Capsicum assortment within the full-ripe stage is dependent on its capacity for synthesizing carotenoids and for holding chlorophyll pigments (Collera-Zúñiga et al., 2005). Significance of Capsicum prevails since the 7500 BC (Nadeem et al., 2011). Non-sharp sweet chilies are named as 'Capsicums' which are local to Mexico. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of four different colored (green, yellow, orange and red) sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) available in the local market of Karachi Pakistan. Their 95% ethanol extracts at 200 and 400 mg/kg were prepared and compared with commonly used analgesic (aspirin) and anti-inflammatory agents supporting its traditional use. The analgesic effects of 95% ethanol extracts of Capsicum annum L. were investigated by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion and hot plate test. The anti-inflammatory activities were observed using carrageenan-induced edema of the hind paw in rats. Animals were divided into 10 groups (n=7): (1) Control (2) CAG 200 (3) CAG 400 (4) CAR 200 (5) CAR 400 (6) CAO 200 (7) CAO 400 (8) CAY 200 (9) CAY 400 and (10) Standard. All the extracts were given orally. Acute toxicity was also determined by increasing the dose till 3000 mg/kg, which showed no evidence of mortality. All extracts of Capsicum significantly increased the hot plate pain threshold, moreover remarkably reduced the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Results obtained were compared with the corresponding control group revealed that the fresh fruits extract of all four kinds of bell pepper (200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg) possess anti-inflammatory and pain suppressing activities possibly mediated via PG synthesis inhibition.
... Capsicum L. (pepper) is an important agricultural plant because of its economical, medicinal, and nutritional values. These plants have been used for centuries as a colourant, flavourant, and pungency source, and can be used fermented as well as fresh and dried (Nadeem et al., 2011). Capsicum annuum L. has a beneficial effect on metabolic processes in the human organism and can decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Sanati et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Economically important vegetables are a strong source of antioxidants with different characteristics. Capsicum L. (pepper) is an important agricultural plant because of its economical, medicinal, and nutritional values. Methods: This study aimed to test antioxidant parameters in the fruits of 9 cultivars of Capsicum annuum L. (CA 01-09), 7 cultivars of C. baccatum L. (CB 01-07), and 11 cultivars of C. chinense Jacq. (CC 01-11). The antioxidant activity of the investigated Capsicum cultivars was measured, along with the free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), using the DPPH method, and the molybdenum reducing power (MRP) was expressed as mg TE (Trolox equivalent) per g of DW (dry weight). Total polyphenol content (TPC), expressed as mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent) per g of DW, total flavonoid content (TFC), expressed as mg QE (quercetin equivalent) per g of DW, and total phenolic acid content (TPAC), expressed as mg CAE (caffeic acid equivalent) per g of DW, were the basic antioxidant parameters of antioxidant activity in this study. Results: All investigated Capsicum extracts exhibited FRSA from 1.45 (CC-06) to 8.21 (CC-05) mg TE/g and MRP from 24.84 (CA-06) to 198.21 (CB-07) mg TE/g. The TPC of the tested extracts ranged from 10.13 (CB-03) to 38.68 (CB-07) mg GAE/g. The TFC of the studied samples showed values from 5.73 (CB-03) to 27.32 (CB-07) mg QE/g and TPAC from 2.24 (CB-03) to 13.07 (CC-07) mg CAE/g. A very strong correlation was found in the investigated cultivars between TPC and TPAC (r = 0.932, 0.839 and 0.848, respectively), and between TPC and TFC (r = 0.921, 0.982 and 0.939, respectively). Very strong relations were also found between TPC and FRSA (r = 0.820) in the C. annuum cultivars and between TPC and MRP (r = 0.898) in the C. baccatum cultivars. Conclusions: This study found useful results concerning the antioxidant potential of the fruits of Capsicum cultivars. The data obtained demonstrate the strong antioxidant activity of cultivars of Capsicum, which can be used in the food industry because of the commercial importance of these fruits.
Article
The present study aimed at improving phytonutritional profile of traditional snack (bhujia) by incorporating variety bell pepper. The bell peppers were dried at 50 °C which resulted in 4.94‐8.16% increase in total phenols whereas, retained approximately 92.49% total carotenoids and 91.36% of the antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity. Gram flour at 5.0% (w/w) level of bell pepper powders was optimized for developing bhujia which significantly (P≤0.05) increased bulk density, minerals, phytonutritional profile and sensory attributes of bhujia. Total phenols of developed bhujia increased by approximately 11% and antioxidant activity was found 3.5 times as compared to control. Fourier‐ transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of various phytochemicals compounds in the prepared products compared to control. Storage studies (at 25‐30 °C/50‐87% RH) revealed that the physicochemical parameters remained unaffected except moisture which increased significantly. However, peroxide value and free fatty acids remained well within maximum permissible limits.
Article
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Essential oils of caper (Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens) buds and leaves obtained by steam distillation followed by solvent extraction were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty-six compounds were identified from the caper bud extract and 100 from the caper leaf oil. The major volatile compounds found in caper bud oil were benzyl alcohol (20.4%), furfural (7.4%), ethanal methyl pentyl acetal (5.9%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (5.3%), thymol (5.1%), octanoic acid (4.8%) and methyl isothiocyanate (4.5%). The major volatile compounds found in caper leaves were methyl isothiocyanate (20.0%), thymol (15.5%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (4.3%), hexyl acetate (3.6%) and trans-theaspirane (2.6%). These oils inhibited hexanal oxidation by 80% over 40 days at the level of 200 μg/mL. Also, they inhibited oxidation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate by over 70% at the 500 μg/mL level. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts from caper buds and leaves exhibited higher antioxidant activities than those of their essential oils in both testing systems.
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