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Behavioral and Cognitive Consequences of Reciprocal Versus Compensatory Responses to Preinteraction Expectancies

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Abstract

It is proposed that there are two basic interaction strategies by means of which a perceiver's preinteraction impression of a target person can mediate both the perceiver's and the target's subsequent interaction behavior. The first is the “reciprocity strategy” that underlies the process of behavioral confirmation (i.e., the “self-fulfilling prophecy”) described by various theorists; the second is the “compensation strategy” suggested by the results of studies by Bond (1972) and Swann and Snyder (1980). The results of Experiment 1 provided consistent behavioral and self-report evidence for the operation of each of these strategies in the context of unstructured, face-to-face interactions. The data converged to suggest that the creation in one dyad member of a “friendly” preinteraction expectancy led to the adoption of the reciprocity strategy, whereas the creation of an “unfriendly” expectancy led to the adoption of the compensation strategy, and that in each case the behavior of both perceivers and targ...
... The present study sought to clarify the influence of birth order in mixed-sex dyads composed of a man and a woman who each had a sibling of the opposite sex. The study employed an unstructured interaction paradigm that has proven particularly useful for revealing the influence of dispositional factors on behavior occurring in the initial interaction of two strangers (Ickes & Barnes, 1977,1978Ickes, Patterson, Rajecki, & Tanford, 1982;Ickes, Schermer, & Steeno, 1979;Rajecki, Ickes, & Tanford, 1981). The major advantages of the paradigm are (a) it tends to minimize the influence of situational factors while maximizing the influences of dispositional ones; (b) it permits the unobtrusive measurement of spontaneous, unstructured interaction behavior that is relatively uncontaminated by task demands or other traditional sources of bias; and (c) it yields a wide range of behavioral and self-report measures that can be analyzed at both the betweendyads and the within-dyads levels of analysis. ...
... As in previous studies in this series (e.g., Ickes & Barnes, 1978;Ickes et al., 1982;Rajecki et al., 1981), we sought to examine behavior at two levels of analysis. On one level, using dyads as the units of analysis, we were interested in how behavior might vary as a function of the male dyad members' birth order (FB3 vs. LB<S) and of the female dyad members' birth order (FB9 vs. LB9). ...
... Additionally, they may rely on these expectancies to help guide what they should expect others to do. Conversely, strategic communication models (Ickes et al., 1982) would give more weight to the desired level, making desires more salient, especially in situations when desires clash with expectancies (Floyd & Burgoon, 1999). More specifically, when individuals desire behavior from partners they do not expect to receive, as predicted by strategic communication models, receivers will respond in the way they desire "in order to elicit those behaviors from others via the norm of reciprocity" (p. ...
... The salience of the expected and desired elements, when they are inconsistent with each other, is an important avenue to explore. Results from the present study do seem to align with theorizing from strategic communication models (Ickes et al., 1982), which place a higher emphasis on the desired element, as individuals in this study who desired and received a constructive strategy, but expected something other than a constructive strategy, still indicated a higher likelihood of responding symmetrically. Since the desired element was held constant at constructive, we only know this to occur in situations when participants desired and received a constructive strategy but expected a destructive or an avoidant strategy from their partner. ...
Conference Paper
Theoretically framed by interaction adaptation theory (IAT), an experiment was conducted to explore the effects of expectations and partner behavior on participants’ responses during romantic conflict. Participants (N = 360) were randomly assigned a conflict scenario and a partner’s manipulated conflict behavior. Results revealed that expecting, desiring, and receiving a constructive strategy yielded more symmetrical responses, whereas expecting and desiring a constructive strategy, but receiving a destructive or an avoidant strategy, yielded more complementary responses. However, regardless of expectations for romantic partner’s conflict behavior, participants who desired and received a constructive strategy were more likely to respond symmetrically to their partner. Results suggest that a partner’s initial conflict communication has a strong impact on partner’s responding communicative behavior.
... People use interpersonal distance not only to spontaneously express immediacy, but also to deliberately manage impressions [17]. A surprising yet robust finding is that an actor may approach more (not less) a negatively evaluated other, presumably to make the interaction less unpleasant [18][19][20][21][22][23]. Thus, P3b: when the confederate is Black, pedestrians will be less likely to comply with physical distancing rules. ...
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... If arousal is positively valenced, the expectation is that the actor will reciprocate or match the higher level of intimacy that the other proposes. Now, a series of studies demonstrated, surprisingly but robustly, that when the encounter begins with a negative view of the interaction partner (or "alter), the actor (or "ego") responds to increases in intimacy initiated by the negatively viewed partner not with compensation, as predicted, but in fact with reciprocation or matching [21][22][23]. In some of these studies, the level of reciprocation was found to be even higher with negatively than with positively valenced partners. ...
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The Islamic headscarf has been in the middle of heated debates in European society, yet little is known about its influence on day-to-day interactions. The aim of this randomized field experiment (n = 840) is to explore how the generally negative views that surround the hijab in Europe manifest in the behavior that people direct to hijab-wearing women in everyday situations. Using a helping scenario and videotapes of the resulting interactions, we measured whether passengers offered assistance and also various details of behavior that indicate interpersonal involvement. We predicted that in interaction with the covered confederate less help would be offered, that women's level of nonverbal involvement would increase but men's decrease, and that responses would be stronger in Paris, intermediate in Brussels, and weaker in Vienna. We analyzed the data using Generalized Linear Models estimated with Bayesian inference. While the headscarf does not produce concluding differences in "overt" helping, it does affect "subtle" cues of interpersonal involvement. In response to the hijab, women across sites increase, but men in Paris decrease, the level of involvement that they show with their nonverbal behavior.
... If a Muslim person is evaluated less positively than a non-Muslim one, we predict lower involvement with the Muslim person. Now, a surprising yet robust finding is the fact that an actor may show more involvement (not less) when the interaction partner is negatively evaluated, perhaps in an effort to make the interaction less unpleasant (Bond, 1972;Coutts et al., 1980;Ickes et al., 1982). In the domain of intergroup relations, such deliberate management of impressions has been observed to occur among women but not men Lemasson et al., 2021;Littleford et al., 2005), suggesting the hypothesis of an interaction effect between attitude and gender: confronted with a negatively viewed partner, men express their negative feelings by decreasing involvement, whereas women manage impressions by increasing it. ...
... If a Muslim person is evaluated less positively than a non Muslim one, we predict lower involvement with the Muslim person. Now, a surprising yet robust finding is the fact that an actor may show more involvement (not less) when the interaction partner is negatively evaluated, perhaps in an effort to make the interaction less unpleasant (Bond 1972;Coutts, Schneider, and Montgomery 1980;Ickes et al. 1982). In the domain of intergroup relations, such deliberate management of impressions has been observed to occur among women but not men (Aranguren et al. forthcoming;Lemasson et al. 2021;Littleford, Wright, and Sayoc-Parial 2005), suggesting the hypothesis of an interaction effect between attitude and gender: confronted with a negatively viewed partner, men express their negative feelings by decreasing involvement, whereas women manage impressions by increasing it. ...
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No other form of group antagonism affects the fate of so many people in France as anti-Muslim racism. While negative attitudes toward Muslims and Muslims’ experience of discrimination are well documented, studies of anti-Muslim behaviour are rare, especially in the context of everyday interpersonal encounters. To fill this void, we conducted a field experiment on platforms of the Paris metro (n = 270) in which a bearded confederate asked for help to randomly selected passengers giving additional indirect cues of being Muslim in the experimental condition. The outcomes under investigation were the probability of helping the confederate and various behaviours indicative of interpersonal warmth or involvement. Interactions were videotaped, the outcomes objectively measured, and the data analysed using Generalized Linear Models estimated with Bayesian inference. Passengers were found to offer help less often and to show lower interpersonal warmth in the experimental condition. Also, when considered in isolation the young turn out to discriminate but not the middle-aged. Given that these negative effects were observed despite the use of a minimal stimulus, the results probably underestimate the actual level of anti-Muslim discrimination that Muslim men face in their everyday dealings with non Muslims.
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