Article

Impact of palm, mustard, waste cooking oil and Calophyllum inophyllum biofuels on performance and emission of CI engine

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.9). 11/2013; 27:664-682. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.07.059

ABSTRACT

Present energy situation of the world is unsustainable due to unequal geographical distribution of natural wealth as well as environmental, geopolitical and economical concerns. Ever increasing drift of energy consumption due to growth of population, transportation and luxurious lifestyle has motivated researchers to carry out research on biofuels as a sustainable alternative fuel for diesel engine. Renewability, cost effectiveness and reduction of pollutants in exhaust gas emission are promoting biofuels as a suitable substitute of diesel fuel in near future. This paper reviews the suitability of feedstock and comparative performance and emission of palm, mustard, waste cooking oil (WCO) and Calophyllum inophyllum biofuels with respect to diesel fuel from various recent publications. Probable analysis of performance and emission of biofuel is also included in further discussion. Palm oil has versatile qualities in terms of productivity, oil yield and land utilization. But tremendous demand of edible oil is motivating the use of non-edible vegetable oils as biofuel feedstock. Mustard oil is a promising new biofuel especially regarding NOx reduction. WCO is one of the most economic sources of biofuel which efficiently helps in liquid waste management and prevents recycling of used oil, injurious to human health. C. inophyllum is completely non-edible and trans-esterified oil shows similar engine performance and emission characteristics like other biofuels. Limited data were published regarding mustard and C. inophyllum as their use as biofuel is still in primary state compared to palm or WCO. Therefore, in depth research needs to be carried out on these two oils to use them effectively as alternative fuels.

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    • "First generation biodiesel is produced from edible food crops such as mustard oil[27,28], canola oil[29], sunflower oil etc.[30,31]. Second generation biodiesel is produced from non-edible feedstocks3233343536373839. As food crops are not used to make second generation biodiesel, this type of fuel is more commonly used because it is a more efficient and viable option[40,41]. "

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    • "As seen in Table 1, the main bibliometric indicators for the genus are a low PNC and h value, as well as P, indicating an increasing in the interest of research on this genus; nevertheless, there are more P, CPP and PR on C. inophyllum compared to C. brasiliense. This probably due to the fact that research on its biotechnological applications as an non edible oil source for 2nd generation biodiesel production have shown to be quite remarkable and productive, as the most quoted article on C. inophyllum is on this topic (Sanjid et al. 2013). On the other hand, for C. brasiliense the most cited articles have been for ecological applications, such as reforestation (Cusack and Montagnini 2004) (Fig. 1 "
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    • "More than 95% of world's biofuel production is produced from edible oils (Ahmed et al., 2014; Gui et al., 2008). However, producing biofuels from edible oil sources has received criticism from several nongovernmental organizations worldwide (Sanjid et al., 2013; Tan et al., 2011). The extensive use of edible oils might lead to some negative impacts such as starvation and higher food prices in developing countries (Balat, 2011; Sanjid et al., 2014). "
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