Impact of palm, mustard, waste cooking oil and Calophyllum inophyllum biofuels on performance and emission of CI engine

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.9). 11/2013; 27:664-682. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.07.059


Present energy situation of the world is unsustainable due to unequal geographical distribution of natural wealth as well as environmental, geopolitical and economical concerns. Ever increasing drift of energy consumption due to growth of population, transportation and luxurious lifestyle has motivated researchers to carry out research on biofuels as a sustainable alternative fuel for diesel engine. Renewability, cost effectiveness and reduction of pollutants in exhaust gas emission are promoting biofuels as a suitable substitute of diesel fuel in near future. This paper reviews the suitability of feedstock and comparative performance and emission of palm, mustard, waste cooking oil (WCO) and Calophyllum inophyllum biofuels with respect to diesel fuel from various recent publications. Probable analysis of performance and emission of biofuel is also included in further discussion. Palm oil has versatile qualities in terms of productivity, oil yield and land utilization. But tremendous demand of edible oil is motivating the use of non-edible vegetable oils as biofuel feedstock. Mustard oil is a promising new biofuel especially regarding NOx reduction. WCO is one of the most economic sources of biofuel which efficiently helps in liquid waste management and prevents recycling of used oil, injurious to human health. C. inophyllum is completely non-edible and trans-esterified oil shows similar engine performance and emission characteristics like other biofuels. Limited data were published regarding mustard and C. inophyllum as their use as biofuel is still in primary state compared to palm or WCO. Therefore, in depth research needs to be carried out on these two oils to use them effectively as alternative fuels.

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Available from: M. J. Abedin
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    • "First generation biodiesel is produced from edible food crops such as mustard oil[27,28], canola oil[29], sunflower oil etc.[30,31]. Second generation biodiesel is produced from non-edible feedstocks3233343536373839. As food crops are not used to make second generation biodiesel, this type of fuel is more commonly used because it is a more efficient and viable option[40,41]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering
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    • "As seen in Table 1, the main bibliometric indicators for the genus are a low PNC and h value, as well as P, indicating an increasing in the interest of research on this genus; nevertheless, there are more P, CPP and PR on C. inophyllum compared to C. brasiliense. This probably due to the fact that research on its biotechnological applications as an non edible oil source for 2nd generation biodiesel production have shown to be quite remarkable and productive, as the most quoted article on C. inophyllum is on this topic (Sanjid et al. 2013). On the other hand, for C. brasiliense the most cited articles have been for ecological applications, such as reforestation (Cusack and Montagnini 2004) (Fig. 1 "
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    ABSTRACT: Tropical trees of Calophyllum genus (Calophyllaceae) have chemical and biological importance as potential source of secondary active metabolites which can lead to the development of new drugs. Research on this species has been rising since 1992 due to the discovering of anti-HIV properties of Calanolide A found in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves. This compound is the most important natural product for potential development of new anti-HIV drugs and phytomedicines. The scientometric analysis (1953–2014) here performed revealed that the most studied species of Calophyllum genus are: C. inophyllum and C. brasiliense, distributed in the Asian, and American continents, respectively. Current research on these species is carried out mainly in India and Brazil, respectively, where these species grow. Research on C. brasiliense is focused mainly on ecological, antiparasitic, cytotoxic properties, and isolation of new compounds. Chemical studies and biodiesel development are the main topics in the case of C. inophyllum. Text mining analysis revealed that coumarins, and xanthones are the main secondary active metabolites responsible for most of the reported pharmacological properties, and are potential compounds for the treatment of leukemia and against intracellular parasites causing American Trypanosomiasis and Leshmaniasis. On the other hand, C. inophyllum represents an important source for the development of 2nd generation biodiesel. Medicinal and industrial applications of these species may impulse sustainable forest plantations. To our knowledge this is the first scientometric and text mining analysis of chemical and biomedical research on Calophyllum genus, C. brasiliense and C. inophyllum.
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    • "More than 95% of world's biofuel production is produced from edible oils (Ahmed et al., 2014; Gui et al., 2008). However, producing biofuels from edible oil sources has received criticism from several nongovernmental organizations worldwide (Sanjid et al., 2013; Tan et al., 2011). The extensive use of edible oils might lead to some negative impacts such as starvation and higher food prices in developing countries (Balat, 2011; Sanjid et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Biodiesel production from non-edible feedstock is now being taken into careful consideration to avoid the negative impact of using edible oils as biodiesel feedstock. This is a study on the combustion, engine performance and emission of a multi cylinder diesel engine fueled with mixed biodiesel blends prepared from two non-edible feedstock kapok and moringa. The kapok-moringa mixed biodiesel blends showed 6-9% higher brake specific fuel consumption and 5-7% lower brake power compared to diesel fuel (B0). However, engine performance of kapok-moringa mixed biodiesel was found comparable with kapok and moringa biodiesel as the performance parameters varied slightly among all tested biodiesels. Average NO and CO2 emissions for kapok-moringa mixed biodiesels were found 14-17% and 1-3% higher than B0 respectively. On the contrary average HC and CO emissions of kapok-moringa mixed biodiesels were 23-38% and 16-31% lower than B0 respectively. As a conclusion, 10% and 20% kapok-moringa mixed biodiesel blends can be used in diesel engines without any modifications.
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